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3\o\ 



REPORT 



ON THE 



ZOOLOGICAL COLLECTIONS 



MADE EN THE 



INDO-PACIFIC OCEAN 



DtTRENG THE 



VOYAGE OF H.M.S. 'ALERT' 

1881-2. 



LONDON: 
FEINTED BY OEDEE OF THE TEESTEES. 

1884.' 



A1EBE 



Y FLAM MAM. 




PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, 
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



cTU^ 




SUMMAEY OF THE VOYAGE .... By De. E. W. Coppingee. 

MAMMALIA By 0. Thomas. 

AVES By E. B. Shaepe. 

EEPTILIA, BATEACHIA, PISCES. By A. Gtothee. 

MOLLUSCA By E. A. Smith. 

ECHINODEEMATA By F. J. Bell. 

CEUSTACEA By E. J. Miees. 

COLEOPTEEA By C. 0. Wateehotjse. 

LEPIDOPTEBA By A. G. Btjtlee. 

ALCYONAEIA AND SPONGIIDA. . By S. 0. Eidley. 



a2 



PREFACE. 



The zoological collections made during the Surveying-voyage of 
H.M.S. ' Alert ' in the years 1878-82, under the command of 
Capt. Sir G. Nares and his successor Capt. J. Maclear, wero 
presented by the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to the 
Trustees of the British Museum. 

A narrative of the voyage has been given by Staff-Surgeon 
R. W. Coppinger, in his work ' Cruise of the ' Alert ' ' (London, 
1883, 8vo). 

The principal parts of the Survey, and consequently the 
Collections, fall into three distinct sections, viz. : — 1, that of 
the Southern extremity of the American continent; 2, that of 
the coasts of North-eastern Australia and Torres Straits : and 
3, that of the groups of Oceanic Islands in the Western Indian 
Ocean, situated between the Seychelles and Madagascar. 

The first of theso collections has already been reported upon in 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1881 ; but the two others surpass it so much 
in extent and importance as to be quite beyond the scope of a 
periodical publication, and therefore the Trustees considered it 
best that a full account of them should be prepared in the form 
of a separate work. With the exception of the 'Challenger' 
Expedition, none of the recent voyages has contributed so much 
to our knowledge of the Littoral Invertebrate Fauna of the Indo- 
Pacific Ocean as that of the ' Alert.' Irrespective of a number of 
specimens set aside as duplicates, not less than 3700, referable 
to 1300 species, were incorporated in the National Collection ; and 



Vi PREFACE. 

of these more than one third (490) were new additions, if not to 
science, at any rate to the Museum. 

The hest thanks of zoologists are due to the Lords of the 
Admiralty, to the late Hydrographer, Capt. Sir F. Evans, K.C.B., 
and to tho Commanders of the ' Alert,' from whom Dr. Coppinger 
received every encouragement in tho prosecution of his zoological 
work. 

Finally, although the following pages are by themselves a 
lasting testimony to the great service rendered by Dr. Coppinger 
to the National Museum and to the cause of science, I must not 
allow this opportunity to pass without duly acknowledging the 
energy and skill with which he performed this work. Tho col- 
lections were made with singular judgment, the specimens (many of 
them most fragile and delicate) preserved, labelled, and packed 
with the greatest care ; and, beside, full lists were prepared by him 
giving additional, and in many cases most valuable, information. 
When we bear in mind that all this work was done in the leisure 
hours which Dr. Coppinger could spare from his strictly official 
duties, we may be encouraged in the hope that on future occasions 
similar advantage will be taken of the opportunity which a voyage 
of Survey offers to a man of science. 

The collections were worked out immediately after their arrival ; 
but the completion of this Report was considerably delayed by the 
removal of the Department from Bloomsbury to South Kensington. 



British Museum, 
June 20, 1884. 



ALBERT GUNTHER, 

Keeper of the Department of Zoology % 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



SUMMARY OF THE VOYAGE. By R. W. Coppingeb. 

(page 1.) 



Part I. 
THE COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 



MAMMALIA. By Oldfield Thomas. 

Page 



1. Skull of Torres-Straits 

Islander 5 

2. Skull of Torres-Straits 

Islander 6 

3. Cranium of Solomon Is- 

lander 7 

4. Cranium of Mallicollo Is- 

lander 7 



Page 



5. Cranium of Mallicollo Is- 

lander 8 

6. Skull of Banks Islander . . 8 

7. Skull of Banks Islander . . 9 

8. Calvaria of Fijian 9 

9. Cranium of Fijian 10 



BIRDS. By R. Bowdleb Shabpe. 



Cercbneis 

1. cencbroides, V. fy H. 
Ninox 

2. peninsularis, Salvad. 
Corvus 

3. coronoides, V. fy H, 
Oriolus 

4. flavieinctus, King . , 
Spkecotkeres 

5. flaviventris, Gould . . 
Ckibia 

6. bracteata, Gmdd 
Grallina 

7. picata, Lath 

Pinarolestes 

8. rufigaster, Gould. . . . 
Graucalus 

9. bypoleucus, Gould . . 
10. melanops, Lath 



11 

11 

12 

12 

12 

12 

12 

13 

13 
13 



Lalage 




11. leucomelaena, V. fy H. . . 


13 




13 


Pseudogerygone 




13. magnirostris, Gould . . 


13 


Myiagra 






13 




14 




14 


17. concinna, Gould 


14 


Rbipidura 






14 


19. tricolor, V. 


14 


Piezorbyncbus 




20. nitidus, Gotdd 


14 


21. medius, sp. n 


14 


Cisticola 




22. exilis, Vig. $ H. 


15 



Vlll 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

Cracticus 

23. nigrigularis, Gould .... 15 
Packycephala 

24. rnelanura, Gould 15 

25. rufiventris, Lath 17 

Cinnyris 

26. frenata, Mull. 17 

Myzomela 

27. obscura, Gould 17 

Zosterops 

28. albiventer, Reichenb 17 

29. lutea, Goidd 18 

Manorhina 

30. garrala, Lath 18 

Stigmatops 

31. ocularis, Gould 18 

32. subocularis, Gould 18 

Ptilotis 

33. notata, Gould 19 

34. lewinii, Swains 20 

35. fasciogularis, Gould .... 20 

36. flava, Gould 20 

37. unicolor, Goidd 20 

Philemon 

38. argenticeps, Goidd .... 20 

39. buceroides, Swains 20 

40. citreogularis, Goidd .... 20 
Dicreum 

41. hirundinaceuni, Shaw . , 21 
Petrochelidon 

42. nigricans, V. 21 

Donacicola 

43. castaneotborax, Goidd . . 21 
Artamus 

44. leucorhynchus, L 21 

Pitta 

45. sirnillima, Gould 21 

Merops 

46. ornatus, Lath 21 

Dacelo 

47. gigas, Bodd. 21 

48. leachii, Viy. $ H. 21 

Halcyon 

49. sanctus, Viy. $ H. 24 

50. ruacleayi, J. 8f S. 24 

51. sordidus, Gould 24 



Page 

Centropns 

52. phasianus, Lath 25 

Cacatua 

53. galerita, Lath 25 

Tricboglossus 

54. nova3 hollandia), Gm. . . 25 

55. cblorolepidotus, Kuhl . . 25 
Macropygia 

56. pbasianella, Temm 25 

Geopelia 

57. humeralis, Temm 25 

58. tranquUla, Gould 25 

Ptilopus 

59. swainsoni, Gould 25 

Megapodius 

60. duperreyi, Less 26 

Rallus 

61. pbilippensis, L 26 

Porpbyrio 

62. melanonotus, Temm 26 

iEsacus 

63. magnirostris, Geoffr 26 

Haarnatopus 

64. longirostris, V. 27 

^Egialitis 

65. mongolicus, Pall. 27 

Cbaradrius 

66. fulvus, Gm 27 

Totanus 

67. incanus, Gm 27 

Larus 

68. novse bollandise, Stcph. . . 27 
Anous 

69. stobdus, L 27 

Sterna 

70. bergii, Licht 27 

71. dougalli, Mont 28 

72. caspia, Pall 28 

73. anrestbeta, Scop 28 

Nycticorax 

74. caledonicus, Lath 28 

Derniegretta 

75. sacra, Gm 28 

Butoroides 

76. javanica, Jlorsf. 28 

Microcarbo 

77. melanoleucus, V. 28 



REPT1LIA, BATRACHIA, AND PISCES. By Albert Guntheh. 



Cbelonia viridis 29 

Varanus goiddii, Gray 29 

timorensis, Gray 29 

prasinus, Mull. 29 



Lialis burtonii, Gray 29 

Gyinnodactvlus platurus, Shato 29 
Diemenia torquata, Gthr 29 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Pace 



Page Page 

Hyla cserulea, White 29 | Hyla dolichopsis, Cope 29 



Trachynotus coppingeri, sp. u. 29 

Syngnathus trachypoma, sp. n 30 

Doryichtkys seriahs, sp. n. . . 30 
Braucbiostonia elongai am, 

Sundev 31 



J Jrancbiostoma bassanum, sp. n. 31 

belckeri, Gray 32 

caribaoum, Sundev 32 

lauceolatura, Pall 32 

cultellum, Ptrs 32 



MOLLUSCA. 


By: 


Cephalopoda. 




Octopus 




1. polyzenia, Gray 


34 




35 


3. maculosus, Hoyle 


36 


Gastropoda. 




Conus 




1. lizardensis, Crosse .... 


36 


2. aculeiforniis, Reeve .... 


36 


Terebra 






37 


Plem'otoma 




4. torresiana, sp. u 


37 




38 




39 


7. gracilenta, Reeve, var. . . 


39 


8. axis, Reeve 


40 
40 




Cytkara 




10. cylindrica, Reeve, var. . . 


41 


Murex 






42 




42 


13. acanthostepkes, Watson 


43 


14. macgillivrayi, jDohrn . . 


44 




44 




45 




45 




46 


Fusus 






46 


20. heptagonalis, Reeve .... 


46 




46 


Urosalpinx 






47 


Tritonidea 




23. curtisiana, sp. u 


47 


Columbella 






47 




48 




48 



By Edgar A. Smith. 

Nassa 

27. coronata, Brwj 48 

28. tbersites, Bruy 48 

29. algida, Reeve, var 48 

30. unicolor, Kiener 48 

31. suturalis, Adams, var.. . 49 
Pbos 

32. scalaroides, Adams .... 49 

33. senticosus, L., var 50 

Purpura 

34. bitubercularis,A7e«£T,var. 50 

35. amygdala, Kiener .... 51 
Sistruni 

36. undatum, var., Reeve . . 51 

37. tuberculatum, Blainv. . . 52 
Latirus 

38. angustus, sp. n 52 

Turbinella 

39. armigera, Adams 53 

40. spinosa, Adams 54 

Mitra 

41. proscissa, Reeve, var. . . 54 

42. peasei, Du/tm 55 

43. corrugata, Lam 55 

Voluta 

44. volva, Reeve, var 50 

Rauella 

45. rana, L 56 

46. pulckella, Forbes 56 

Natica 

47. plumbea, Lam 57 

48. limpida, sp. n 57 

49. columnaris, Recluz .... 57 

50. cumingiana, Recluz .... 58 
Eulima 

51. martinii, Adams, var. . . 58 
Strombus 

52. campbelli, Gray 58 

Terebellum 

53. subulatum, Lam 59 

Cyprasa 

54. arabica, L 59 

55. lynx, L 59 

56. annulus, L 59 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



57. errones, L 

58. walkeri, Gray 

Ovula 

59. angasi, Adams 

Littorina 

60. scabra, L 

61. filosa, Sow 

62. mauritiana, Lam., var. 

diemenensis 

Risella 

63. lutea, Quoy <y Gaim. . . 
Rissoiiia 

64. clathrata, Adams 

65. curtisi, sp. n 

Cerithium 

66. morus, La?n 

67. nigro-balteatum, sp. n. . 

68. torresi, sp. n 

69. macrostouia, Hinds .... 

70. fasciatum, Brirg 

71. vertagus, L 

72. kochi, Phil. 

73. granosum, Soio 

74. novse-hollandiae, Adams 
Lainpania 

75. australis, Q. §• G 

Pyrazus 

7< '». siilcatus, Born 

Telescopium 

77. fuscum, Schwm 

Siliquaria 

78. anguina, L 

79. ponderosa, Morch .... 
Narica 

80. cancellata, Chemn 

Nerita 

81. cbrysostoma, Recluz . . 

82. melanotragus, sp. n 

83. costata, Chemn 

84. lineata, Chemn 

85. squamulata, Le Gittou. . 

86. signata, Mackay 

Turbo 

87. concinnus, Phil 

Trochus 

88. coronata, Adams 

89. speciosa, Adams 

90. decoratus, Phil 

91. rubropunctatus, Adams. 

92. torresi, sp. n 

93. lifuauus, Fischer 

94. labio, L 

95. zebra, Menlce 

96. elisus, Gould 

97. atratus, Gm 



Page 

59 

59 

59 

60 
60 

60 

61 

62 
63 

63 

65 
66 
66 
67 
67 
67 
68 
68 

68 

68 

68 

68 
68 

68 

69 

69 
70 
70 
70 

70 

70 

71 
71 
72 
72 
72 

' -> 
I *i 

74 
74 
74 
74 



Page 
Banliivia 

98. picturata, Adams 75 

Stomatella 

99. cancellata, Krauss .... 76 
Stomatia 

100. rubra, Lam 76 

Haliotis 

101. asinina, L 77 

Dentaliuui 

102. javanum, Smv 77 

Scutus 

103. unguis, L 77 

Fissurella 

104. jukesii, Peeve 77 

105. singaporensis, Peeve . . 77 
10(i. quadriradiata, Peeve . . 78 

Chiton 

107. jugosus, Gould 78 

108. curtisianus, sp. n 78 

109. adelaidensis, Peeve .... 79 

110. antiquus, Peeve 79 

111. coppingeri, sp. n 80 

112. spiniger, Soto 81 

113. incanus, Gotdd 81 

114. incisus, Soto 82 

115. costatus, Adams 83 

116. asbestoides, sp. n 83 

117. fortiliratus, Peeve 84 

118. striatals, Lam 84 

119. burrowi, sp. n 85 

Tornatella 

120. solidula, L 86 

Cvlichna 

121. arachis, Q. § G 86 

Atys 

122. naucum, L 86 

Haniinea 

12-J. cuticulifera, Smith .... 87 
Akera 

124. soluta, sp. n 87 

Doridium 

125. marmoratum, sp. n 87 

Pleurobranckus 

126. angasi, sp. n 88 

Dolabella 

127. rumpbii, Cuv 89 

Aplysia 

128. sparsinotata, sp. n 89 

129. piperata, sp. n 89 

130. denisoni, sp. n 89 

Stylocheilus 

131. sp 90 

Miamira 

132. nobilis, Bergh 90 

Ceratosonia 

133. tenue, Abraham 90 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Dori9 

134. infrapicta, sp. n 

Plocamophorus 

135. insignis, sp. n 

Boruella 

136. digitata, Ad. $■ Reeve . 
Oncidium 

187. punctaturu P, Q. $■ O.. 



Page 

91 
91 
92 

92 



CONCHIFERA. 

Teredo 

1. antarctica p, HvMon .... 93 
Saxicava 

2. arctica, L 93 

Venus 

3. laniellaris, Sehum 93 

4. toreumti, Gould 93 

5. torresiana, sp. u 94 

G. gladstonensis, Angus . . 94 

7. subnodulosa, Ilanley . . 94 
Cytlierea 

8. coxeni, sp. n 95 

9. albina, Lam 95 

Dosinia 

10. histrio, 6rm.,var. alba . . 96 

11. desbayesii, Adams .... 96 
Circe 

12. pectinata, L 96 

13. australis, Sow 96 

14. castrensis, L 96 

Tapes 

15. hiantina, Lam 96 

16. malabarica, Chemn 97 

17. variegata, Soto 97 

18. araneosa, Phil 97 

19. textrix, Chemn . 97 

Venerupis 

20. crenata, Lam 97 

Trapezium 

21. vellicatuui, Reeve, var. . . 97 
Petricola 

22. lapicida, Chemn 98 

Psarnmobia 

23. modesta, Desk 98 

24. gracilenta, sp. n 98 

Tellrna 

25. semen, Hanley . ; 99 

Syndosmya 

26. elliptica, Sow 99 

Mactra 

27. eximia, Reeve 100 

28. producta, Angas, var. . . 100 

29. coppingeri, sp. n 101 

Mactrimda 

30. ang-ulifera, Desh 101 



Pago 

Cardium 

31. reevianum, Dunker .... 101 

32. hystrix, Reeve 101 

33. sp. jun 102 

34. maculosum, Wood, var. . 102 
85. multispinosum, Soto. . . 102 

36. unedo, L 103 

Cbama 

37. divaricata, Reeve 102 

88. pulchella, Reeve 102 

Oorbula 

39. tunicata, Hinds 103 

40. fortisulcata, Smith .... 103 

41. scapboides, Reeve 103 

Lucina 

42. ornata, Reeve 103 

Diplodonta 

43. subcrassa, sp. n 104 

44. sublateralis, sp. n 104 

Kellia 

45. jacksoniana, sp. n 105 

Scintilla 

46. cuvieri, Desh 105 

47. aurantiaca, Desh 106 

48. alberti, sp. n 107 

Orassatella 

49. pulchra, Reeve 107 

Modioila 

50. sp 108 

51. glaberrima, Dunker . . 108 
Modiolaria 

52. miranda, sp. n 108 

53. varicosa, Gould 109 

Litbodomus 

54. teres, Phil 109 

Area 

55. navicularis, Brug 109 

56. imbricata, Brug 110 

57. lima, Reeve 110 

58. tenebrica, Reeve 110 

59. symmetrica, Reeve .... Ill 
' 60. tortuosa, L Ill 

Leda 

61. darwini, sp. n Ill 

Malleus 

62. legumen, Reeve 112 

Avicula 

63. lata, Gray 112 

64. rufa, Dunker 113 

65. smaragdina, Reeve .... 113 

66. zebra, Reeve 113 

Melina 

67. cumingii, Reeve 113 

Crenatula 

68. nigrina, Lam 113 



xn 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

Spondylus 

69. multisetosus, Reeve .... 114 

70. victorife, Soto 114 

Pecten 

71. leopardus, Reeve 114 

72. singaporinus, Sow 115 

73. dringi, Reeve 115 

74. funebris, Reeve 116 



Pago 

Amussium 

75. pleuronectes 116 

Lima 

76. fragilis, Chemn 116 

Placuna 

77. lobata, Sow., var 116 



ECHLNODERMATA. By F. Jeffrey Bell. 



ECEONOIDEA. 

Phyllacanthus 

1. annulifera, Lamk 118 

Diadenia 

2. setosum, Gray 118 

Salmacis 

3. bicolor, Agas 118 

4. sulcata, Agas 118 

5. alexandri, Agas 118 

Temnopleurus 

6. toreumaticus, Leske. . . . 119 

7. granulosus, Gray 119 

8. botbryoides, Agas 119 

Echiuus 

9. angulosus, Leske 121 

10. damleyensis, Woods . . 121 
Tripneustes 

11. angulosus, Leske 121 

Strongylocentrot us 

12. erythrograumius, Vol. . . 121 
Ecbinoruetra 

13. lucunter, Leske 122 

Fibularia 

14. volva, Agas 122 

Clypeaster 

15. liumilis, Leske 122 

Laganum 

16. depressum, Agas 122 

17. decagonale, Less 122 

Echinoneus 

18. cyclostomus, Leske .... 123 
Maretia 

19. planulata, Lamk 123 

Lovenia 

20. elongata, Gray 123 

Breynia 

21. australasia?, Leach .... 123 
Echinocardium 

22. australe, Gray 123 



ASTEROIDEA. 

Asterias 
1. calamaria, Gray. . . . 



123 



2. polyplax, M. $ Tr 124 

Ecbinaster 

3. pm-pureus, Gray 124 

Metrodira 

4. subulata, Gray 124 

LincMa 

5. laevigata, Lamk 124 

6. nodosa, Perrier 124 

7. marmorata, Mich 125 

8. pauciforis, Martens 120 

9. megaloplax, sp. n 126 

10. sp 127 

Anthenea 

11. flavescens, Gray 127 

Oreaster 

12. gracilis, Ltk 127 

13. nodosus, L 128 

14. sp 128 

Stellaster 

15. belckeri, Gray 128 

16. incei, Gray 128 

Pentagonaster 

17. coppingeri, sp. n 128 

18. validus, sp. n 129 

Dorigona 

19. longiinana, Mobius .... 130 
Asterina 

20. belcheri, Perrier 131 

21. calcar, Graij 131 

22. cepbeus, M. $ Tr 131 

23. gunnii, Gray 131 

24. regularis, Yerrill 131 

25. brevis, Perrier 131 

Patiiia 

26. crassa, Gray 131 

Luidia 

27. sp 132 

Astropecten 

28. coppingeri, sp. n 132 

i".». polyacantbus, M. $ Tr. 133 

Arcbaster 

30. typicus, M. Sf Tr 133 

Retaster 

31. insignis, Sladen 133 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



X1U 



Page 



Ophiueoidea. 



138 
138 



Pectinura 

1. gorgonia, M. $ Tr 134 

2. Wemalis, M. $ Tr. . . 134 

3. megaloplax, sp. n 134 

Ophiopinax, n. g. 

4. stellatus, Ljn 136 

Ophiopeza 

5. conjungens, sp. n 137 

Opbiolepis 

6. annulosa, M. $ Tr 138 

Opliioplocus 

7. inibricatus, M. 8f Tr. 
Ophiactis 

8. savignii, M. § Tr. . 
Opbionereis 

9. dubia, M. § Tr 138 

Opbiocorua 

10. brevipes, Peters 139 

11. scolopendrina, Agas. . . 140 
Opbiartbruni 

12. elegans, Peters 140 

Ophiothrix 

13. fumaria, M. $ Tr 140 

14. caespitosa, Lyman .... 141 

15. martensi, Lyman 141 

16. striolata, Grube 142 

17. galateae, Ltk 142 

18. cUiaris, M. $ Tr 142 

19. rotata, Martens 142 

20. punctolimbata, Martens. 143 

21. lougipeda, M. $ Tr. . . 143 

22. microplax, sp. u 143 

23. darsvini, sp. n 144 

24. inelanograinina, sp. n. . . 145 

25. cacaotica, Lyman 145 

Euryale 

26. aspera, Lanik 146 



HOLOTHUEOIDEA. 

S^Tiapta 

1. giisea, Semper 146 

Cucumaiia 

2. maculata, Semper 146 

3. seinperi, sp. n 147 

Ocnus 

4. sp 147 

Colochirus 

5. tuberculosus, Semper . . 147 

6. austrahs, Ludwiy .... 148 



Page 

Actinocucumis 

7. difficilis, sp. n 148 

Thyone 

8. mirabilis (?), Ludwiy . . 149 

9. sacellus, Selenka 149 

10. okeni, sp. n 149 

Thyonidium 

11. schmeltzii, Ludivig 150 

Orcula 

12. cucumif oralis, Semper. . 150 
Phyllopborus 

13. proteus, sp. u 150 

Stereodemia 

14. validum, sp. n 150 

Sticbopus 

15. variegatus, Semper .... 151 
Holotburia 

16. lineata, Ludivig 152 

17. peregiina, Ludwiy .... 152 

18. modesta (?), Semper . . 152 

19. macleari, sp. n 152 

Cbinoidea. 

Antedon 

1. adeonse, Mailer 156 



156 
156 
157 
157 
158 



2. milberti, Mutter 

3. pinnif ormis, Carpenter 

4. carpenteri, sp. n 

5. pumila, sp. n 

6. bidens, sp. n 

7. loveni, sp. n 158 

8. decipiens, sp. n 159 

9. reginse, sp. n 160 

10. articulata, Mull 160 

11. gyges, sp. n 100 

12. irregularis, sp. n 161 

13. elegans, sp. u 162 

14. briareus, sp. n 163 

15. microdiscus, sp. n 163 

Actinometra 

16. solans, Lamk 164 

17. intermedia, sp. n 166 

18. robusta, Carpenter .... 167 

19. strota, Carpenter 167 

20. cumingii, Midi 167 

21. coppingeri, sp. n 168 

22. jukesi, Carpenter 168 

23. parvicirra, Carpenter . . 168 

24. alternans, Carpenter . . 169 

25. paucicirra, sp. n 169 

26. multifida, Mutt 169 

27. variabilis, sp. n 169 

28. sp. juv 170 



XIV 



8YSTEMATIC IKDBX. 



CRUSTACEA. By E. J. Miehs. 



Page 



Decapoda. 



Brachyura. 
Ackaeus 

1. lacertosus, Stimps 188 

2. affinis, sp. n 188 

Camposcia 

3. retusa, Latr 189 

Oncinopus 

4. aranea, De Haan 190 

Mensethius 

5. monoceros, Latr 190 

Huenia 

6. proteus, De Haan .... 191 
Egeria 

7. aracknoides, Rumph. . . 191 
Ckorilikinia 

8. gracilipes, Miers 192 

Paraniitkrax 

9. coppingeri, Haswell .... 192 

10. aculeatuSjVar.n. armatus 193 
Hyastenus 

11. diacantkus, De Haan . . 194 

12. oryx, A. M.-Edw 195 

13. planasius, Ad. 8? W. . . 196 

14. convexus, sp. n 196 

Naxia 

15. serpulifera, M.-Edw. . . 196 
Schizopkrys 

16. aspera, M.-Edw 197 

Pseudomicippa ? 

17. varians, Miers 197 

Micippa 

18. tkalia, Herbst 198 

19. pkilyra, Herbst 198 

20. curtispina, Haswell .... 199 
Paraiuicippa 

21. spinosa, Stimps 199 

Larnkrus 

22. longispinus, Miers .... 199 

23. lsevicarpus, Miers .... 200 

24. longirnanus, L 200 

25. nodosus, Jacq. fy Lucas . 200 

26. turriger, White 201 

27. koplonotiis, var granu- 

losus, Miers 201 

28. karpax, Ad. § W. 202 

Cryptopodia 

29. fornicata, Fabr 203 

30. spatulifrons, Miers 203 

Gonatonotus 

31. pentagonus, Ad. § W. . 204 
Euxantkus 

32. kuonii, Lucas 204 

33. tukerculosus, sp. n 205 



Hypoccelus 

34. punctatus, sp. n 

Atergatis 

35. floridus, J. 

Lopkozozyiuus 

36. epkekticus, L 

Galene 

37. granulata, sp. n 

Halimede ? 

38. coppingeri, sp. n 

Actsea 

39. riippellii, Krauss 

40. areolata, Dana ? 

Banareia 

41. inconspicua, sp. n 

Xantko 

42. macgillivrayi, sp. n 

Cycloxantkus 

43. kneatus, A. M.-Edw. . . 
Carpilodes 

44. venosus, M.-Edw 

Leptodius 

45. exaratus, M.-Edw 

46. lividus, De Haan 
Cklorodius 

47. niger, Forsk 

Cklorodopsis 

48. granulatus, Stimps 

Etisus 

49. lsevimanus, Randall . . 
Etisodes 

50. electra, Herbst 

51. anaglyptus, M.-Edw. . . 
Menippe 

52. legouilloni, A. M.-Edw. 
Pilumnus 

53. vespertilio, Fabr 

54. pulcker, sp. n 

55. rufopunctatus, Stimps. . . 

56. lanatus, Latr 

57. semilanatus, sp. n 

58. seminudus, sp. n 

59. cursor ?, A. M.-Edw. . . 

60. labyrintkicus, sp. n 

61. pugilator, A. M.-Edw. . 
Actumnus 

62. setifer, De Haan 

Cryptocceloma, g. n. 

63. fimkriatum, M.-Edw. . . 
Pilumnopeus 

64. serratifrons, Kinahan . . 
Ozius 

65. guttatus, var. speciosus, 
Hilyen 



Page 

206 
207 
207 

208 

208 

209 
209 

210 

211 

212 

213 

214 

214 

215 

216 

217 

217 
218 

218 

219 
219 
220 
220 

222 
222 
223 

224 
225 

225 

227 

228 

228 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



XV 



Page 

Neptunus 

66. pelagicus, L 229 

67. hastatoides, Fabr 229 

Achelous 

68. granulatus, M.-Edw. . . 230 
Thalamita 

69. admete, Herbst 230 

70. sima, M.-Edw 231 

71. stinrpsonii, A. M.-Edw. 232 

72. crenata, Riipp 232 

Goniosoma 

73. variegatum, Fab)- 232 

74. spinif erum, sp. n 233 

Nectocarciuus 

75. integrifrons, Latr 234 

Lupocyclus 

76. rotundatus, Ad. $ W... 234 
Kraussia 

77. nitida, Stimps 235 

Telphusa 

78. crassaP, A. M.-Edw. . . 235 
Gelasimus 

79. signatus, Hess 236 

Ocypoda 

80. ceratoplithalma, Pallas . 237 

81. kuklii, Be Haan 237 

Macrophtkalinus 

82. punctulatus, sp. n 237 

Euplax 

83. boscii, Audouin 238 

Camptoplax, g. u. 

84. coppingeri, sp. n 239 

Pseudorhonibila 

85. vestita, var. sexdentata, 

Haswell 240 

86. sulcatifrons, var. n. aus- 

tralieusis 242 

Ceratoplax 

87. arcuata, sp. n 243 

88. ? laevis, sp. n 244 

Metopograpsus 

89. niessor, Forsk 245 

Cliasmagnatlius 

90. lsevis, Dana 246 

Sesarrna 

91. bidens, Be Haan ? 246 

Pinnotheres 

92. villosulus, Guer.-Me'nev. 247 
Mycteris 

93. longicarpus, Latr 248 

Halicarcinus 

94. ovatus, Stimps 248 

Leucosia 

95. ocellata, Bell 249 

96. wbitei, Bell 249 

97. craniolaris, var. n. leevi- 

mana 250 



Page 

Myra 

98. carinata, Bell 250 

99. aiiinis, Bell 260 

100. manimillaris, Bell .... 251 

101. australis, Haswelll .... 251 
Phlyxia 

102. crassipes, Bell 252 

103. lambriformis, Bell .... 252 
Nursia 

104. sinuata, 3fiers 252 

Nursilia 

105. dentata, Bell 253 

Ipbiculus 

100. spongioses, Ad. 8f W. . 253 
Arcania 

107. pulcherrima, Hasivell . . 253 
Lithadia 

108. sculpta, Haswell 254 

Oreophorus 

109. reticulatus, Ad. $ W... 254 

110. frontalis, sp. n 254 

Matuta 

111. victrix, Fabr 256 

112. inermis, sp. n 256 

Calappa 

113. hepatica, L 257 

Dorippe 

114. dorsipes, L 257 

115. australieusis, sp. n 258 

Anomura. 

Cryptodromia 

1. lateralis, Gray 259 

Petalomera 

2. pulchra, sp. n 260 

Paratymolus 

3. bituberculatus, var. n. 

gracilis 261 

4. sexspinosus, sp. n 261 

Diogenes 

5. rectinianu's, sp. n 262 

Pagurus 

6. imbricatus, M.-Edw. . . 264 

7. hessii, sp. n 264 

Clibanarius 

8. taeniatus, M.-Edtv 265 

Eupagurus 

9. compressipes, sp. n 266 

10. kirkii, sp. n 267 

Petrolisthes 

11. japonicus, Be Haan, var. 

inermis, Haswell 268 

12. lainarckii, Leach 268 

13. haswelli, sp. n 269 

14. annulipes, Wliite 270 

15. corallicola, Haswell ? . . 271 



XVI 



SYSTEMATIC TND£X. 



Page 
Polyonyx 

] 0. obesulus, White 272 

Pachycheles 

17. pulcbellus, Haswell 273 

PorceUana 

18. nitida, var. n. rotundi- 

frons 274 

19. dispar, Stimps 275 

20. quadrilobata, sp. n 276 

Galathea 

21. australieusis, Stimps. . . 'Ill 

22. elegans, White 278 

Munida 

23. spinulifera, sp. n 279 

Mastigocbirus 

24. quadrilobatus, Miers . . 280 



Macrura. 




Gebia 




1. carinicauda, Stimps. 


280 


Gebiopsis 




2. darwinii, sp. n 


281 


Axius 




3. plectrorbyncbus, Strahl. 


282 


Tbalassina 






283 


Alpbeus 




5. edwardsii, Audouin. . . . 


284 


6. obesomanus, Dana 


287 


7. gracilipes, Stimps 


287 


8. minor, var. ueptunus, 




Dana 


288 


9. cornatidaruni, Hasicett . 


289 


10. villosus, M.-Edwards . . 


290 


Pontonia 




11. tridacnse, Peters 


290 


Harpilius 




12. inerniis, sp. u 


291 


Ancbistia 




13. petittbouarsi, Audouin ? 


293 


Coralliocaris ? 




14. trideutata, sp. n. . . . 


294 


Palsernon 




15. intermedins, Stimps. . . 


295 


Sicyonia 






295 


Penseus 




17. granulosus, Haswell. . . . 


i".).-, 


18. velutinus, Dana 


296 




296 



Stomatopoba. 
Squilla 

1. nepa, Latr 



298 



Gonodactylus 

2. cbiragra, Fabr 

• J. grapbiu , us,7f r Me(ined.), 
Miers 

ISOPODA. 

Ligia 

1. gaudicbaudii, var. uus- 

trabensis, Dana ? .... 
Ceratotboa 

2. imbricata, Fabr 

Cirolana 

3. multidigitata, Dana . . 

4. scbiodtei, sp. n 

5. tenuistylis, sp. n 

6. lata, var. n. Integra. . . . 
Rocinela 

7. orientalis, Schiodte 4* 

Meinert 

Oymodocea 

8. longistylis, sp. n 

Cerceis 

9. bidentata, var. n. asperi- 

caudata 

Cilicsea 

10. latreillei, Leach 

11. latreillei, var. crassicau- 

data, Hasicell 

Haswellia 

12. carnea, Haswell 

Anisopoda. 

Parantbura 

1. australis, Haswell .... 

Amphipoda. 
Epbippipbora 

1. kroyeri, Wliite 

Leucotboe 

2. spinicarpa, var. commen- 

salis, Haszvell 

3. brevidigitata, sp. n 

MeUta 

4. australis, Hasicell .... 
Mcera 

5. ramsayi, Haswell 

6. rubromaculata, Stimps. . 
Megamoera 

7. suensis, Haswell ? .... 

8. tbomsoni, sp. n 

Podocerus 

9. austrabs, Haswell .... 
Caprella 

10. a3quilibra, Say 

11. uttenuata, Dana p .... 



298 
298 

299 

300 

301 
302 
303 
304 

304 
305 

306 
308 
309 
311 

311 

312 



312 
313 

315 

315 
315 

317 
318 

319 

320 
320 



OSTRACODA. 

Cypridina 

1. albo-maculata, Baird 

Cirripedia. 

Balanns 

1. trigonus, Darxoin 

2. amanllis, Darwin 



SYSTEMATIC DTDEX. 


XT11 


Page 


Acasta 

:>. sulcata, Lam., var. 


Pago 

. . . , <_>1.2 


.. 321 


Pycnogonida. 





321 
321 



Achelia 

1. laevis, Hodge, var. aus- 

traliiiiisis 323 

Phoxichilidium 

2. hoekii, sp. n 324 



ALCYONARLA. By Stuart 0. Ridley. 



Nephthya 

1. jukesi, Gray, var 332 

Spongodes 

2. dorida, Esper 332 

3. heinprichi, Klunzinger ?. 332 

4. spinosa, Gray, var 332 

5. studeri, sp. n 333 

Telesto 

6. sniithi, Gray 334 

Pteroides 

7. javanica, Bleeker 334 

Virgularia 

8. sp 335 

Muricella 

9. teiiera, sp. n 335 

Muricea 

10. uinbraticoides, Studer. . 336 
Ecbinornuricea 

11. indo-nialaccensis, sp. n. 33G 
Echinogorgia 

12. flabellum, Esper 337 

Plexam'a 

13. praslonga, sp. n., var. ty- 

pica '• 



-, var. cmerea 



340 



14. miniacea, Ehr 341 

Leptonroraia 

15. flexilis, Verrill? 341 

16. australiensis, sp. n 342 

Psarnruogorgia 

17. rectangularis, sp. n 344 

Juncella 

18. juncea, Pallas 345 

19. gernmacea, M.-Edw. . . 346 

20. elongata, Pallas, var. . . 346 



21. fragilis, sp. n 347 

Ellisella 

22. calamus, Studer 348 

Ctenocella 

23. pectinata, Pallas 348 

Suberogorgia 

24. suberosa, Pallas 349 

Briar eum 

25. ? sp 349 

Callipodium 

26. australiense, sp. n 350 

Solanderia 

27. ? sp 351 

Iciligorgia 

28. orientalis, sp. n 351 

Sipbonogorgia 

29. nih'abilis, Klunzinger, 

var. flava 352 

Solenocaulum 

30. tortuosum, Gray 353 

Leucoella 

31. cervicornis, Gray 355 

Melitodes 

32. albitincta, sp. n 357 

AEopsella 

33. textif ormis, Lam 358 

34. clavigera, sp. u 360 

Acabaria 

35. japonica, Verrill 361 

36. sen-ata, sp. n 362 

Psilacabaria, g. n. 

37. gracilliina, sp. n 364 

Tubipora 

38. hemprichi, Ehr 365 



SPONGIIDA. By Stuaht O. Ridley. 



Cacospongia 

1. nioAior, Schmidt 378 

Eusporigia 

2. foliacea, Esper 378 



3. officinalis, L., var, caver- 

nosa 379 

4. septosa, Lamk 381 



XV111 



SYSTEMATIC INKE 



Page 

Hippospongia 

5. derasa, sp. n 882 

Stelospongus 

6. excavatus, sp. n 383 

7. irnplexus, sp. n 384 

8. intertextus, Hyatt .... 385 
Carterispougia 

9. otaliitica, Esper 385 

10. laruellosa, Esper 386 

11. fissurata, Lamk 386 

Hircinia 

12. borrens, Selenka 387 

13. sp 387 

Dysidea 

14. favosa, Marsh 388 

15. fusca, Carter 388 

16. digitifera, sp. n 389 

17. semicanalis, sp. n 389 

Psammopemma 

18. densuin, Marsh., var. n. 

subfibrosa 390 

Aplysina 

19. mernbranosa, Pallas . . . 391 
Iaiithella 

20. flabeUiforinis, Pallas . . 392 
Chalina 

21. monilata, sp. n 394 

Cladocbalina 

22. aruigiera, Duch 394 

23. sp 395 

24. nuda, sp 395 

, var. n. abrupti- 

spicula 396 

25. subarmigera, sp. n 397 

26. pergamentacea, Ridley. . 398 
Acervocbalina, g. n. 

27. finitima, Schmidt 399 

Tuba 

28. bullata, Lamk 399 

29. confcederata, Lam 400 

Sipbonocbalina 

30. tubulosa, Esper, var. . . 401 
Tubulodigitus 

31. communis, Carter .... 401 
Toxocbalina, g. n. 

32. folioides, Bowerbanh . . 402 

33. robusta, sp. n 403 

34. murata, sp. n 404 

Pacbycbalina 

35.1obata, Esper 404 

36. macrodactyla, Lamk. . . 405 
Eeniera 

37. indistincta,-Boweri.,rar. 407 

38. sc-ypbonoides, Lamk. . . 407 

39. ferula, Boiverb 408 

40. aquseductus, Schmidt . . 409 



Pago 

41. testudinaria, Lamk. . . 409 

42. «p 410 

43. sp 410 

44. sp 411 

Pellina 

45. uiuricata, sp. n 411 

46. aliformis, sp. n 412 

47. sp 413 

48. sp 413 

49. eusiphonia, sp. n 414 

Protoscbmidtia 

50. luspidula, sp. u 414 

Scbmidtia 

51. variabilis, sp. n 415 

Amorpbina 

52. megalorrbapbis, Carter . 416 
Tedania 

53. digitata, Schm., var. . . 417 
Rbizocbalina 

54. fistulosa, Bowerb., var. n. 

infradeusata 420 

55. singaporensis, Carta-, \&r. 421 

56. spatbulifera, sp. u 421 

57. caualis, sp. n 422 

Gellius 

58. coucbi, Bowerb., var. ce- 

ratina, n 423 

59. varius ; Boiverb 424 

60. fibulatus, Schmidt .... 424 

61. cyniiformis, Esper .... 425 
Gelliodes, g. n. 

62. fibulata, Carter? 427 

Ampbilectus 

63. tibiellifer, sp. u 428 

64. bispidulus, sp. n 429 

Myxilla 

65. arborescens, sp. n 430 

Orella 

66. scbrnidti, sp. n 432 

Iotrocbota, g. n. 

67. purpurea, Boicerb 434 

68. baculifera, sp. u 435 

Esperia 

66. parisbi, Bcncerb 436 

70. pellucida, sp. n 437 

71. obscura, Carter 438 

Pboriospongia 

72. fibrosa, sp. n 439 

Opblitispougia 

73. australiensis, sp. n 442 

Clatbria 

74. aculeata, sp. n 443 

75. tuberosa, Boicerb 444 

76. coppingeri, sp. u 445 

77. remwardti, Vosm., var. 

subcylindrica 446 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



XIX 



Page 

reinwardti, var. pal- 

mata 447 

78. frondifera, Boioerb 448 

Rbaphidopblus 

79. arborescens, sp. n 450 

80. procerus, sp. n 451 

81. sp 452 

Acarnus 

82. ternatus, sp. u 453 

Ecbinodictyum 

83. bilamellatum, Lamk. . . 454 

84. costiferum, Lamk. .... 455 

85. gloinoratuui, sp. n 456 

, var. subglobosum . 457 

80. cancellation, Lamk, . . 457 
Raspailia 

87. bifurcata, sp. n 459 

88. australiensis, sp. n 400 

89. clathrata, sp. n 461 

Axinella 

90. ecbidnpea, Lamk 462 

Acantbella 

91. sp 463 

Leucopkloeus 

92. fenestrates, sp. u 464 

■, var 464 

Suberites 

93. carnosus, John&t 465 

94. epipbytum, Lamk 405 



Pago 
Hyineniacidon 

95. earuucula, Boioerb 466 

90. agminafca, sp. n 40(5 

97. sp 467 

Spirastrella 

98. vagabunda, sp. n 408 

99. congenera, sp. n 409 

100. decumbens, sp. u 470 

Stelletta 

101. purpuroa, sp. n 473 

, var. retroflexa . . 473 

102. clavosa, sp. n 474 

103. sp 470 

Stellottinopsis 

104. carteri, sp. n 470 

Tethyopsis 

105. dissimilis, sp. n 477 

Geodia 

106. globostellifera, Carter . . 480 
Placospongia 

107. carinata, Boioerb 481 

Leucetta 

108. primigenia, Hiickel, var. 

inicrorrbapbis, id. .... 482 
Leucaltis 

109. batbybia, Hiickel, var. 

australiensis, u 482 

Leuconia 

110. saccharata, Hiickel . . , 482 



Part II. 

COLLECTIONS FROM THE WESTERN INDIAN 

OCEAN. 



BIRDS. By R. Bowdleb Shabpe. 



Foudia 




1. madagascariensis, L. 


. 483 


Critbagra 




2. cbrysopyga, Swains. . 
Francolinus 


. 483 


Sterna 


483 




. 484 


Zosterops 

5. madagascariensis, L. . 


. 484 



Corvus 

6. scapulatns, Baud 484 

Turtur 

7. coppingeri, sp. n 484 

Strepsilas 

8. interpres, L 484 

Ardea 

9. atricapilla, Afzel 485 

10. bubulcus, Sav 485 



XX 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

Strepsilas 

11. interpres, L 485 

Puffinus 

12. chlororhynchus, Less. . . 485 
Sterna 

13. anaestbeta, Scop 485 



Page 

Gyp-is 

14. alba, Sparrm 485 

Anous 

15. stolidus, L 485 



REPTILIA. By Albert Guntheb. 



Hemidactylus 

1. frenatus 486 



Gerrhonotus 
2. madagascariensis 



486 



MOLLUSCA. By Edgab A. Smith. 



Gastbopoda. 
Conus 

1. arenatus, Hwass 487 

2. bebrseus, L 487 

3. turriculatus, Soto 487 

4. rniliaris, Hwass 488 

5. literatus, L 488 

6. millepunctatus, Lam. . . 488 

7. flavidus, Lam 488 

8. tessellatus, Born 488 

9. striates, L 488 

10. martensi, sp. n 488 

11. articulatus, Sow 489 

Pleurotorna 

12. grisea, sp. n 489 

Terebra 

13. babylonica, Lam 490 

14. cerithina, Lam 490 

15. dimidiata 490 

16. bruguieri, Desk 490 

17. casta, Hinds 491 

Murex 

18. adustus, Lam 491 

19. puuiilus, Adams 491 

20. infans, sp. n 491 

21. darrosensis, sp. n 492 

Pisania 

22. ignea, Om 492 

23. nndosa, L 492 

Columbella 

24. turturina, Lam 492 

25. nympba, Kiener 493 

26. seycnellensis, sp. n 493 

27. moleculina, Duclos .... 493 

28. e-incinnata, Martens. . . . 494 

29. rufopiperata, sp. n 494 

30. amirantium, sp. n 494 

31. conspersa, Gaskoin ... 495 

32. albocaudata, sp. n 495 



Nassa 

33. arcularia, L 496 

34. grauifera, Kiener 496 

35. gaudiosa, Hinds 496 

36. stiguiaria, var 496 

Phos 

37. nodicostatus, var 496 

Purpura 

38. bippocastanum 496 

39. sertuni, Brug 496 

Sistrum 

40. ricinus, L 497 

Coralliophila 

41. madreporarum, Sow. . . 497 

42. amirantium, sp. n 497 

Leptoconchus 

43. rostratus, Adams 497 

Fasciolaria 

44. filamentosa, Lam 497 

Latirus 

45. nassatula, Lam 497 

Oliva 

46. episcopabis, Lam 497 

Harpa 

47. minor 498 

Mitra 

48. episcopalis, L 498 

49. coronata, Chemn 498 

50. luctuosa, Adams 498 

51. tenuis, Sow 498 

Turricula 

52. exasperata, Chemn 498 

53. mucronata, Sivains 498 

54. modesta, Reeve 499 

55. bipartita, sp. n 499 

Marginella 

56. pictmata, G. 8f H. Nevill . 499 
Doliuni 

57. pomum, L 499 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



XXI 



Page 

Ranella 

58. pusilla, var 500 

Triton 

59. eancellinus, Roissy .... 500 
Natica 

60. tessellata, Phil 500 

Cyprsea 

'61. aseUus, L 500 

Trivia 

6:2. scabriuscula, Gray .... 500 
Erato 

63. corrugata, Hinds 500 

Littorina 

64. glabrata, Phil 500 

Cerithium 

65. echinaturn, Lam 500 

66. columna, Sow 500 

67. albovaricosuin, sp. n. . . 501 

68. amirantium, sp. n 501 

69. acutinodulosuin, sp. n. . . 501 

70. kochi, Phil 502 

Triplioris 

71. rnirificus, Desh 502 

72. rnonilifer, Hinds 502 

73. elegans, Hinds 502 

74. maxillaris, Hinds 502 

Strorubus 

75. mauritianus, Lam 502 

76. gibberulus, L 503 

77. noridus, Lam 503 

78. coluniba, Lam 503 

Pterocera 

79. aurantia, Lam 503 

Calyptrasa 

80. cicatricosa, Peeve 503 

Nerita 

81. plexa, Chemn 503 

82. plicata, Chemn 503 

83. polita, L 503 

84. albicilla, L 503 

Neritina 

85. rangi ana, Recluz 503 

Turbo 

86. histrio, Reeve 503 

87. tursicus, Reeve 504 

88. coronatus, Gm 504 

Pbasianella 

89. setbiopica, Phil 504 

Trochus 

90. aniirantiuni, sp. n 504 



Pnge 

91. australis, Lam 505 

92. labio, L 505 

Cylichna 

93. protracta, Gonl d 505 

Tornatina 

94. voluta, Quoy § Gaim, . . 505 
Pyramidella 

95. maculosa, Lain 505 

96. terebellum, Midler 505 

97. sulcatus, Adams 505 

Obemnitzia 

98. coppingeri, sp. n 505 

Pbyllidia 

99. varicosa, Lam 506 

Doris 

100. coriacea, Abraham .... 506 

101. mabilla, Abraham .... 506 

CONCEOFEIIA. 

Cytherea 

1. obliquata, Hanley 506 

Circe 

2. pectinata, L 506 

3. gibbia, var 506 

Tellina 

4. elegans, Wood 507 

5. semilsevis, Martens .... 507 

6. staurella, Lam 507 

7. rugosa, Born 507 

8. scobinata, L 507 

9. gratiosa, Rbmer 507 

Cardium 

10. fornicatutn, Sow 507 

11. pulchrum, Reeve 507 

Gastrochsena 

12. mytiloides, Lam 507 

Lucina 

13. exasperata, Reeve 507 

14. punctata, L 508 

15. clausa, Phil 508 

16. cumingii, var 508 

Modiola 

17. auriculata, Krauss .... 508 

18. elegans, Gray 508 

Area 

19. divaricata, Soiv 508 

Cucullsea 

20. concamerata, Chemn. . . 508 



ECHTNODEHMATA. By F. Jeffbey Bell. 
(Page 509.) 
Neoplax opbiodes, g. et sp. a 



512 



XX11 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



CRUSTACEA. 

Page 

Decapoda. 
Brachyura. 

Achseus 

1. lnevioculis, sp. n 520 

Camposcia 

2. retusa, Latr 520 

Huenia 

3. pacifica, Miers 520 

Menaetbius 

4. monoceros, Latr 521 

Stilbognatbus 

5. martensii, sp. n 521 

Pararnitlirax 

6. longispinus, De Haan, 

var. bituberculatus .... 522 
Hyastenus 

7. oryx, A. M.-Edio 522 

8. ovatus, Dana 522 

Naxia 

9. petersii, Hihjendorf .... 523 
Eurynome 

10. stimpsonii, sp. n 523 

Micippa 

11. tbalia, Herbst,\ar.haam, 

Stimps 524 

Paramicippa 

12. asperimanus, sp. n 525 

Entonionyx, g. n. 

13. spinosus, sp. n 526 

Lambrus 

14. calappoides, Ad. fyWh.? 527 
Euxanthus 

15. exsciilptus, Herbst, var. 

rugosus, n 527 

Lopbactsea 

16. semigranosa, Heller .... 527 
Lopbozozvmus 

17. dodone, Herbst 527 

Liornera 

18. punctata, M.-Edio 528 

Acisea 

19. rufopvmctata, M.-Edio. . . 528 
Atergatopsis 

20. granulatus, A. M.-Edw. 529 
Xantbodes 

21. lamarckii, M.-Edw 529 

Carpilodes 

22. rugatus, M.-Edw 529 

Actaeodes 

23. tomentosus, M.-Edw. . . 530 
Leptodius 

24. exaratus, M.-Edw 530 



By E. J. Miers. 

25. exaratus, var. gracilis, 

Dana 

Pbyrnodius 

26. rugipes, Heller 

Cblorodius 

27. niger, Forsk 

28. miliaris, A. M.-Edw. . . 
Cblorodopsis 

29. melanodactylus, A.M.-E. 

30. areolatus, M.-Edw 

Etisodes 

31. electra, Herbst 

Cymo 

32. andreossii, Aud 

Actumuus 

33. setifer, DeHaan 

Euriippellia 

34. annubpes, M.-Edw 

Ozius 

35. frontalis, M.-Edw 

Eripbia 

36. lsevimanus, M.-Ediv. . . 
37. , var. sniitbii, Mac- 

Leay 

38. scabricula, Dana 

Trapezia 

39. cymodoce, Herbst 

40. ferruginea, Latr 

41. rufopunctata, Herbst . . 
Tetralia 

42. cavimanus, Heller 



Page 

530 

531 

531 
531 

531 

532 

532 

532 

533 

533 

533 

534 

535 
535 

535 
536 
536 

537 

538 
538 
538 
539 



Xipbonectes 

43. vigilans, Dana, var. ob- 

tusidentatus, n 

Scylla 

44. serrata, Forsk 

Acbelous 

45. granulatus, M.-Ediv. .... 
Goniosoma 

46. natator, Herbst 

Tbalamita 

47. sirna, M.-Edw. 

48. quadrilobata, sp. n 

49. Integra, Dana , 

50. crenata, Riipp , 

51. pi eta, Stimps 

Lissocarcinus 

52. orbicularis, Dana 

Gelasimus 

53. annubpes, M.-Edw 541 

54. dussumieri, M.-Edw. . . 541 
Ocypoda 

55. ceratopbtbalrna, Pa lias. . 542 



539 
539 
540 
540 
540 

541 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Pace 



5G. cordimanus, Des?7i 542 

Macrophthaluius 

57. parvimanuB, M.-Edw. . . 542 
Euplax 

58. boscii, Aud 542 

Dotilla 

59. fenestrata, Hilgendorf ' . . 543 
Carcinoplax 

60. integra, sp. n 543 

Grapsus 

61 . maciilatus, Catesby .... 544 

62. strigosus, Herbst 544 

Geograpsus 

63. grayi, M.-Ediv 545 

Metop< igrapsus 

64. messor, Forsk 545 

Liolophus 

65. planissimus, Herbst .... 545 
Xantkasia 

66. murigera, Tiliite 546 

Pbilyra 

67. rectangularis, sp. n 546 

Pseudophilyra 

68. polita, sp. n 547 

Nursilia 

69. cleutata, Bell 548 

Arcania 

70. undecinispinosa,jDe.ffafira 548 
Ebalia 

71. granulata, Riijjpell .... 549 
Calappa 

72. bepatica, Linn 550 

73. gallus, Herbst, var. bi- 

coriiis 550 

Cymopolia 

74. wbitei, sp. n 551 

Anomura. 

Dromidia 

1. spongiosa, Stimps., var. ? 

stimpsonii, u 552 

Dromia 

2. Tidgaris, M.-Edw. 553 

Homalodromia, g. n. 

3. coppingeri, sp. n 554 

Birgus 

4. latro, L 555 



xxm 

Page 

Ccenobita 

5. perlata, M.-Edw 555 

i'agurus 

6. puuctiUatus, M.-Edio.. . 555 

7. guttatus, Olivier ? .... 555 
Calcinus 

8. tibicen, Herbst 557 

Petrolistbes 

9. lamarckii, Leach 557 

10. , var. asiaticus, 

Leach 567 

11. annulipes, Miers 558 

12. maculatus, M.-Edw. . . 558 

13. villosus, Richters ? .... 559 
Polyonyx 

14. biunguicidatus, Dana . . 559 
Galatbea 

15. spinosirostris, Dana ? . . 560 
Munida 

16. edwardsii, sp. n 500 

Macrura. 

Alpbeus 

1. obesornanus, Dana .... 501 

2. edwardsii, Audouin .... 561 

3. lsevis, Randall 561 

4. minor, var. neptunus, 

Dana 562 

Pontonia 

5. brevirostris, sp. n 562 

Coralliocaris 

6. gramiuea, Dana 563 

Penaaus 

7. canaliculatus, Olivier . . 503 

8. ricbtersii, sp. n 504 

Stomatopoda. 
Gcmodactylus 

1. cbiragra, Fabr 565 

2. grapburus, Miers 506 

3. elegans, sp. n 566 

Amphipoda. 

Mcera 

1. diversiruanus, sp. n 567 



COLEOPTEEA. By C. O. Waterhouse. 
Cratopus adspersus, sp. n 



576 



XXIV 



STSTEMATIC INDEX. 



LEPIDOPTERA. By A. G. Butler. 
Deiopeia lactea, sp. n 



Page 

577 



ALCYONARIA. By Stuart 0. Ridley. 



Page 

Spongodes 

1. uni color, Gray 579 

2. studeri, sp. n 579 

, var. laevior 579 

Nepbtbya 

3. sp 579 

4. sp 579 



Muricea 

5. bifurcata, sp. n 579 

Jimcella 

6. genimacea, M.-Edw. . . 580 
Wrigbtella 

7. cbrysantbus, Gray .... 581 

8. coccinea, Gray 581 



SPONGHDA. By Stuart O. Ridley. 



Cacospongia 

1. cavernosa, Schmidt .... 590 
Hippospongia 

2. intestinalis, Lamk., var. . 590 

3. sinuosa, Pallas 591 

-, var. raauritiana . . 591 



, var. deeidua, Hyatt 592 

Pbyllospongia 

4. papyracea, Esper 593 

5. niadagascarensis, Hyatt 594 
, var.supraoculata, u. 594 

Carterispougia 

6. otabitica, Esper 595 

7. mautelli, Bowerb 595 

8. pennatula, Lamk 595 

Hircinia 

9. f usca, Carter 596 

10. byssoides, Lamk 596 

11. sp 597 

Dysidea 

12. couica, Bowerb 597 

13. gummhiea, sp. n 597 

Oligoceras 

14. conulosmn, sp. n 599 

Aplysina 

15. fusca, Carter 600 

16. pallasi, sp. u 600 

lantbella 

17. flabellifomiis, Pallas .. 601 
Cboudrilla 

18. mixta, Schulze ? 602 

Cbaliua 

19. elougata, Lamk 603 

20. sp 603 

Acervocbalina 

21. finitima, Schmidt, var. . . 604 



Reniera 

22. iudistiucta, Bowerb., var. 605 

23. rosea, Boioerb 605 

24. cauierata, sp. n 605 

25. cribriforruis, sp. n 606 

26. sp 607 

Pelliua 

27. sp 607 

Tedania 

28. digitata, Schmidt 607 

Rbizocbaliua 

29. pellucida, sp. n 608 

Desmacidon 

30. riuiosa, sp. n 609 

Iotrocbota 

31. purpurea, Bowerb 610 

32. baculifera, sp. u 610 

Esperia 

33. gelatinosa, sp. n 611 

Clatbria 

34. froudifera, Bowerb 612 

35. decumbeus, sp. u 612 

36. niseandrina, sp. u 614 

Acaruus 

37. ternatus, sp. n 615 

Ecbiuonerua 

38. sp 616 

39. gracilis, sp. u 617 

Asiuella 

40. spiculifera, Lamk 617 

41. proliferaus, sp. n 618 

Leucopblceus 

42. proteus, sp. n 620 

43. fenestratus, var 621 

Suberites 

44. sp 622 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX 
Pago 



Vioa 

45. schmidti, Ridley 622 

4(>. transitoria, sp. □ 623 

47. punctulata, sp. n 623 

Tetbva 

48. cliftoni, Boicerb (524 

Tetilla 

49. dactyloidea, Carter .... 625 
Erylus 

50. cvlindrigerus, sp. n 626 

Stelletta 

51. acervus, Boioerb 627 



XXV 

PttRO 



52. purpurea, var. parvi- 

Btella 627 

Leucott .i 

53. primigenia, var. megalix- 

rhaphis, Iliickel 628 

Leucaltis 

54. bathybia, Ilachel, var. 

mascareuica 628 

Leucortis 

55. anguinea, sp n 629 

Leuconia 

56. echinata, Schuffner .... 630 



THE 



ZOOLOGICAL COLLECTIONS 



OF 



H.M.S. 'ALERT.' 



SUMMARY OF THE VOYAGE. 

BY 

R. W. COPPINGER, M.D., Staff-Surgeon R.N. 



During the summer of 1878 it was resolved by the Admiralty to 
equip a vessel for the performance of special surveying-work on 
the western shores of Patagonia, among the South-Pacific Islands, 
and on the eastern and northern shores of Australia ; in addi- 
tion to which, it was the wish of the Hydrographer of the 
Navy, Captain (now Sir Frederick) Evans, F.li.S., that no oppor- 
tunity should be lost of collecting objects of natural history when- 
ever the requirements of the survey brought the vessel into regions 
whose zoology was hitherto but imperfectly known. It was in 
accordance with these views that on the 20th August, 1878, H.M.S. 
' Alert ' was commissioned at Sheerness, with a complement of 
120 officers and men, by Captain Sir George Xares, who, by a happy 
coincidence, had commanded the same vessel in the Polar Expedition 
of 1875-76. On the 20th of the following month we sailed from 
Plymouth. 

On the outward voyage we touched for a few days at Madeira and 
St. Vincent respectively ; and at both of these places some shallow- 
water dredging was accomplished, resulting in the acquisition of a 
small collection of marine invertebrates, in which, as might have 
been expected, there was little, if any thing, of special interest. 

B 



2 VOYAGE OF U.M.S. ' ALERT. 

During our further voyage through the South Atlantic a course 
was held which brought us over the Hotspur and Victoria Banks — 
submerged coral-reefs which are situated between the parallels of 
17g° and L2° S. lat., and are about 180 miles from the east coast of 
Brazil. In these two places we plied our dredges in depths ranging 
from 35 to 39 fathoms, obtaining thereby a large number of zoolo- 
gical specimens, among which were several novelties in the classes 
of Sponges and Polyzoa. The collection made at these stations 
proved to be of special interest, as it helped to fill up a gap unavoid- 
ably left by the ' Challenger ' expedition in the marine zoology of 
the South Atlantic. 

On the 27th November we anchored in the estuary of the river 
Plate, off Monte Video, where we remained until the 14th Decem- 
ber. Sailing on the latter date, we shaped a course for the Falkland 
Islands, and aiTived at Stanley Harbour on the 26th inst. A few 
weeks prior to the time of our visit to the Falklands a peculiar 
avalanche of semifluid peat had poured down from the summit 
of one of the low hills, laying waste a portion of the settlement. 

We again put to sea on the evening of the 27th December, and 
steering to the eastward, entered the Strait of Magellan on the 
first day of the year 1879. After stopping for a few days at the 
Chilian settlement of Sandy Point, we proceeded to our surveying- 
ground among the channels on the west coast of Patagonia. Here 
we spent the greater portion of the two succeeding years, executing 
surveys of previously uncharted waters, and adding to those which 
had been partially effected by our predecessors in the same field ; 
but during the more rigorous winter months we each year proceeded 
north to Coquimbo, on the Chilian coast, where our ship was refitted 
and fresh supplies of stores were obtained *. As the requirements 
of the survey necessitated our visiting and anchoring in a great 
many bays and inlets in this remote region, frequent opportunities 
occurred for shallow-water dredging, so that we were able to make 
a large collection of marine invertebrates — a branch of research to 
which our attention was more especially directed, as we were aware 
that in other departments of biology the work done by the ' Erebus ' 
and ' Terror,' ' Nassau,' and ' Challenger ' of our own navy, as well 
as by many foreign vessels, left little to be desired. 

During the month of March 1880 a visit extending over a few 
days was made to Skyring Water, a large and almost completely 
landlocked sheet of water situated to the eastward of the Cordillera, 
and, so far as we yet know, only accessible by ship through a 
narrow channel by which it communicates with the main Strait of 
Magellan. And here I should remark that in the month of July 
1879, and during the surplus time allotted for refitting our ship on 
the Chilian coast, a brief visit was made to the island of St. Ambrose, 
which lies about 500 miles to the north-west of Coquimbo. 

* During the winter of 1879-80 Sir George Nares returned to England, and 
was succeeded in the command of the 'Alert ' by Captain Maclear, formerly of 
the ' Challenger ' Expedition. 






BUMMARr. O 

On the 14th June, 1880, we bade adieu to the South-American 
coast and sailed for Tahiti, spending much time on the way in 
searching for the so-called Minerva Reef, which was reputed to 
exist some 60 miles to the north-east of Manga Eeva, one of the 
Paumotu group. Arriving at Tahiti on the Gth of August, we made 
a stay of twelve days at that interesting island, when we again got 
under way and pursued a circuitous route towards the great Fiji 
group. 

The first place at which we touched on this voyage was Nassau 
Island, whence we proceeded to the Union group, in 80|- S. lat., 
passing within sight of Tema Reef and the Danger Islands, which 
were found to be incorrectly placed on the charts. We made a short 
stay at Oatafu, the most westerly island of the Union group, and 
thence proceeded to Fiji. 

We anchored off the settlement of Levuka in the island of Ovalau, 
Fiji, on the 18th of September, and remained there until the 10th 
of October. We then steamed over to Tongatabu, in the Friendly 
Islands, where we made a pleasant stay of ten days, but subse- 
quently spent some very dull weeks, aggravated by unusually 
boisterous weather, in an uneventful search for the La Ranee Bank, 
the non-existence of which was, however, satisfactorily demon- 
strated. We returned to Levuka on the 4th of December, and 
remained in harbour for ten days, when we entered upon the last 
portion of our Pacific cruise, viz. the voyage from Fiji to Sydney. 

We arrived at Sydney on the 23rd of January, 1881, and re- 
mained there, refitting, until the 15th of April, when we steamed 
up the east coast of Australia to our next surveying-ground. 

During the ensuing six months we visited Port Curtis, Port 
Molle, and Port Denison on the east coast of Queensland ; Lizard 
Island, Flinders Island, Clack Island, Bird Island, Percy Islands, 
Clairemont Islands, and Albany Island, adjoining the coast ; and 
while engaged on the survey of the Prince of Wales Channel, in 
Torres Straits, we anchored off Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, 
Home, West, Prince of Wales, Hammond, Goode, and Booby 
Islands. In all these localities marine specimens were collected, as 
well as in the more open parts of the Prince of Wales Channel, 
where the depth rarely exceeds 30 fathoms. A good many inter- 
esting specimens were also obtained through the assistance of the 
pearl-shell divers, who have an extensive and lucrative industry in 
these waters. 

On leaving this channel we proceeded westwards through the 
Arafura Sea, sounding and dredging, until we reached Port Darwin, 
in North-west Australia. Here we remained from the 3rd to the 
18th of November, when we again got under way and steamed 
through the Eastern Archipelago to Singapore. We reached this 
port on the 18th November, 1881, and remained there for two and 
a half months, spending most of the time in dock, where our 
ship underwent an extensive refit. We now received orders to 
undertake a survey of the Amirantes and neighbouring islands and 
reefs in the South-Indian Ocean, using Seychelles as our base for 

b2 



4 VOYAGE OF H.M.8. ' ALERT. 

supplies. We accordingly sailed from Singapore on the 5th Feb- 
ruary, 1882, and steered for the Seychelle Islands, touching on the 
way at Colombo. 

On the 4th of March we reached Bird Island, the most northerly 
of the Scychelle group ; and as we remained at anchor there until 
the following morning, we had an opportunity, among other things, 
for exploring the island and accomplishing some dredging-work in 
the shallow water about the ship. On the next day we steamed 
over to Mahe, the chief island of the group. After some days spent 
here in provisioning and coaling the ship, during which time our 
boats did some useful dredging in the channel between Mahe and 
St. Anne's Islands, we steamed over to the Amirante group, the most 
northerly of which is only about a day's run from Mahe. We had 
orders to make a survey of the Amirantes, and, as far as time would 
permit, of the other coral islands which extend thence in an irregular 
chain southward towards Madagascar. 

The Amirante group consists altogether of twenty-one low coral 
islets, resting, with the exception of He des Eoches (which is sepa- 
rated by a deep channel), on an extensive coral bank, which is 89 
miles in length, with an average breadth of 19 miles, and whose 
long axis lies in a N.N.E. and S.S.W. direction. It is included be- 
tween the limits of 4° 50|' and 6° V2\' S. lat., and 53° 45' and 
52° 50|' E. long., and is thus about 700 miles distant from the 
nearest part of the East-African coast. Some of the islets and 
sand-cays of which it is composed, and which are included in the 
above enumeration, are so arranged in clusters that for all practical 
purposes the group may be regarded as consisting of nine islets, 
which have been named African, Eagle, Darros, Des Eoches, Poivre, 
Etoile, Marie Louise, Des Neufs, and Boudeuse Islands. 

From the Amirantes we moved over to Alphonse Island, which 
occupies an isolated position GO miles S.W. by S. of the southern 
extremity of the Amirante Bank ; and thence proceeded to Pro- 
vidence Island, which is about 240 miles from the Amirantes in 
a S.W. by S. direction, and about 200 miles from Cape Amber, in 
Madagascar. After a short stay at each of these islands, we steamed 
over to the Glorioso group, which consists of three islands, also of 
coral formation, and situated about 120 miles W. by N. of the 
northern extremity of Madagascar. Every effort was made to 
investigate the fauna and flora of these islands as far as time and 
other circumstances would permit, so that sufficient materials were 
accumulated to connect their natural history with that of Seychelles 
to the northward and Madagascar to the southward. 

With our departure from the Glorioso Islands the surveying opera- 
tions of the ' Alert ' were brought to a close. On the 12th of May 
we reached Mozambique, whence, after a stay of a few days, we 
proceeded on our homeward voyage, stopping en route at AlgoaBay, 
Simon's Bay, Cape of Good Hope, St. Helena, and Fayal (in the 
Azores), and arrived in Plymouth Sound on the 3rd of September, 
1882, after an absence of nearly four years. 



PART I. 

THE COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 



M AMMALI A. 

BY 

OLDFIELD THOMAS. 



The Mammalia collected by Dr. Coppinger are too few in number 
and of too common occurrence to be deserving of special notice; but 
a very interesting series of Melanesian skulls was obtained by him 
from various islands in the Pacific, and of these the most important 
measurements are given in the following notes. 

1. Skull of Torres-Straits Islander. (Plates I. & II. fig. A.) 

Male. Adult. 
■ " Native chief of Xagheer Island, Torres Straits."— B. W. C. 

Length 1 174; gl. occ. 2 181. Breadth 3 144. Height 4 136. 
Maximum frontal breadth 5 115 ; minimum frontal breadth 6 
99. Horizontal circumferences — preauricular 7 237, total 8 514. 
Transverse arcs— frontal 9 286, bregmatic 10 303, parietal 11 323, 
occipital 12 273. Longitudinal arcs — frontal 13 121, parietal 14 
129, occipital 15 113. Foramen magnum — length 16 35, width 17 
29. Basinasal length 18 105. Basialveolar length 19 112. Bi- 
zygomatic breadth 20 136. Height of — face 21 98, malar 22 25, 
alveolus 23 22. Auriculo-orbital length 24 72. Nasal height 25 
50, width 26 24. Maxilla— length 27 {55, width 28 67. 

Mandible — bicondylar width 29 126, bigoniac width 30 99, symphy- 
sial height 31 33, molar height 32 29, coronoid height 33 63, gouio- 
symphysial length (1. side) 34 81. Ramus — height 35 71, antero- 
posterior breadth 36 35. Bigoniac arc 37 194. 

Indices— latitudinal 38 82-8, altitudinal 39 78-2, frontal 40 687, 
gnathic 41 106-7, nasal 42 48-0. 

i 9-12 is is 27 29 33 39 39 t, a fc en according to Flower, Journ. Anthrop. Inst, x 
p. 172(1881), and Cat. CoU. Surg. i. p. xvii (1879). 
r a_s 13-17 2&-2e 28-32 31-37 40-^ Broca, Instruct. Craniol. (Paris, 187o). 



6 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

Subbrachycephalic, prognathous, just above leptorhine. 
Glabella prominent, about No. 3 of Broca's scale, lnion scarcely 
developed. 

This skull is unusually broad for a Melanesian, and has a some- 
what low nasal index ; it agrees, however, very well with No. 1193 
of Prof. Flower's Catalogue * (" The cranium of a Papuan, from one 
of the islands in Torres Strait, <$ "), and its extreme prognathism 
shows that it undoubtedly belongs to the Melanesian race. It has 
undergone considerable occipital flattening on the left side, either 
from sleeping on a hard wooden pillow or some similar cause ; and 
this has no doubt caused the brain-case to be abnormally broad. 

The present specimen is said to be the skull of the last chief of 
the island of Nagheer, and is ornamented with two long strings of 
glass beads and tassels of red calico hanging from the zygomata. It 
has its orbits filled with red clay, on which are fastened oblong bits 
of mother-of-pearl for eyes ; there is an artificial nose carved in 
wood and painted red, and a red band of paint passes across the 
forehead. The right upper canine, lost after death but before the 
preparation of the skull, has been replaced by a wooden tooth. The 
four posterior teeth in the right lower jaw have all been lost during 
life, and their alveoli have quite closed up. 

2. Skull of Torres-Straits Islander. (Plates I. & II. fig. B.) 

Male [?]. Adult. 

" Native woman of Nagheer Island, Torres Straits." — R. W. C 

Length 178 ; gl. occ. 181. Breadth 136. Height 137. Maxi- 
mum frontal breadth 112 ; minimum frontal breadth 95. 
Horizontal circumferences — preauricular 230, total 503. 
Transverse arcs — frontal 283, bregmatic 300, parietal 320, 
occipital 207. Longitudinal arcs — frontal 130, parietal 126, 
occipital 112. Foramen magnum — length 38, width 31. Basi- 
nasal length 103. Basialveolar length 105. Bizygomatic 
breadth 129. Height of — face 86, malar 24, alveolus 16. Auri- 
culo-orbital length 68. Nasal height 49, width 26. Maxilla 
— length 61, breadth 63. 

Mandible — bicondylar width 117, bigoniac width 93, symphysial 
height 31, molar height 24, coronoid height 52, gonio-sym- 
physial length SS. Ramus — height 64, antero-posterior 
breadth 31. Bigoniac arc 197. 

Indices — latitudinal 76-4, altitudinal 77*0, frontal 69*9, gnathic 
101-9, nasal 53-1. 

Subdolichoeephalic, hypsicephalic, mesognathous, and platyrhine. 

Glabella low, about No. 1. No inion. Median line of nose very 
prominent. 

Similarly prepared to the last, the only differences being that 
the strings of beads from the zygomata are shorter and without 

* Op. cit. p. -2-1-2 



MAMMALIA. 7 

tassels, and there is a blue crescent-shaped mark on the glabella, 
just below the supraorbital red line. 

Although stated to be a " woman of Nagheer," there can bo little 
doubt, from its general appearand', that this skull is that of a man. 
It is a remarkably fine and typical head, and has therefore been 
thought worthy of a figure. The peculiar roof-like shape of the 
crown is noticeable, a state of skull called " ill-filled " by Dr. 
Cleland. 

" These skulls are placed on the graves where the bodies of their 
original possessors lie, and are surrounded with idols, models of 
snakes, &c, which are supposed to guard the dead." 

3. Cranium of Solomon Islander. 

Female. Adult. 

" Solomon group ; particular island unknown." — It. W. C. 

Length 187: gl. occ. 187. Breadth 130. Height 133. Maxi- 
mum frontal breadth 110 ; minimum frontal breadth 100. 
Horizontal circumferences — preauricular 2-13, total 510. Trans- 
verse arcs — frontal 276, bregmatic 29-1, parietal 304, occipital 
265. Longitudinal arcs — frontal 133, parietal 126, occipital 
117. Foramen magnum — length 33, breadth 28. Basinasal 
length 102. Basialveolar length 102. Bizygomatic breadth 
129. Height of — face 80, malar 21, alveolus 12. Auriculo- 
orbital length 68. Orbit— width* 39, height* 34. Nasal 
height 47, width 25. Maxilla— length 56, width 63. 

Indices — latitudinal 69-5, alritudinal 71'1, frontal 76-9, gnathic 
100-0, orbital 87*2, nasal 53-2. 

Dolichocephalic, mesognathous, platyrhine ; orbit mesoseme. 

Glabella low, about No. 1 of Broca's scale. Nasal spine long, 
No. 4. Occipital crest scarcely visible. 

4. Cranium of Maliicollo Islander, New Hebrides. 

Male. Aged. All the teeth gone and alveoli closed up. 

Length 170 ; gl. occ. 182. Breadth 128. Height 138. Maxi- 
mum frontal breadth 107 ; minimum frontal breadth 91. 
Horizontal circumferences — preauricular 232, total 481. 
Transverse arcs — frontal 276, bregmatic 301, parietal 320. 
Longitudinal arcs — frontal 131, parietal 139, occipital 104. 
Foramen magnum — length 29, width 25. Basinasal length 
103. Bizygomatic breadth 137. Height of malar 22. Auri- 
culo-orbital length 68. Orbit — width 39, height 35. Nasal 
height 48, width 30. 

Indices — latitudinal 75-3, altitudinal 81-2, frontal 71*1, orbital 
89-7, nasal .62-5. 

Subdolichocephalic, hypsicephalic, very platyrhine ; orbit mega- 
seme. 

Glabella very thick and gorilla-like, approaching No. 4 of Broca's 

* Flower, Cat. Coll. Surg. i. p. sviii. 



8 COLLECTIONS FEOM MELANESIA. 

scale. Inion long and recurved, between Nos. 4 and 5. Su- 
tures all very simple, in marked contrast to those of the next 
specimen. Zygomata very prominent. Squamosals widely 
separated from frontal. 

5. Skull of Mallicollo Islander, New Hebrides. 

Female. Adult. 

Length 173 ; gl. occ. 178. Breadth 135. Height 134. Maxi- 
mum frontal breadth 101 ; minimum frontal breadth 95. 
Horizontal circumferences — preauricular '21*, total 488. 
Transverse arcs — frontal 252, bregmatic 293, parietal 336. 
Longitudinal arcs — frontal 134, parietal 137, occipital 104. 
Foramen magnum — length 34, width 29. Basinasal length 
90. Basialveolar length 91. Bizygomatic breadth 129. Height 
of — face 82, malar 19, alveolus 16. Auriculo-orbital length 61. 
Orbit— width 36, height 33. Nasal height 42, width 24. 
Maxilla — length 50, breadth 60. 

Mandible — bicondylar width 116, bigoniac width 97, symphysial 
height 25, molar height 21, coronoid height 56, gonio-sym- 
physial length 81. Bamus — height 49, antero-posterior breadth 
33. Bigoniac arc 177. 

Indices — latitudinal 78-0, altitudinal 77'5, frontal 70*4, gnathic 
101-1, orbital 91-7, nasal 57'1. 

Subdolichocephalic, mesognathous, platyrhine ; orbit megaseme. 

Glabella about No. 1. Nasal spine No. 3. No inion. 

Occipital prominent, lambdoid suture full of large Wormian bones. 
Epipteric bones on both sides. Auditory meatus flattened and 
oval-shaped, evidently owing to pressure applied to the man- 
dible. 

These two last specimens, presented to Dr. Coppingerby Mr. Boyd, 
of Ovalau, show the artificially produced absence of forehead and 
general depression of the frontal and prominence of the parietal and 
occipital regions characteristic of Mallicollo skulls, and described 
by Prof. Busk in the ' Journal of the Anthropological Institute ' *. 
Prof. Flower has also figured some monumental heads from the same 
island, showing a similar artificial deformity f. 

6. Skull of Banks Islander. 

Young. Basilar suture open and wisdom teeth still hidden in the 
bone. 

" Merilaval, Banks group ; presented by Mr. Boyd, of Ovalau." — 
11. W. U. 

Length 170, gl. occ. 172. Breadth 124. Height 133. Maxi- 
mum frontal breadth 108 ; minimum frontal breadth 89. 
Horizontal circumferences — preauricular 230, total 47 0. Trans- 

* vi. p. 200, pis. ix.-xii. (1877). 
t J. A. I. xi. p. 85, pi. vi. (1882). 

J Also spelt " Meralaba " (Whitmee, J. Anthr. Inst, viii., map facing p. 261 : 
1878). 



MAMMALIA. 9 

verse arcs — frontal 270, bregmatic 291, parietal 313, occipital 
260. Longitudinal arcs — frontal 130, parietal 111, occipital 
112. Foramen magnum — length 34, breadth 29. Basin aaal 
length ( J7. Basialveolar length 91. Bizygomatic breadth 120. 
Height of — face 80, malar 17, alveolus 17. Auriculo-orbital 
length GO. Orbit— width 36, height 34. Nasal height 51, 
width 22. Maxilla — length 50, width 62. 

Mandible — bicondylar width 1 L0, bigoniac width 72, symphysial 
height 27, molar heighl 23, coronoid height 54, gonio-symphy- 
sial length 82, condylo-coronoid length 33. Bigoniac arc 175. 

Indices — latitudinal 72-9, altitudinal 78 - 2, gnathic 93 - 8, orbital 
94-4, nasal 43-1. 

Lambdoid suture unusually complicated, with numerous Wormian 
bones. 

7. Skull of Banks Islander. 

Still younger than 6. 

" Merilava, Banks group ; presented by Mr. Boyd, of Ovalau." — 
B. W. C. 

Length 163 ; gl. occ. 166. Breadth 123. Height 124. Maxi- 
mum frontal breadth 98 ; minimum frontal breadth 92. 
Total circumference 455. Transverse arcs — frontal 242, breg- 
matic 267, parietal 300, occipital 244. Foramen magnum — 
length 32, breadth 27. Basinasal length 84. Basialveolar 
length 81. Bizygomatic breadth 111. Auriculo-orbital length 
57. Orbit— width 33, height 32. Nasal height 36, width 23. 
Maxilla — length 44, width 55. 

Mandible — bicondylar width 100, symphysial height, 21, coronoid 
height 45, gonio-symphvsial length 69, condylo-coronoid 
length 23. 

Indices — latitudinal 75 - 5, altitudinal 76*1, gnathic 96*4, orbital 
97*0, nasal 63-9. 

These, two Banks-Island skulls are of great interest, as showing 
a distinct tendency towards (probably a youthful stage of) the arti- 
ficial deformity noticed in the Mallicollo skulls, and hitherto sup- 
posed to be peculiar to the natives of that island. The present 
specimens, however, prove that the flattening process is also prac- 
tised to a certain extent in the neighbouring island of Merilava. 

8. Calvaria of Fijian. 

Male. Middle-aged. Coronal suture nearly closed. 

" From an old tumulus near the village of Buretta, Ovalau." — 
B. W. C. 

Length 197; gl. occ. 200. Breadth 132. Height 141. Maximum 
frontal breadth 114, minimum 103. Horizontal circumferences 
— preauricular 250, total 542. Transverse arcs — frontal 312, 
bregmatic 318, parietal 327, occipital 280. Longitudinal arcs — 
frontal 130, parietal 152, occipital 120. Basinasal length 109. 



10 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

Indices — latitudinal 67"0, altitudinal 71*6, frontal 78-0, Ste- 
phanie 90-4. 
Dolichocephalic and hypsicephalic. 
Glabella not prominent, No. 2 of Broca's scale. Inion No. 1. 

This skull has unfortunately lost all the bones of the face ; but 
nevertheless tho conformation of the brain-case is such as to show its 
near relationship to the pure Melanesians of Viti Levu, agreeing very 
closely with the male " Kai Colo " skulls described by Prof. Flower. 
The forehead is slightly broader than in any of his specimens (103 
against 99 millim.), and the altitudinal index is somewhat lower 
(70*5 against 72 - 2). Otherwise the present skull agrees with Prof. 
Mower's figures and description. 

9. Cranium of Fijian. 

Female. Middle-aged. Posterior teeth lost during life. 

" Kai Colo, from cave at Livoni, Ovalau, Fiji." — R. W. C. 

Length 175; gl. occ. 175. Breadth 121. Height 130. Maxi- 
mum frontal breadth 100, minimum 83. Horizontal circum- 
ferences — preauricular 218, total 475. Transverse arcs — frontal 
274, bregmatic 281, parietal 294, occipital 245. Longitudinal 
arcs — frontal 123, parietal 128, occipital 110. Foramen mag- 
num — length 32, breadth 26. Basinasal length 93. Basi- 
alveolar length 95. Bizygomatic breadth 117. Height of face 
81, malar 19*2, alveolus 11. Auriculo-orbital length 68. Orbit 
— width 36, height 32. Nasal height 46, width 25. 

Indices — latitudinal 69*1, altitudinal 74*3, frontal 68*6, Stephanie 
83-0, gnathic 102-2, orbital 88-9, nasal 5±-3. 

Dolichocephalic, hypsicephalic, mesognathous ; orbit just below 
megaseme ; and platyrhine. 

Glabella low, No. 1 of Broca's scale. Parietal eminences prominent. 

This cranium is interesting as belonging to one of the " Kai 
Colos," or pure-blooded mountaineers of Fiji, whose cranial charac- 
ters have been fully worked out by Prof. Flower (J. Anthr. Inst. 
x. p. 153: 1881). It agrees very closely with the skulls from Viti 
Levu described by that author, most of the actual dimensions and 
indices coming within the very narrow limitsof variation found by him 
in his five female Kai Colos. The forehead, however, is very much 
narrower than usual, the minimum frontal diameter being, as given 
above, only 83 millim., with a frontal index of 68*6 (Broca, Instr. 
Cran. p. 172), while Prof. Flower's five female Kai Colos average 
for these numbers 94 millim. and 77 - p. c, the lowest breadth 
being 89 millim. and the lowest index 75-0. 

" The Kai Colos were the old hill-inhabiting tribes of Fijians, and 
were distinct from the coast-tribes, with whom they were frequently 
at war. Their power was broken by the renowned Fijian chief 
' Cacobau,' now dead. Livoni, in Ovalau Island, was one of their 
strongholds, where these skulls were found by Mr. M'Corkill, a 
settler, who presented them to me." — B. W. C. 



11 



BIRDS. 

BY 

R. BOWDLER SHARPE. 



The birds were obtained in the islands of Torres Straits, at Port 
Molle and Port Curtis in Queensland, and at Port Darwin in North- 
western Australia. In the following notes the references to other 
works bave been limited to the ' Catalogue of Birds in the British 
Museum,' as far as this work is published, and to Mr. Ramsay's 
useful list of Australian birds (Proc. Linn. Soc. X. S. W. vol. ii. 
pp. 177-203), where the best illustration of their geographical 
distribution is to be found. 

1. Cerchneis cenchroides (F. § H.). 

Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mm. i. p. 431. 

Tinnunculus cenchroides, Ramsay, Pr. Linn. Soc. N. S. TV. ii. p. 177. 

a. Port Denison, May 1881. 

2. Ninox peninsrdaris, Salvad. 

a. 5 . Thursday Island, Torres Straits. Bill yellow with black 
tip ; feet and iris yellow. 

The British Museum contains a good series of this apparently 
well-marked species, which differs from Ninox connivens by the 
rufous streaks on the lower parts. The following is a descrip- 
tion of Dr. Coppinger's specimen : — 

Adult female. General colour above dull sooty brown, darker on 
the head, which is blackish brown, forming a tolerably distinct cap ; 
scapulars brown like the back, with large white markings on the 
outer web, forming a continuous white line on each side of the 
back ; wing-coverts almost entirely uniform, with only here and 
there a spot of white, a little plainer on the outer web of the median 
and greater coverts, tbe latter of which are washed with pale rufous ; 
bastard-wing feathers and primary-coverts uniform sooty brown ; 
quills dark brown, barred on both webs with lighter brown, taking 
the form of whity-brown notches on the outer web ; inner secon- 
daries spotted with white on the outer and barred with white on 
their inner webs ; lower back and rump sooty brown, with more or 
less concealed spots of white ; upper tail-coverts deep brown : tail- 
feathers dark brown, plainly though narrowly barred and tipped 
with whity brown, these light bars being eight in number besides 
the terminal one ; lores, base of forehead, and plumes over the eye 



12 COLLKCTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

and round the fore and lower part of the latter white, with hair- 
like black shaft-lines ; ear-coverts dark brown ; chin and cheeks 
white, the hinder part of the latter streaked with dusky brown ; 
lower throat tinged with yellow and streaked with blackish centres 
to the feathers;' remainder of under surface white, slightly tinged 
with yellow and broadly streaked with dark brown on the fore neck 
and chest and with rufous-brown on the breast and abdomen; 
thighs and tarsal plumes yellowish, spotted with brown; under tail- 
coverts white, with a few heart-shaped spots near the end of the 
feather; axillaries and under wing-coverts deep yellowish buff, 
broadly streaked with chocolate-brown, the central markings more 
or less irregular in shape ; quills dusky brown, barred with white, 
somewhat ashy whitish on the quills, but very pure white on the 
lower series of under wing-coverts, which resemble the lower surface 
of the quills in appearance. Total length 15 inches, culmen 0-85, 
wing 10-2, tail 6*5, tarsus 1-45. 

3. Corvus coronoides, V. if H. 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iii. p. 20. 

a. £ ad. Port Molle, Queensland, ilay 1881. 

4. Oriolus flavicinctus {King). 

Sharpe, t. c. p. 206. 

Mimeta flavocincta, Ramsay, t. c. p. 188. 

a. $ . Port Darwin. Oct. 1881. Bill flesh-colour ; legs and feet 
slaty grey ; iris bright red. 
A smaller bird than the Cape-Tork examples (wing 5-2 inches), 
with rather a smaller alar speculum. The black centres to the 
feathers of the upper surface are wider, and the bird consequently 
appears darker ; but this is probably due to abrasion and wearing 
away of the plumage. 

5. Sphecotheres flaviventris, Gould. 
Sharpe, t. c. p. 225 ; Ramsay, t. c. p. 188. 
a, b. 2 • Thursday Island, Aug. 1881. Iris black. 

6. Chibia bract eata (Gould). 
Sharpe, t. c. iii. p. 236 ; Ramsay, t. c. p. 182. 

a, 6. d . Friday Island, Aug. 1881. 

c. cJ. Port Darwin, Oct. 1881. Iris orange-colour. 

7. Grallina picata {Lath.). 
Sharpe, t. c. p. 272 ; Ramsay, t. c. p. 180. 
a. jj . Port Curtis, April 1881. 



BrRDS. 



13 



8. Pinarolestes rufigaster {Gould). 

Sharpe, t. c. p. 296. 

Colluricincla rufigaster, Ramsay, t. c. p. 181. 

a. Thursday Island, June 10, 1881. 

9. Graucalus hypoleucus, Gould. 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iv. p. 36 ; Ramsay, t. c. p. 180. 

a. $ . Thursday Island, August 1881. 

10. Graucalus melanops (Lath.). 
Sharpe, t. c. p. 30 ; Ramsay, t. c. p. 180. 

a. S imra. Port Molle, Queensland, May 1881. 

b. 5 imrn. Thursday Island, July 1881. 

11. Lalage leucomelaena (V. Sf H.). 

Sharpe, t. c. p. 106. 

Campephaga leucomela, Ramsay, t. c. p. 181. 

a. $ ad. Friday Island, Sept. 1881. Iris dark brown ; bill black ; 

legs and feet dark grey. 

b. 5 juv. Thursday Island, July 1881. Iris black; bill black; 

legs and feet dark grey. 
Count Salvadori (Orn. Papuasia, ii. p. 163) separates the Aus- 
tralian form of this species from the Papuan, which he calls 
Lalaye Jcaru (Less.). This view seems to me to be correct, for the 
Papuan race appears to have less white on the wing-coverts and to 
be permanently barred below, whereas the adult male of the Aus- 
tralian Lalage is uniform on the under surface. 

12. Lalage tricolor (Swains.). 

Sharpe, t. c. p. 92. 

Campephaga hurneralis, Ramsay, t. c. p. 181. 

a. tf imm. Port Darwin, Oct. 24, 1881. 

13. Pseudogerygone magnirostris (Gould). 

Sharpe, t. c. p. 223. 

Gerygone magnirostris, Ramsay, t. c. p. 133. 

a. Thursday Island, Sept. 1881. 

14. Myiagra latirostris, Gould. 
Sharpe, t. c. p. 381 ; Ramsay, t. c. p. 182. 
a. J . West Island, Sept. 1881. 



14 COLLECTIONS FROM MF.LANESIA. 

15. Myiagra nitida, Gould. 
Sharpe, t. c. p. 375 ; Ramsay, t. c. p. 182. 
a. <S . Fitzroy Island, May 1881. 

1G. Myiagra rubecula (Lath.). 
Sharpe, t. c. p. 373 ; Ramsay, t. c. p. 182. 

a. 3 . Percy Island, April 1SS1. 

b. J. Port Molle, May 1881. 

17. Myiagra concinna, Gould. 
Sharpe, t. c. p. 374 ; Ramsay, t. c. p. 182. 

a. J. Booby Island, Aug. 31, 1881. 

b. $ • Booby Island, Aug. 1881. 

c. cJ. West Island, Sept. 1881. 

d. Friday Island, July 1881. 

e. cJ. Friday Island, Aug. 1881. 
/. Thursday Island, Sept. 1881. 

The differences between this species and M. rubecula are, to my 
mind, not satisfactorily established ; but until better specimens reach 
the British Museum from N.W. Australia (the habitat of the typical 
M. concinna) it will be difficult to settle the question. 

18. Rhipidura rufifrons (Lath.). 
Sharpe, t. c. p. 319 ; Ramsay, t. c. p. 182. 

a. d . Booby Island, Aug. 1881. 

19. Rhipidura tricolor (V.). 

Sharpe, t. c. p. 339. 

Sauloprocta motacilloides, Ramsay, t. c. p. 182. 

«, b, c. Port Curtis, April 1881. 
d. 2 • Port Darwin, Oct. 1881. 

20. Piezorhynchus nitidus, Gould. 
Sharpe, t. c. p. 410 ; Ramsay, t. c. p. 182. 

a. 2 • Horn Island, Torres Straits, Sept. 1881. Iris orange-red ; 

bill greenish grey ; legs and feet dark. 

b. 2- Thursday Island, Aug. 1881. Iris dark ; bill horn-colour, 

black at tip ; legs and feet grey. 

21. Piezorhynchus medius, sp. n. 

a. £. Tort Molle, May 1881. Iris black; bill light grey ; legs 
and feet dark. 



BIRDS. 15 

Agrees with P. trivirgatus of Timor in its black upper tail-coverts, 
which in the type specimens of P. gouldi are grey. 

In the 'Catalogue of Birds' (vol. iv. p. 419) I united Gould's 
Monarcha albiventris with Piezorhynchus gouldi, but 1 now believe 
that I was wrong in doing so. It may be a matter of opinion 
whether the three forms here alluded to are more than local races or 
subspecies ; but it is certain that the white-flanked individuals, P. 
albiventris (Gould), have the upper tail-coverts blackish, whereas in 
the rufous-flanked birds, P. gouldi (Gray), the tail-coverts are grey. 
Thus my " Key to the Species" (t. c. pp. 413, 414) will have to bo 
modified as follows : — 

a\ Upper tail-coverts black. 

a 6 . White ending to outer tail-feathers not 

exceeding an inch in length. 
b R . White ending to outer tail-feathers 10- 
1-2 inch. 
a 7 . Four outer tail-feathers white at the 

ends; black throat-stripe narrow .. trivirgatus. 
b 1 . Three outer tail-feathers white at the 
ends ; black throat-stripe broad. 
a 9 . Sides of body orange-rufous .... medhis. 

b s . Sides of body white albiventris. 

b". Upper tail-coverts grey ; sides of body 

orange-rufous gouldi. 

22. Cisticola exilis, Vig. Sf Horsf. 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vii. p. 269 ; Bamsay, t. c. p. 185. 

a. N. Australia (not labelled). 
A specimen in winter plumage. 

23. Cracticus nigrigularis {Gould). 

Gadow, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. viii. p. 95. 
Cracticus robustus, Ramsay, t. c. p. 180. 

a. 6 . Port Curtis, Queensland, April 1881. Iris black ; bill grey, 
with the tip black ; legs and feet black. 

24. Pachycephala melanura, Gould. 
Gadoio, t.c. p. 185; Ramsay, t.c. p. 181. 

a. 3 . West Island, Sept. 1881. 

b, c. (3 . Booby Island, Aug. 1881. 

I am unable to follow Dr. Gadow in his conclusions respecting 
P. melanura and its allies, P. clio, P. macrorhyncha, and P. obiensis, 
all of which he unites together as a single species. Count Salvadori 
has kept them distinct ; and their specific characters I have endea- 
voured to set forth in the following " Key ": — 



1G COLLECTIONS FR03I MELANESIA. 

a. Upper tail-coverts olive-yellow like the back ; 

outer aspect of secondaries distinctly grey; 

pectoral collar joined to ear-coverts melanura. 

b. Upper tail-coverts black ; outer aspect of secon- 

daries olive-yellow, with which they are mar- 
gined or washed externally. 

a'. Pectoral collar joined to ear-coverts clio. 

b'. Pectoral collar separated from ear-coverts. 
a". Upper surface olive-greenish ; wings ex- 
ternally washed with greenish grey .... macrorhyncha. 
b". Upper surface golden olive ; wings ex- 
ternally washed with the same colour . . obiensis. 

After having gone over the series in the British Museum, which 
likewise served as the basis of Dr. Gadow's studies, I regret that I 
must entirely disagree with him. He appears to me to have argued 
from immature specimens when he tries to show the variation of 
the species and attempts to prove that they run one into another. 
If it were possible to find in the same island examples of these Pa- 
chycephalm with the black breast-band united to the ear-coverts 
and others with this disunited, all being fully adult birds, then Dr, 
Gadow would have proved his point ; but this is exactly what does 
not take place, the difference in coloration being accompanied by a 
different habitat. It is not right to compare immature birds of one 
form with adults of another, because in their young stages all these 
species are unquestionably very difficult to distinguish apart ; but if 
fully adult birds are compared, I do not think there ought to be 
any difficulty in determining four distinct species. 

Again, with regard to his observations that the colouring of the 
upper tail-coverts " is of no specific importance," some attention 
must be given to the age and condition of the specimens. In 
the group with the upper tail-coverts black, it will be found that 
the basal ones are always more or less tipped with olive, and that 
it is the long ones which are black. If, therefore, • the latter are 
shot away, a superficial observer would jump at once to the conclu- 
sion that the upper tail-coverts are olive-yellow. Even in this case 
the yellow-washed quills (instead of grey) would enable one to dis- 
tinguish the P.-macrorhynclia group from P. melanura. Then, 
again, it would appear from moulting specimens that the upper tail- 
coverts when first grown have more olive-yellow on the margins 
than in the fully adult bird. Therefore in these PacJu/cephala', as 
in other birds, only fully plumaged specimens should be compared, 
if one is to understand the relations of the various species. 

There can be no doubt that the locality " Celebes " attached to 
the specimen from the Gould Collection is erroneous ; and Mr. 
Wallace has remarked on the absence of the genus in the above 
island, in the essay quoted by Dr. Gadow. 



BIRDS. 17 

2f>. Pachycephala ruiiventris (Lath.). 
Gadow, i . c, p. 208; Ramsay, t. c. p. L81. 

a. d . Port Darwin, October 1881. 

b. <$ . Port Darwin. October 1881. 

c. 2 • Port Molle, May 3, 1881. 

26. Ciiuiyris frenata {Mull.). 
Gadow, Cat. B. Brit. Mas. ix. p. 85 ; Ramsay, t. c. p. 191. 

a. tf . Prince of Wales Island, Aug. 1881. 

b. c. d ? ■ Thursday Island, July 11, 1881. 

27. Myzomela obscura, Gould. 
Gadow, t. c. p. 143 ; Ramsay, t. c. p. 190. 

a, b. rf . Thursday Island, Aug. 1881. 

c. $. Thursday Island, Aug. 1881. 

The following are the measurements of the sexes : — 





Total 












length. 


Culinen. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Tarsus 


6 ■■ 


.. 5-1 


. . 


2-75 


2-1 


0-7 


6 ■■ 


.. 4-8 


0-8 


2-6 


2-1 


0-75 


$•• 


.. 4-8 


0-7 


2-45 


2-0 


0-65 



I may supplement .Dr. Gadow's description of this species by re- 
marking that there are two distinct shades of colour observable in 
a series of the present species, the birds from Port Darwin and 
"Northern Territory " (ex Gould Coll.) being more mouse-coloured, 
and this is the form which is seen in South-eastern Xew Guinea. 
The specimens from Queensland, Cape York, and the islands of Torres 
Straits are browner, sometimes inclining to rusty brown. Another 
character which Dr. Gadow omits to mention is the blackish shade 
in the centre of the throat ; it is apparently a mark of an adult 
bird, and is not confined to one sex, but appears to be equally 
distinct in the female. 

28. Zosterops albiventer, Eekhenb. 

Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mas. ix. p. 164. 
Zosterops flavogtdaris, Ramsay, t. c. p. 191. 

a. $ . West Island, Torres Straits, Sept. 1881. Iris greyish 
brown ; bill dark brown ; legs and feet greyish brown. 

.. This species is very rarely seen in collections, and was for a long 
time known only from the figure in the ' Voyage au Pole Sud.' It 
was originally described from Warrior Island in Torres Straits, and 
appears to be a recognizable species. It seems to be the Z.jlavi- 
gularis of Masters (Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. i. p. 56), described from 

c 



]8 COLLECTIONS FKOM MELANESIA. 

different islands in Torres Straits, one of the localities mentioned by 
the last-named author being Warrior Island, whence the original 
type of Z. albiventris came. 



29. Zosterops lutea, Gould. 

Sharpe, t. c. p. 183; Ramsay, t. c. p. 191. 

a. 2 ■ Port Darwin, Oct. 1 88 1 . Bill horn-colour ; legs grey. 

This specimen is rather duller in colour than a male from 
Cape York, and much paler yellow below, this brighter colour 
being probably due to sex, as the Cape-York bird is evidently 
an adult male. The female measures: — Total length 4-1 inches, 
culmenO-45, wing 2*2, tail 1-65, tarsus 0-6. 

30. Manorhina garrula {Lath.). 

Gadow,t. c. p. 260. 

Myzantha garrula, Ramsay, t. c. p. 191. 

a. $ . Port Curtis, Queensland, April 1881. 
6. tf. Port Curtis, April 1881. 

Young birds are washed on the back with olive-yellow, and are 
much darker above and below, not showing the whitish bars at the 
tips of the mantle- feathers. 

31. Stigniatops ocularis (Gould). 

Ramsay, t. c. p. 189. 

Glyciphila ocularis, Gadoiv, t. c. p. 213. 

a. J. Percy Island, April 1881. 



32. Stigniatops subocularis, Gould. 

Ramsay, t. c. p. 189. 

( rlyciphila subocularis, pt., Gadow, t. c. p. 215. 

a. J- P° r t Darwin, Xov. 1881. Pill, legs, and feet black. 

Dr. Gadow has united the present species to S. ocularis, and con- 
siders that intermediate forms occur between them. This I do 
not find from an examination of the series in the British Museum, 
for I have found no difficulty in referring the specimens either 
to one or the other of the above-named species. On the other 
hand, Count Salvadori seems to be quite right in uniting the Aru- 
[sland birds with the Australian, as they are only a little 
larger and somewhat darker in colour. He adds that the speci- 
mens marked Ptilotis limbata, Temm., from Timor, in the Leiden 
Museum, are also identical with the Australian S. ocularis. Timor 



BIRDB. 19 

specimens are certainly very closely allied to the latter, but have 
rather a clearer grey throat and a more pronounced cheek-stripo ; but 
in any caso it appoars to me better to place P. limbata in the genus 
Stigmatops, alon^ with its congener S. ocularis, and not to consider 
it a Ptilotis, as Dr. Gadow has done. His plate in the 'Catalogue' 
gives too much of a brown colour to the bird, and the orange spot 
behind the eye is too strongly pronounced. 

Nor can I agree with Dr. Gadow concerning his G. chloris, the 
only actual specimens of which in the British Museum are the two 
from Mysol, those from the Aru Islands and Lombock being true 
8. ocularis. 

33. Ptilotis notata, Gould. 

Gould, Ann. 3,- Mag. Nat. Hist. xx. p. 2G9 (1867) ; Ramsay, t. c. 

p. 189. 
Ptilotis analoga, pt., Gadow, t. c. p. 227. 

a. $ . Prince of Wales Island, Aug. 1881. 

b. 3 . Thursday Island, July 7, 1881. 

This is the species which Count Salvadori unites under the name 
of P. analoga (llcichenb.) in his ' Ornitologia della Papuasia ' 
(vol. ii. p. 327), and in all his identifications he is followed by 
Dr. Gadow, who even goes further than Count Salvadori in his 
suppression of species, and adds P. Jlavirictus of the latter author as 
a final offering to the manes of the dominant form, P. analoga. It 
seems doubtful, however, to me whether Dr. Gadow has really ever 
seen the true P. Jlavirictus of Count Salvadori, which is from the 
Fly River, the specimens which he supposes to belong to that species 
being from South-eastern New Guinea : Salvadori refers all his 
specimens from this part of the island to P. analoga. 

Putting aside the question of the length of bill, which certainly 
varies very much, even in specimens from the same locality, the 
shape of the ear-tuft ought not to be overlooked ; and we find that 
there are two distinct forms, the birds from Dorey, Mysol, and 
Waigiou having an elongated yellow ear-tuft. This is accompanied 
by a very Bulbul-like character, viz. a fluffy rump with strongly 
marked subtcrminal shades of blackish brown, the lateral feathers 
tipped with white, and reminding one of Pinarocichla or Polio- 
lophus. 

All specimens examined by me from other localities have a rounded 
yellow ear-tuft instead of a longitudinal one, and may be classed 
under three headings : — 1st. P. aruensis, nob. (Hab. Aru Islands), 
where the rump is mottled, as in the New-Guinea birds ; and 2nd, 
P. notata, Gould. The latter species embraces two forms, a large 
one and a small one (P. gracilis, Gould), the last-named being 
apparently only found in South-eastern New Guinea and the Cape- 
York Peninsula. Neither of the two forms of P. notata show the 
mottling on the rump of P. aruensis or P. analoga. 

I mav add that the specimens from Cape York, referred by the 

c2 



20 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

late Mr. Forbes to P. chrysotis (P. Z. 8. l s ?s, p. 124, and Report 
Vby. II. M.S. ' Challenger,' ii. p. 88) really belong to P. notata. 

34. Ptilotis lewinii, Swains. 
Ramsay, t. e. p. l v< .»: Gadow, t. c. p. 229. 
c» 6. Port Molle, Queensland, May 1881. 

35. Ptilotis fasciogiilaris, (?ewZd. 

Gould, I'. Z. S. 1851, p. 285; Ramsay, t. c. p. 189; Gadow, t. c. 
p. 240. 

«. $ . Port Curtis, Queensland, April 1881. 

36. Ptilotis flava, Gould. 
'Ramsay, t. c. p. 189 ; Gadow, t. c. p. 246. 

a. § . Port Denison, Queensland, May 1881. 

37. Ptilotis unicolor, Gould. 

Gadow, t. c. p. 249. 

Storuiopera unicolor, Ramsay, t. e. p. 189. 

a. J ad. Port Darwin, Nov. 2, 1881. 



38. Philemon argentiiceps (Gun Id). 
Ramsay, t. c. p. 190; Gadow, t. c. p. 272. 

a. d . Port Darwin, Oct. 1881. 

39. Philemon buceroides, Swains. 
Ramsay, t. c. p. 190 ; Gadow, t. c. p. 272. 

a. 5 . Thursday Island, Torres Straits, July 1881. 

4u. Philemon citreogularis {Gould). 
Ramsay, t. c. p. 190; Gadow, t. c. p. 277. 

a. d . Port Curtis, Queensland, April 1881. 

b. 2 • Port Darwin, Oct. 1881. 

1 1 would senn that the yellow throat is strictly peculiar to the 
\nuii-, and is accompanied l>y an absence of the white linear tufts 
to the breast-feathers. The latter are often assumed, however, 
before the yellow on the throat has disappeared. 



BIRD3. 2 1 

41. Dicaeum hirundinaceum, Shaw, 
Ramsay, t. c. p. 191. 

a, b. $ . Thursday [aland, July 1881. 
c. $. Port Darwin, October 1881. 

42. Petrochelidon nigricans ( V.). 
Hylochelidon nigricans, Ramsay, t. c. p. 179. 

a. S ad. Port Molle, Queensland, May 1881. 

43. Donacicola castaneothorax, Goitld. 
Donacola castaneothorax, Ramsay, t. c. p. 187. 

a,b. rf . Port Darwin, Nov. 1881. 

c. 3 . Port Darwin. Oct. 1881. 

d, e. 2 • P° rt Darwin, Oct. 1881. 
/. d- West Island, Oct. 1881. 

g. <$. Thursday Island, June 1881. 
h, i, Jc, 1. Thursday Island, July 1831. 

44. Artanms leucorhynchus (L.). 
Artamus leucopygialis, Ramsay, t. c. p. 179. 

a. 3 . Port Denison, May 1881 . 

b. 2 • P° rt Darwin, Nov. 1881. Iris brown. 

45. Pitta simillima, Gould. 
Ramsay, t. c. p. 187. 

a. 3 • West Island, Sept. 1881. 

46. Merops ornatus, Lath. 
Ramsay, t. c. p. 179. 

a. ? . West Island, Oct. 1881. 

b. 2 • Prince of Wales Island, Aug. 21, 1881. 

47. Dacelo gigas (Bodd.). 
Ramsay, t. c. p. 179. 

a. 3 . Port Curtis, Queensland, April 1881. 

48. Dacelo leachii, Vig. $ II. 

Ramsay, t. c. p. 179. 

a, 5 . Possession Island, Endeavour Strait. July 1881. Bill 
brown ; legs and feet grey ; iris red. 



22 COLLECTIONS PROM MELANESIA. 

This interesting specimen is not easy to determine, beiug in size 
like D. cervinus and in colour like D. leachii. As I endeavour 
to show below, those species, however, run into each other so 
much that it is impossible to define the exact characters of 
each. 

Since I wrote my ' Monograph of the Kingfishers,' our knowledge 
of the great Laughing Jackasses of Australia has not been much 
increased. The rango of true Dacelo has been extended to South- 
eastern New Guinea, where Dacelo intermedins of Salvador! replaces 
D. cervinus of the Australian continent ; but otherwise the number 
of species in Australia has remained the same as it was on the com- 
pletion of that work. 

A comparison, however, of the large series of Laughing King- 
fishers now in the British Museum raises great doubts in my mind 
as to the validity of some of the species admitted by me up to 1871 ; 
and I therefore add a few notes on the birds now before me. 

The chief difference between D. cervinus and D. leachii is supposed 
to consist in the smaller size, the buff-coloured breast, and the blue 
outer web of the external tail-feather of the former. It seems to me 
now that this last is a character of no value ; for it is evident that 
the young males commence with a rufous tail like the old females, 
and that they gain their blue tails by the gradual expansion of the 
blue cross bands, which unite by degrees until the whole tail becomes 
uniform blue. Thus there arrives a time in the development of the 
tail when the outer web of the tail-feather has not quite lost its 
bars before becoming uniform, and thus the barring of the tail, con- 
sidered to be a specific difference between D. cervinus and D. leachii, 
is of very little importance. As regards the other characters, we 
shall see what they are worth ; and in order to trace the develop- 
ment of the species, I add a description of a young D. cervinus : — 

Nestling. General colour above dark brown, with scarcely per- 
ceptible lighter brown edges to the feathers of the mantle and 
scapulars ; least wing-coverts brown like the back ; median and 
greater series brown, tipped with pale verditer-blue or light greenish 
cobalt ; bastard- wing brown, washed with blue ; primary-coverts 
blackish, externally greenish blue ; quills blackish, externally deep 
blue, greener on the primaries, which are white near the bases of 
both webs ; the secondaries edged with white at the tips, the inner 
ones brown like the back ; lower back and rump pale silvery cobalt ; 
upper tail-coverts bright rufous, barred with black ; tail-feathers 
bright rufous, paler at the ends, barred with dark blue, these 
blue bands margined above and below with black, the bands 
broader near the base and narrower towards the ends ; the blue 
bands at the base of the middle feathers already coalescing into one 
uniform blue base ; head nearly uniform dark brown, the feathers 
broadly centred with blackish, the edges somewhat mottled with 
reddish-brown markings ; the nape lighter, the crest- feathers being 
whiter, with narrow dark-brown centres ; bind neck clear fulvous, 
with more or less distinct zi^zns: cross linos of brown ; lores tawny 
buff, as also the feathers below the eve, the latter with blackish 



JUKI'S. _ [ 

shaft-streaks : ear-coverts dusky brown ; cheeks clear fulvous, with 
central streaks of light brown, Wreaking up into irregular cross lines 
on some of the feathers ; throat and fore neck white, with irregular 
zigzag cross lines of light brown ; remainder of under surface of body 
clear fulvous, crossed with zigzag lines of brown ; under tail-coverts 
uniform and deeper buff ; axillarics like the breast and barred across 
in the same manner; under wing-coverts whiter and crossed distinctly 
with blackish bars, broader and forming a distinct patch on the 
median lower coverts near the edge of the wing. 

The above description is taken from a young male shot near Port 
Essington. 

An old bird, with more than half his tail-feathers blue, has his 
plumage very much abraded and the crest-feathers reduced to 
hair-like brown plumes. The blue ends to the wing-coverts are 
almost entirely worn off ; but on the breast he is replacing his 
faded plumage by a clean moult, the new feathers being very 
broadly centred with blackish ; the under surface of the body is 
dirty buff, with brown zigzag cross bars, becoming less distinct on 
the throat. 

Compared with young birds, the old D. cervina are very much 
paler buff below and less distinctly barred underneath, the collar 
round the hind neck is nearly uniform, with scarcely any remains 
of zigzag cross-barring, while the head and crest are whit© or 
buffy white, streaked with brown down the centre of the feathers ; 
but the whole head is distinctly streaked, instead of being uniform 
brown as in the young birds. The cobalt-blue on the shoulders is, 
of course, much more brilliant aud more developed than in the 
young ones. 

The mode in which the barring on the under surface becomes 
less and the head more streaked is well shown in an immature male 
bird, which has the head losing its uniformity for the streaked 
stage, and yet retains the rufous upper tail-coverts of the immature 
stage, while the tail is only half overshaded with blue. 

The differences between the young and old specimens of Dacelo 
cervinus seem to me perfectly comprehensible ; but the relations of 
D. leachii and D. occidentalis are not so clear. There is consider- 
able variation in length of wing throughout the whole series. 
All our specimens of D. leachii have more or less remains of their 
old rufous-barred tail, but they are all completing their change to 
the uniform blue tail, and consequently the outer feathers are in 
more or less irregularly blue-banded stages ; but every proof is fur- 
nished that the outer feather will become perfectly blue, like the 
corresponding stage in D. ct rvinus, so that the character of the barred 
outer tail-feather will not hold. 

Undoubtedly D. leachii is a larger and more powerful bird than 
D. cervinus. It is often similarly fulvous on the breast ; but the 
zigzag bars are coarser and are continued higher up on the throat, 
as well as being strongly developed on the collar round the hind 
neck. The older the bird becomes, however, it is evident that, as in 
D. cervinus, the cross-markings on these parts become more and more 



2 I COI,r.K(THi\s I'KOM Mi:i.\M>l\. 

obsolete, and there is no difference between the two species excepting 
the larger size and whiter under surface of D. leachii. 

The fcypeB of />. occidentalis from the Gould Collection are now 
in the Museum ; and for the same reason that I dismissed the 
barred outer tail-feather as' a character for separating!), leachii from 
D. cervinus, 80 1 must refuse to consider it a mark of distinction 
between D.cervinus and D. occidentalis. The nearly imiform colora- 
tion tit tlir under surface is a much more peculiar feature ; but in 
the female there are some zigzag markings on the flanks. That this 
uniform under surface is somewhat accidental is proved by the fact 
tli.it none of Dr. Elsey's specimens in the British Museum, procured 
in the same locality as .Mr. Gregory's birds, are entirely without 
cross bars below. 

In the species from South-eastern New Guinea the appearance of 
cross bars on the under surface seems to be the exception and not 
the rule, the collar round the hind neck being also perfectly uni- 
form. As with the Australian species, the cross bars are a sign of 
immaturity, being accompanied by a more uniform brown head. 

It would appear therefore, from a consideration of the above 
series, that not one of the characters employed for the separation of 
these four Laughing Kingfishers is of permanent value. The barring 
of the tail-feathers must be set aside, being merely dependent upon 
age ; but taking D. cervinus as the central form or leading tvpe of 
the blue-tailed Jackasses of Australia, we find that eastwards (in 
Queensland) it varies to the extent of becoming a larger bird, whiter 
underneath, and always more or less barred on the under surface, 
the throat included (D. leachii). In the western part of its range the 
bird has a tendency to become uniform underneath (D. occid\ ntalis) ; 
but this may be due to the bleaching effect of the climate, and it is 
evident that D. intermedins can only be looked upon as another pale 
race, being led up to by the western specimens of D. cervinus. 



49. Halcyon sanctus ( V. Sf H.). 
Ramsay, t. c. p. 170. 

o, b. $ . Thursday Island, Aug. 7, 1881. 
c. 3 ■ Thursday Island, July 1, 1881. 

50. Halcyon macleayi, J. 4' 8. 
Ramsay, t.c. p. 170. 

a. tf. Thursday Island, Aug. 1881. 

51. Halcyon sordidus (Gould). 

Ra?nsa;/, f. r. p. 170. 
n. 2 • Port Darwin, Nov. 1881. 



BIRDS. 



25 



52. Centropus phasianus (Lath.). 
Ramsay, t. e. p. 192. 

a. $ . Possession Island, Endeavour Strait, July 1881. 

b. 2. Port Molle, Queensland. May L881. 

53. Cacatua galerita (La (h.). 

Gould, Handh. Ti. Austr. ii. p. 2. 
Plyctolophus galerita, Ramsay, t. c. p. 192. 

a. 9. Hammond Island. Torres Straits, Aug. 1381. 

54. Trichoglossus novse hollandi.o (Gm.). 
Ramsay, t. c. p. 104. 

a. $ . Prince of Wales Island, July 1881. 

b. 3. Port Molle, May 1SSI. 

55. Trichoglossus chlorolepidotus (Kufd). 
Ramsay, t. c. p. 195. 

a. 2 ac ^- P° rr Curtis, Queensland, April 1881. 

5G. Macropygia phasianella, Temm. 
Ramsay, t. c. p. 196. 
a. 2 • Port Molle, Queensland, May 1881. 

57. Geopelia humeralis (Temm.). 
Erythrauehena humeralis, Ramsay, t. c. p. 196. 

a. 3 . Port Curtis, Queensland, April 1881. Iris bright yellow. 

b, c. 3. Horn Island, Torres Straits. Ins red. 

(I. 3 . Thursday Island, June 10, 1881. Cere purplish red. 
e. 2. Friday Island, July 16, 1881. Iris yellow. 

58. Geopelia tranquilla, Gould. 
Ramsay, t. r. p. 196. 

a. $ . Port Curtis, Queensland, April 1881. Iris dark. 

b. 3 . Port Darwin, Xov. 1881. 

59. Ptilopus swainsoni, Govld. 

Gould, Handb. B. Austr. ii. p. 106 ; Ramsay, t. c. p. 195. 

a. 3 ad. Port Molle, May 1881. Iris light yellow: bill green; 
legs and feet grey. 






26 COLLECTIONS FROM MEI.AX1- \. 

b. 2 imm. Port Molle, May 1881. Legs and feet greenish grey. 

c. 2 JUV. Port Molle, May L881. Legs and feet red; bill black. 

d. Pull. Thursday Island. July 1881. Bill, legs, and feet black; 

iris blown. 

e. d" juv. Prince of "Wales Island. Aug. 1881 . Iris reddish orange; 

bill greenish black : legs and feet olive-brown. 
/. £ ad. Booby [aland, Aug. L881. Soft parts as in preceding. 
g. 6 juv. Booby Island, Aug. 1881. Legs and feet greenish grey. 

The veiy interesting series collected by Dr. Coppinger ranges from 
the tiny nestling to the fully adult bird. The age of a specimen is 
easily determined by its under tail-coverts, which are yeUow in the 
immature birds and deepen into rich orange in the adult ones. It 
will be noticed that young birds were found, both in May and 
Lugust, just beginning to put on the bright plumage of the breast ; 
those killed in August are getting the rose-coloured crown. This 
either shows that the breeding-times are not identical in Torres 
Straits and at Port Molle, or that more than one brood is reared in 
the year. 

60. Megapodius dnperreyi, / 

Oustalet, Bib!. Hautes Etudes, xxii. p. 17 (1881). 

_.ipodiu> assiuiilis. Masters ; Ramsay, t. c. p. 100. 

a. 2- Prince of Wales Island, Torres Straits, Aug. 1881. Bill 
reddish brown, with yellow edges : legs bright orange ; iris 
light reddish brown ; scales of toes dark reddish brown. 

6. cf . Booby Island, Aug. 1881. Iris dark brown. 

M. Oustalet. who has recently written a monograph of the Meg i- 
podes. unites M. tumulus of Australia and M. assimilis of Masters 
with the well-known M. duperreyi : and on looking over the series 
in the British Museum, I confess that his opinion seems to be well 
founded. 

61. E alius philippensis, L. 
Hypotsnidia philippeusis, Ramsmj, t. c. p. L99. 
a. J. Channel Bock, June 1>H. Iris red. 



62. Porphyrio melanonotns, Temm. 
Ramsay, t. c. p. 199. 
«. $. Booby Island. Aug. 1 SSI. Iris bright orange-red. 

63. iEsacus magnirostris (Gcoffr.). 
Ramsay, t. r. p. L96. 
a. $ . Port Molle, Queesland. 



BIRDS. 



27 



64. Haernatopus longirostris, V. 
Ramsay, t. c. p. 197, 
a. 2 • Wednesday Island, July 1881. Iris deep orange ; eyelid 
red. 

65. JEgialitis mongolicus (Pall.). 

Ramsay, t. c. p. 107. 

a, b. 2 • Channel Bock, June L v% - 1 . 
c. $. Por t Molle, May 1881. 

66. Charadrius fulvus {Gm.). 
Ckaradrius longipes, Ramsay, t. c. p. 197. 

a. 2 • Suva, Fiji. Oct. 12, 1380. 

b. Tongatabu, Nov. 1880. 

67. Totanus incanus, Om. 
Totanus brevipes, Ramsay, t. c. p. 197. 
a. 2 ■ West Island, Torres Straits, Sept. 1881. 

68. Larus novae hollandiae, Steph. 
Ramsay, t. c. p. 201. 

a. o ad. Thursday Island, July 1881. Iris white : eyelid red. 

b. 2 ad. Thursday Island, Aug. 1881. Iris light grey ; eyelid 

orange ; bill blood-red, with dark tips ; legs and feet orange- 
red. 

c. 6 juv. Thursday Island. Iris dark ; bill dark horn-colour ; 

legs and feet grey, with black claws. 

d. Pull. Channel Rock. June 18 SI. Iris brown; bill horn-colour ; 

legs and feet light brown. 

69. Anons stolidus (£.). 

Sharpe, Rep. Tram. Venus, Birds, p. 9; Saunders, P. Z. S. 1876, 

p. 669 ; Ramsay, t. c. p. 202. 

a. 6. Torres Straits, Oct. 4, 1881. 

70. Sterna bergii, Licht. 

Saunders, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 657 ; Ramsay, t. c. p. 201. 

a. 2 • Tongatabu, Nov. 1 - E 

6. 2. Suva. Fiji, Oct. 12, 1880. 

c. 2 ■ Port Molle, Queensland, May 1881. 

d, e. 6 juv. Port Denison, Queensland, April 1881. 



28 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.. 

71. Sterna dougalli, Mont. 

Saunders, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 652 ; Ramsay, t. c. p. 201. 

a. tf juv. Channel Rock, Torres Straits, June 1881. 

A very interesting specimen of the Roseate Tern in young plum- 
age. It has been identified, like the other Terns, by Mr. Howard 
Saunders. 

72. Sterna caspia, Pall. 
Ramsay, t. c. p. 201 . 
a. 2 • Channel Rock, June 1881. 

73. Sterna ansestheta (Scop.). 
Saunders, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 664 ; Ramsay, t. c. p. 201. 

a. $ juv. Off Booby Island, Torres Straits, Aug. 16, 1881. Bill 

and feet black ; iris lead-colour. 

b. c? ad. Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Straits, Sept. 1881. 

74. Nycticorax caledonicns (Lath.). 
Ramsay, t. c. p. 199. 

a. 8 . Thursday Island, June 1881. Iris orange-colour ; space 
round eyes greenish yellow. 

75. Demiegretta sacra (Gm.). 
Ramsay, t. c. p. 199. 
a. <S . Thursday Island, June 1881. Iris yellow. 

76. Butorides javanica (IlorsfX 

Ramsay, t. e. p. 199. 

a. 2- Thursday Island, June 1881. Legs and feet yellow ; iris 
yellow. 

77. Microcarbo melanoleucus (V.). 

Salvad. Orn. Papuasia etc. iii. p. 410. 
Graculus melanoleucus, Rams/n/, t. c. p. 203. 

a. 2 ad. Horn Island. Torres Straits. Sept. I SSI. Iris dark : 
bill and throat olive-green ; legs and feet dark olive-green. 



29 



R E P T I L I A , BATKACHIA, 

AND 

PISCES. 

Br 
ALBERT GUNTHER. 



The Reptiles collected iu Torres Straits bolong to the following 
species : — 

Chelonia viridis. Varanus gouldii (Thursday Isl.), Varanus 
timorensis (Thursday aud Prince of Wales Isls.), Varanus prasinus 
(New Guinea), Lialis btirtoaii (Thursday Isl.), Qymnodactylm 
platurus (Pt. Curtis). 

Of Diemenia torquata, a Snake hitherto known from a single 
example only, a second specimen was obtained in Queensland. 

Two species of Tree-Fkogs were obtained — the common and 
widely spread Hyla ccerulea on Thursday Isl., and the allied Hijla 
dolichopsis in New Guinea. 

The collection of Fishes comprised fifty species, the majority of 
which were previously known to inhabit this district of the Indo- 
Pacific. Those to which the greatest interest is attached are two 
species of Branckiostoma ; three Teleosteans seem to be undescribed. 

Trachynotus coppingeri. (Plate III. tig. A.) 

1 A O I 1 



D-0|£. A. 2 | 



23' 



The height of the body is a little less than one half of the total 
length (without caudal), the length of the head is contained thrice 
and three fourths in it. Scales very conspicuous, arranged above 
and below the lateral line in a regular series, which is composed of 
about 85 scales. The suout is rather longer than the eye, and less 
obtuse than in the typical species of the genus. The eye is 
situated far below the upper profile of the head, and two ninths of 
the length of the head. Cheeks covered with minute scales ; the 
remainder of the head scaleless. Dorsal and anal lobes produced, 
pointed, but not extending to the posterior end of the fins ; caudal 
lobes long, two fifths of the length of the body. Uniform silvery ; 
fins greyish. 

A single specimen, 6 inches long, was obtained at Percy Island on 
the coast of Queensland. 



«'iO COLLECTIONS FROM MELANE8IA. 

Syngnathus trachypoma. 
D. 21. Osseous rings 18 + 33. 

Allied to <S. grayi. Base of the dorsal fin elevated. The length of 
the snout is two fifths of that of the head, its upper surface is armed 
with several spines ; forehead high, abruptly descending towards 
the snout. Eyes Large, with broad prominent supraciliaries which 
bear several dentieulations on their edges ; the space between the 
eyes is very broad and deeply concave. Occiput high, with large 
tubercles, the middle of which are arranged in a longitudinal crest. 
Operculum with radiating stria?, the upper and strongest of which is 
bent upwards. Humerus raised into a high prominence which, like 
all the surrounding scutes, is deeply pitted. Body not deeper than 
broad ; edges of the scutes prominent and strongly serrated. Tail 
not much longer than the body including the head. Vent below 
the middle of the dorsal fin, which stands on four rings. Caudal fin 
small. The prominent portions of the head, the upperside of the 
body and tail, and perhaps also the side of the trunk are provided 
with lacerated tentacles. No well-defined markings can be distin- 
guished, the coloration consisting of marbling of brown with 
mother-of-pearl patches. The tentacles are of the same colour as 
the body. 

One specimen was obtained at Thursday Island, two others at 
Prince of Wales Island. The dimensions of the lamest are : — 



1 &» 



Total length 50 lines. 

Length of tail 29 „ 

Length of head 7 „ 

Length of snout 2| „ 

Doryichthys serialis. (Plate III. fig. B.) 
D. 21. Osseous rings 14 + 20. 

This is a short species with a compressed body and short tail. 
The ridges are distinct, but slightly spinous on the tail only. 
Lateral line uninterrupted, passing into the lower ridge of the tail. 
Snout more than half as long as the head, straight ; eye of moderate 
size ; interorbital space narrow. Head half as long as the trunk ; 
bones of the head pitted and irregularly sculptured. Operculum 
with a very distinct straight ridge along its middle. Yent midway 
between the end of tho gill-cover and the root of the caudal, and 
behind the middle of the dorsal fin. Dorsal fin standing on six rings, 
four of which belong to the trunk. Caudal very short. Each side 
of the body is ornamented by two series of black dots, one series 
being above ar.d the other below the lateral line ; one pair of dots 
corresponds to each of the rings. Some other inconstant black dots 
are scattered about between the two series ; a black band runs 
through the eye from the upper end of the operculum along each 
side of the snout. 



riscLs. 31 

Two specimens were collected at Tort Mulle. Their dimensions 

are : — 

Total length 27 lines. 

Length of tail 11^ „ 

Length of head 5 „ 

Length of snout 2^ „ 

BKANCHIOSTOMA. 

The recent discovery of a second undoubtedly distinct species of 
Leptocardian on the coast of Australia (Epigonichihys cultellus) 
as well as the acquisition of several well-preserved examples, for 
which we are indebted to Dr. Coppinger, induced me to reexamine 
all the specimens in the British Museum, which, having been pre- 
served in spirit for a great many years, were by themselves not 
reliable evidence as to the question whether the European Lancelet 
is a cosmopolitan form, or represented by several distinct species in 
other parts of the globe. 

J. Midler (' Leber d. Bau d. Braiichioxtoiiia," p. 84) was unable to 
observe any differences between Brazilian and European specimens ; 
and I not only took the same view, but considered specimens from 
Indian and Australian localities to be referable to one species only. 

I have now convinced myself that this view (Cat. Eish. viii. 
p. 513) is incorrect, and that Sundevall was quite right in drawing 
attention to the number of myocommas as an excellent taxonomic 
character. This number can be ascertained even in specimens in 
an indifferent state of preservation, and varies very little ; whilst 
the extent in depth and length of the delicate fin which surrounds 
the posterior part of the tail is a much less reliable character, subject 
to much alteration by the spirit, if great care is not taken in the 
preservation of the specimens. 

The species of Branchiostoma would then be the following : — 

1. Branchiostoma elongaturn, 

Sundevall, CEfvers. Vet.-Akad. Forhandl. 1852, p. 147; and 1853, 
p. 12. 

Myocommas 49 + 18 + 12 = 79. 
Coast of Peru. 
Of this species I have not seen specimens. 

2. Branchiostoma bassanum. 

Myocommas 44 + 13 + 18=75, or 
43 + 15 + 17=75, or 
45 + 14 + 17=76. 

Body lower than in B. laaceolatum : dorsal and anal fins low, 
with the caudal portion slightly wider ; vent lateral ; (oral cirrhi 
10 + 11). 

These are the specimens from Bass-Straits which I formerly 
referred to B. lanceolatum. 



32 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

'A. Branchiostoma belcheri. 

Amphioxus belcheri, dray, P.Z.S. 1^47, p. 35. 
Branchiostoma belcheri, Gray, Chondropt. p. 150. 

Myocommas 37 + 14+13=64 (Borneo). 

;57 -j- 14 + 1 4 = 05 (Prince of "Wales IsL). 

This Lancelet is very similar to, but rather more elongate tban, 
/;. lanceokUum, and the "fins, instead of being dilated behind, gradually 
decrease in width towards the extremity of the tail. 

The specimens were collected partly by Sir E. Belcher during the 
cruise of 11. -M.S. 'Samarang' on the coast of Borneo, partly by 
Dr. Coppinger at Prince of Wales Island, Torres Straits. 

4. Branchiostoma caribaeurn. 
Sundevall, I. c. 1853, p. 12. 

Myocommas 37 + 14 + 9 = 60 (Sundevall). 
37+14 + 9 = 60. 
37 + 13+9=59. 

Distinguished from B. belcheri and lanceolatum by the shortness 
of its tail and by the attenuated form of the extremities of the body. 

St . Thomas ; Rio de Janeiro ; mouth of the Plate river. 

I am indebted for specimens of this species to the kindness of 
Prof. Ed. Van Beneden, who obtained them in great numbers 
in the Bay of Botafogo ; they arc the same species on which Moreau 
made his researches on the structure of the notochord (Bull. Ac. 
Boy. Belg. 1875, p. 312). The name of Amjjhioxus miilleri (Kroyer, 
MS.) was adopted for them : but, as this has never been described, 
it is doubtful wdiether the name was intended for this or some 
other species. 

5. Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Pall.). 

Myocommas 35 + 12+12=59 (Polperro). 

36 + 14 + 11 = 61 (Scandin., Sundevall). 
34 + 13 + 13=60 (Naples). 
35+12+13=00 (Naples)*. 

Coasts of Europe ; Atlantic coasts of North America. 

6. Branchiostoma cultellum. 
Epigonichthys cultellus, Peters, Perl. MB. 1876, p. 327 (c. fig.). 

Myocommas 32 + 10 + 10 = 52, or 
31 + 11 + 10=52. 

Anterior part of the dorsal fin high ; fin between branchial porus 

* I take tin- opportunity of correcting an prior on p. 63 of 'Study of 

Fishes,' where in fig. 28 the letters b and c have inadvertently been reversed. 



fishes. : '>: > 

and extremity of tail very rudimentary or partly absent. Vent in, 
or nearly in. the median line. 

Morcton Bay (Peters); Thursday [aland (Dr. Coppinger). 

In our specimens the tin occupying the median line between the 
branchial or abdominal pore and the caudal extremity is rather 
more distinct than would seem to have been the case in the specimens 
described and figured 1>\ Peters ; and consequently the position of 
the vent is, a1 Leasl in some of our specimens, rather lateral than 
median. Whether these differences are owing to the better stale of 
preservation of our specimens, or related to the difference of locality, 
1 am not prepared to decide; but assuming the latter to bethecasi . 
I should not consider t hem sufficient for specific distinction. Further, 
as our specimens show distinct traces of a postanal fin and a sub- 
lateral position of the vent, they clearly indicate that EpiyonicMhys 
cannot be maintained as a distinct genus. 



34 



M O L L U S C A. 

BY 

EDGAR A. SMITH. 



Witii the exception of Mr. John Brazier's report on the Mollusca 
of the ' Chevert ' expedition * there does not appear to have been 
published any work of importance treating exclusively on the forms 
of North and North-eastern Australia. Dr. Tapparone-Canefri has 
written a few papers on the fauna of Papua, and a large number of 
species have, at various times, been described in different works 
and periodicals by Reeve, A. Adams, Watson, and others, from Port 
Essington, Torres Straits, and the coast of Queensland. 

Many of the species found in this district range as far as, or even 
further north than, the Philippine Islands, and westward to Swan 
River, and, even in a few cases, to Ceylon and the Mauritius ; but 
the general character of the fauna may be regarded as Malayan, 
although many of the species appear to be limited in their distribu- 
tion and not as yet met with in the Archipelago. 



I. CEPHALOPODA. 

1. Octopus polyzenia. (Plate IV. figs. A-A 3. ) 

Gray, Cat. Cephal. Anteped. Brit. Jliis. p. 13.. 

Animal small (perhaps young), minutely and closely granulated 
upon the back of the body, head, arms, and connecting well ; the 
lower surface of the body, head, funnel, and web above it being more 
sparsely granulated. Body (in spirit) wider than long, rounded at 
the end, exhibiting a faint central ventral groove from the opening 
at the neck to the extremity. Head broad but narrower than the 
body, with a single papilla, near the upper hinder edge of the ocular 
opening. Arms not very long; three upper pairs subequal in 
Length, ventral pair rather longer. Lower surface and membrane 
between them very minutely granulous. Membrane between the 
arms extending about one third their length and also in a narrow 
strip up the side of them, but between the dorsal pair it is almost 
entirely wanting. Cups on the upper arms gradually decreasing in 
size from near the mouth to the extremity, on the three other pairs 
of alius enlarging gradually a- far as the sixth pair (these being 
nearly twice as large as any on the dorsal pair), and then gradually 

* Froc. Linn, fcioc. New South Wale*, vols. ii. and iii. 



MOLU'SCA. 35 

lessening in diameter towards the tips; about one hundred in 
number on the longest arms, rather prominent, especially the largest, 
alternating in two series, almost, if not quite, from the commence- 
ment. Length from end of the body to angle between the upper 
arms 20 milliin., width of body 13, length from subsiphonal open- 
ing to the extremity only 10 ; largest arm, from mouth to tip, 40 
millim. 

llab. Thursday Island, Torres Straits, 4-5 fathoms, sandy bottom 
Q Alert'); Tort Essington (B. Mus.). 

This species (in spirit) is of a pale dirty olive tint on the ventral 
surface and very much darker above. The inner surface of the 
anus is also light olive, the suckers having a brown hue. At first 
I was inclined to consider that this olive colour might be the result 
of staining by the juices of an Aplysia which was contained in the 
same bottle. On examining the type from Port Essington, which i 
had not an opportunity of doing when drawing up the above 
description, I find that the same colour prevails. 

2. Octopus tenebricus. (Plate IV. figs. B-B3.) 

Animal of a uniform dark purplish chocolate-colour. Body (in 
spirit) longer than wide, smooth, bearing upon the back and sides 
scattered cirri. Head as broad as the body, very prominent at the 
eyes, much constricted in front and behind in the cervical region ; 
also ornamented with a few tufts, the largest one being placed above 
but slightly behind eacli eye. A small one in front of each eye and 
a similar one just behind them appear to be constant in position ; 
these are simple elongate papillae, whilst the larger ones are branched. 
The web between the arms is rather small, externally papillose, and 
extends in a narrow strip up the back of the arms, forming a sort of 
acute carina. Upper or dorsal pair of arms smallest and shortest, 
the two lateral pairs about equal and the ventral only a trifle 
shorter, all gradually tapering to very fine points. Lower surfaces 
narrower, bearing two rows of very prominent suckers, of which the 
first four form a single series, the rest (about 120 on the longest 
arms) alternating in position. The first cup is very small, the next 
a trifle larger, and so on until about the tenth is reached, when they 
attain their greatest diameter, namely lj millim. ; this size is 
maintained a short distance up the arm, when the cups gradually 
diminish as the extremity is approached. 

Dimensions. Body, from base of funnel to extremity, 13 millim., 
width 11 ; longest arm 72 millim., shortest 50 in length. 

Hah. Port Uenison, ISLE. Australia, 3-4 fathoms, sand and rock 
bottom. 

This species bears considerable resemblance to O. aculeatus of 
d'Orbigny, but may be distinguished by the difference of colour, the 
different relative length of the arms, the narrowness of their lower 
surface, the greater prominence of the suckers, the regularity of the 
uniserial four at the base, and the smaller number of the external 
cirri or papillae. 

7)2 



36 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

3. Octopus maculosus. (Plate IV. fig. C.) 

Hoyle, Trans. Roy. Physical Soc. Edinb. L884. 

Body short, aboul as broad as long, dirty buff beneath, of a dark 
bluish slate-colour niton the back, minutely dotted on both sides, the 
dots being scarcely visible to the naked eye except upon the pale 
ventral surface, smooth below and above, merely wrinkled by con- 
traction of the skin, without granulation or cirri. Head narrower 
than the body, a little prominent at the sides or eyes, of the same 
colour above as the body. Siphuncle buff. Arms alternately banded 
with dark slaty blue and buff, the former colour predominating, 
ornamented lure and there with pale, more or less ovate rings upon 
some of the dark bands. Dorsal pair rather shorter than the rest, 
which are subequal, connected by a strong interbrachial membrane, 
which joins the two ventral arms a little lower down than these and 
the two adjoining. Cups alternating in two rows, very slightly 
prominent, close together, buff on a slaty -blue ground, and thus con- 
spicuous, about one hundred in number on the longest arms and a 
few less on the dorsal pair, of the same size on all the arms, the 
largest of them situated towards the lower part, the rest gradually 
lessening towards the extremity. 

Length of body 22 millim., diam. 26 ; length from end of body 
to membrane between lower pair of arms 43 millim. ; diam. of 
head 20 ; length of longest arm from the mouth to the tip 78 
millim. ; largest cup If wide. 

Hub. Port Jackson. 

The peculiarity of the colour of this species readily distinguishes 
it from all others previously described. 

II. GASTROPODA. 

1. Conus lizardensis. 

Crosse, Jour a. de Conch. 1865, vol. xiii. p. 305, pi. ix. fig. : > : Sowerby 
TJies. Con. hi. pi. 288. fig. 642. 

Hob. Lizard Island, N.E. Australia (Crosse); Arafura Sea. 
N. Australia, 32-36 fath. (Cojvpingt r). 

The single specimen from the latter locality is about the same 
size as the type described by M. Crosse, but differs in haying the 
spire less elevated, although consisting of an equal number of whorls. 
The twofold character of the spiral ridges, the strong raised lines of 
increment, and the fine sculpture upon the top of the volutions are 
all maintained. 

2. Conus aculeiforniis. 

Reeve, Couch. Iron. pi. 44. figs. 240 a, b : Soiverby, Thes. Conch, hi. 
1>1. 202. fig. 370. 

Huh. Island of Mindanao, Philippines (Cuming)', Arafura Sea, 
32-36 fath. (Coppinyer). 



MOLLUSC A. 37 

In form the specimen obtained by Dr. Coppingor agrees to .1 groal 
extent with C. aculeiformis, Reeve, bul almosj entirely lacks the 
I ;! era] inclination of the anterior narrowed extremity. The spiral 
sulci on the body-whorl are narrower, and exhibit a decidedly less 
amount of snbpunctate sculpture caused by the impressed lines of 
growth. The raised interstices are markedly flatter and broader, 
and do not exhibit the brown dotting so characteristic of Reeve's 
Bpecies. These differences may probably be accounted for by the 
younger state of the single specimen from the Axafura Sea, which, 
being dredged in a dead condition, has in a great degree lost its 
coloration. The spire offer- scarcely any differences, the propor- 
tionate height, the coronation of three or four whorls succeeding the 
smooth glossy nucleus, the smooth ridge immediately below the 
suture, the finer lira beneath it in the concavity of the whorls, and 
the elevated margin beneath this being precisely as in the larger 
shell described by Reeve, with the exception of the ridge beneath 
the suture, which is rather broader and more flattened. 

3. Terebra exigua. 

Deshayes, Proc. Zool. Sue. ] 859, p. 301 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon. pi. 26. 
fig. 84. 

Hub. Thursday Island, Torres Straits (Coppinger) ; East Austra- 
lia ( Deshayes) ; Andaman Islands (Colonel Wihner in Brit. Mus.). 

The type of this species is described as having a length of 19 
millimetres, but the single shell in the Cumingian collection is scarcely 
15 long. One from the Andaman Islands measures 21 millimetres, 
and the one now recorded from Torres Straits exceeds that in length 
by four. 

4. Pleurotoma (Drillia) torresiana. (Plate IY. figs. D-D 1.) 

Shell fusiform, strong, robust, longitudinally costate and spirally 
Urate, having the ribs white or yellow, stained either with bright 
red or brownish black in the interstices, and ornamented with two 
bands of the same colour upon the last whorl. Volutions 12, having 
a duplex wavy ridge above, beneath which they are excavated and 
then convex at the sides ; the concavity is rather deep and traversed 
by three or four spiral striae. The costse are obsolete in the con- 
cavity, a trifle oblique, thickest above, attenuating interiorly, 
thirteen in number on the last two whorls, two of them on each 
being large swollen white varices. The ribs are crossed by spiral 
lira?, there being seven or eight on the penultimate, and about 
twenty-four on the last whorl, besides one or more finer ones in the 
interstices between them. The columella is smooth, covered with a 
thin callus, developed into a tubercle at the upper part. Labral 
sinus deepishin the concavity above. Length 34 millim., width 10; 
aperture 13 long. 

Bab. Friday Island, Torres Straits, and Prince of Wales Channel, 
7-9 fathoms. 






38 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

This is a more robust species than P. varicosa of Reeve, is dif- 
ferently coloured, has more prominent spiral ridges, a larger numher 
of cost a\ fewer swollen varices, and a more undulating duplex ridge 
bordering the whorls above. These two, together with Drillia 
tubt tos ■. Smith, from Japan, form a small group of species peculiar 
on account of the varicose ribs which strengthen the shell at 
intervals. 



•">. Pleurotoma (Drillia) laterculata. (Plate IV. figs. E-E 1.) 
Pleurotoma laterculata, Sotoerby, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 253. 

Hab. China Seas {Sowcrhj) ; var. Port Molle, Queensland, 
12-2U fms., rocky bottom {Copping er). 

As the description given by Sowerby is altogether inadequate, I 
with append a more detailed one drawn up from the type 
specimen presented by Mrs. Lombe Taylor to the British Museum. 

Shell fusiform, whitish, much spotted and variegated with reddish 
brown, principally between the longitudinal ribs, with a light violet 
aperture. Whorls probably 11 : two apical broken away : the 

- very concave above, angulated at the middle, a little convex 
beneath and contracted towards the suture, strengthened with 
rather oblique costse (about 10 or 11 on the upper whorls), irre- 
gularly continuous up the spire, somewhat obsolete in the concavity 
of the whorls, which are also ornamented with two thread-like 
pale lircD round the middle forming a kind of double angle, con- 
tinuous between and upon the costa), where they become subacutely 
prominent : beneath these, in the penultimate and the antepenulti- 
mate volutions, there is a third near the suture. Last whorl en- 
circled with about thirteen similar pale lira?, besides interlying finer 
ones, and several at the extremity which are very oblique. Canal 
straight, feebly recurved, together with the aperture equalling less 
than half the whole length of the shell. Columella perpendicular, 
covered with a thin callosity, developed into a tubercle close to the 
upper extremity of the outer lip. The latter is thin at the margin, 
has a strong swollen varix behind, arcuately prominent at the 
middle, with a well-marked sinus above in the concavity. Length 
30 millim., width 10 : aperture with canal 14 long. 

Variety. Shell of similar form and with the same sculpture, but 
much less highly variegated. Of a dirty white colour, stained in 
the concavity of the whorls at the lower part next the suture and 
round the middle of the last between the ribs with pale olive-brown. 
Extremity of the body-whorl and the swollen varix suffused with a 
rcddisli tint. Aperture pale lilac or whitish. The entire surface 
of this species is scon, by the aid of a lens, to Jae striated with 
minute spiral striae, crossed by lines of growth. The most striking 
feature is lb' 1 two white fine lirations at the middle of the whorls: 
and although at times there may be one or two beneath them, none 
appear to be found in the concavity above. The two apical whorls 
are smooth, glossy, and convex. 






MOLI/CSCA. 39 

6. Pleirrotoma (Glyphostoma) spurca. (Plate IV. figs. F-F 1 . ) 

Clavatula spurca. Hinds, Voy. ' Sulphur; p. 17, pi. 5. fig. 14; Reeve, 

Conch. Icon. fig. oil*. 
Pleurotoma ravi ("»" Hinds), Conch. Icon. fig. 250. 

Hah. Port Molle, Arafura Sea, N. Australia, 32-36 fms., and 
Port Darwin, N/W. Australia ( Coj>f>rng< r). 

This interesting species is subject to considerable variation both 
in form and sculpture, but is nevertheless generally very easily 
recognized by the transverse plaits on the columella and the large 
deep and laterally directed sinus near the upper end of the much 
thickened labrum, which is aimed within with five or six denticles 
or short lira* not reaching the crenulated edge. The basal canal is 
contracted and a little recurved. The type has ten costa) upon the 
last whorl, but this number is sometimes exceeded by two more. 
The principal lira? are normally two in number upon the upper 
volutions, one being at the middle, the other below, nodulous upon 
the costas. Above these, occupying the upper part of the whorls, 
are a few uninterrupted thread-like lira?, about four upon the 
penultimate and antepenultimate whorls. The body-whorl has 
about fifteen principal spiral lira?, two of which pass above the 
extremity of the outer lip. Some varieties have three or even four 
subequal principal lira? on the lower half of the upper whorls, and 
twenty to twenty-four upon the last, but all agree in having the 
finer lines above, which also at times exceed the typical number. 
The largest specimen considerably exceeds the dimensions of Hinds s 
type. It is 1 8 millim. in length and in width, measuring above 
the aperture, which is 8 long. Another smaller example is re- 
markable for the shortness of the mouth : it is 1 2 long, 4 broad, 
with an aperture 4| iu length. 

7. Pleurotoma ( ?) gracilenta, var. 

Pleurotoma gracilenta, Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 114. 
Var. = PI. contracta, Reeve, I. c. fig. 116. 
Var.=Pl. fusoides, Reeve, I. c. fig. 349. 

Hah. Arafura Sea, X. Australia, 32-36 fms. ; bottom — sand, mud, 
and shells (Coppinger); Philippine Islands (Cuming). 

This species does not conveniently fall into any of the recognized 
groups of Pleurotoniida?. In form it resembles - some species of 
Daphnella, but has not the minutely reticulated nuclear whorls of 
that section, and the labral notch is hardly at, but a trifle below, the 
suture. I fail to perceive any sufficient characters to separate 
specifically the three so-called species described by Pieeve ; indeed 
PI. contracta and PI. fusoides are all but identical. The type of 
P. gracilenta is a trifle more attenuated than the other two, but 
scarcely differs in any other respect. All are longitudinally eostate 
and spirally Urate, the costae numbering about twelve on a whorl, 
attenuated above at the suture, and becoming obsolete upon the 
bodv-volution towards the narrowed anterior end ; the principal 



40 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

transverse Lira are nodose on crossing the ribs, three in number 
upon the upper whorls, a fourth being present upon the lower part 
of the penultimate and sixteen to eighteen on the last. Another 
feature worth uoticingis the presence of a finer thread-like line 
above the uppermost of the chief line, which runs in a slight con- 
cavity at the upper part of the whorls. 

The aperture is narrow, as is the shell itself, not greatly contracted 
at the canal, and occupies rather less than half the length of the 
shell. The columella is subperpendicular, a little tortuous and 
smooth, without line or tubercles. The outer lip is thickened with 
an exterior rib, but thin and sharp at the extreme margin. It is 
widely and semieireularly notched above just below the suture in 
the fiint concavitv of the whorl, and generally in adult shells bears 
a small tubercle within close to or just below the sinus, with which 
exception it is smooth. 

8. Pleurotoma (Daphnella) axis. 
Pleurotoma axis, Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 311. 

Hah. PortMolle, 14 fms. (Coppinger) ; Philippines (Cuming). 
The apical whorls of this, as in all the other species of the 
group Daphnella, are microscopically cancellated by oblique criss- 
cross lines. The four or five succeeding volutions are coarsely can- 
cellated by longitudinal costa? and spiral ridges, the points of inter- 
section being subnodose. Beyond this the remaining whorls (about 
three in number) are destitute of the costa?, exhibiting only spiral 
ridging of different degrees of fineness and intermediate finer stria? 
crossed only by the lines of growth. 

One of these ridges towards the upper part of the whorls is 
especially prominent, giving them a somewhat shouldered appearance, 
and between this and the upper thickened margin there is a decided 
concavity. The aperture is elongate, contracted anteriorly into a 
distinct and somewhat recurving canal, together occupying a little 
less than half the total length of the shell. The labrum is a trifle 
thickened, presenting exteriorly a slightly swollen appearance, has 
a rather deep slit above at the suture, is smooth within, and crenu- 
lated finely along the edge. 



ii. Pleurotoma (Daphnella) arafurensis. (Plate IY. fig. G.) 

Shell fusiform, whitish, faintly banded with light brown, spirally 
ridged and striated and marked with the flexuous lines of growth. 
Whorls 7 : two apical globose, microscopically reticulated, but ap- 
pearing smooth under an ordinary lens, rather large ; the remain- 
ing five are convex, a little constricted beneath the suture, and 
spirally ridged and striated. The upper whorls have four or five 
principal lirse, the uppermost falling just beneath the slight con- 
striction, and the others below at equal distances. The whorls arc 
thiekened at or immediately under the sufiral line with an elevated 






MOLLUSOA. 41 

ridge, and between this and the first lira and in the interstices 
between the other lirae the surface is finely striated. The lasi 
whorl is elongate, has about thirty-one ridges in addition to the 
minute interstriation. The aperture is narrow, contracted ante- 
riorly into a short, broadish canal, together equalling almost halt 
the total length of the shell. The columella is perpendicular, 
curving a little to the left in front, and coated with a very thin 
callosity. The labrum is thickened exteriorly, arcuate in the middle, 
faintly sinuated towards the lower extremity, and rather deeply 
notched in the slight constriction of the whorl near but not at the 
suture. 

Length 15 millim., diam. of last whorl above the mouth 1 j ; 
aperture 7 long. 2 wide. 

Hah. Arafura Sea. X. Australia. 32-36 fms. 

This species is peculiar on account of the absence of longitudinal 
costa^. The outer lip is smooth in the single specimen at hand, but 
in other and more mature shells it might be more or less dentate 
within. 



10. Cythara cylindrica, var. (Plate IY. figs. H-Hl.) 

Mangelia cylindrica. Reeve, Conch. Icon. sp. 9. 
Var. = 31. lyrica, Reeve, I. c. sp. 30. 

Hah. Port Curtis, 7 fms. (Coppinger) ; Philippine Islands 
(Owning). 

This species differs from the typical Cythara in having no trans- 
verse lira? on the columella, in this respect agreeing with C. hom- 
becJcii, Peeve, C. turricula, Peeve, and C. vit least's, Smith. 

The variety (C. lyrica) is a trifle larger than the normal form, 
and the riblets are rather stronger at the upper termination. With 
these feeble distinctions the differences end. In both forms a 
minute tubercle is sometimes, but not always, met with upon the 
upper part of the columella, and about fifteen fine lirae may be 
counted within the exteriorly thickened labrum, which is shallowly 
sinuated near the suture, and prominently arcuated when viewed 
laterally. The longitudinal costa? number about fourteen on the 
penultimate whorl, and the principal transverse thread-like lira? 
about eight, but upon the last volution there are as many as twenty- 
six. The entire surface is beautifully cancellated with minute 
raised lines of growth and microscopic spiral lira?, a feature seen 
only in well-preserved shells and under a powerful lens. The 
sculptured whorls are six in number, the remaining two apical ones 
being smooth and glassy. 

The single specimen, in beautiful condition, from Port Curtis, 
presents certain differences which it may be as well to mention. 
At the upper part the whorls exhibit a faint concavity a little 
beneath the suture, of which I perceive a trace in the type of the 
species, but not in the variety ( C. lyrica), and the costa? are rather 
more numerous, there being about 17 upon the penultimate whorl, 



!2 COLLECTIONS FEOM MELANESIA. 

lml the spiral lirse are normal in this respect. The measurements 
are : — 

Type: Length 10', millim., diameter 3. 

\ar. from Port Curtis : length 12^, diam. 4. 



11. Murex tenuispira. 

La marcl; : Kiister, Con.-Cab. p. 27, pi. 11. fig. •'!, and pi. 20. fig. 3; 
Reeve, < '■melt. Icon. fig. 35 : Kiener, pi. 7. fig. 1 ; Sowerby, Gen. Rec. 
8f Foss. Shells, pi. 225. fig. 2 ; Thes. Conch, pi. 380. tig.' 7. 

Il'ih. Torres Straits, 7-10 fms. (Ooppinger) ; Darnlev Islands, 
Torres Straits, 20-30 fms. (Brazier) : Amboina (Quoy c$- Gaimard); 
Moluccas (Kiener). 

12. Murex coppingeri. (Plate V. fig. A.) 

Shell clavately fusiform, whitish, indistinctly banded with pale 
brown. Whorls 9-9|, three apical smooth, slightly convex, glassy ; 
the rest angulated near the middle, sloping above, somewhat con- 
tracted below at the suture, trivaricose, bicostate between the varices : 
the latter have a single upturned spine arising at the angle, which 
is marked by a prominent ridge. The ribs are rather obsolete 
above the angle, and a trifle oblique below it. The slope of the 
whorls is traversed by about four thread-like liras, which are most 
strongly developed upon the upper part of the varices. The lower 
part of the whorls is ornamented with a few similar lira?. The 
three varices on the last whorl bear eight principal spines : of 
these the uppermost is longest and stoutest; three rest upon the 
labrum, and five upon the right side of the canal. In addition to 
these are four or five secondary or smaller intermediary spines on 
the outer lip, and a small erect one between each of those upon the 
canal. The body-whorl is transversely Urate throughout, the lira? 
being unequal, the larger running parallel with the larger spines, 
which are somewhat acutely ridged behind and of a brownish tint. 
The aperture is white, exhibiting traces of three pale brownish 
zones. The outer lip is thin at the edge and denticulated. The 
canal is straight, curving a little to the right near the tip. Length 
58 millim. ; aperture and canal 41 long. 

Iln'i. Arafura Sea, Dundas Straits, 17 fms. 

This may prove eventually a remarkable variety of 31. nigrispi- 
of Reeve, the only species it is likely to be confounded with. 
Thai species, although attaining a larger size, consists of only eight 
whorls, whilst in M. coppingeri I count nine and a half. The 
nucleus of the latter consists of two and a half, which are a little 
convex, together forming a blunt-topped cone. In the former 
species there are two nuclear volutions very convex, forming a glo- 
bose apex. Both species have three varices to a whorl; but in the 
interstices in M. nigrispinosa three or even more nodose costas are 
met with, whilst in the present species there are but two, and these 



JIOLLTTBCA. 43 

are not nodulous. The whorls in the latter arc not so rounded, 

decidedly more angular above, much more finely spirally ridged, 
and bear upon the varices shorter, thicker, and more curved 
spines, which are not purple-black tipped, but white, except 
along the back, where there is a slight ridge of pale brown. 
31. tribulus has a different apex, more convex whorls, different 
coloration, and much coarser and nodose spiral ridging. The 
number and position of the spines is seen to be very similar in 
all three species when closely and carefully compared. 



13. Murex acanthostephes. (Plate V. tig. B.) 

Murex (Tribulus) acanthostephes, Watson, Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool. 
vol. xvi. p. 596. 

Hal. Arafura Sea, N.W. Australia, in 32-30 fms. ; bottom — mud, 
sand, and shells. 

The ' Challenger ' specimen was dredged very near the same spot, 
in 28 fms. 

Shell in form and general aspect rather like 31. tenuisjaina, 
Lamarck, but with a shorter spire, fewer spines, and a non-canali- 
culate suture; whitish, stained irregularly with light olive-brown. 
"Whorls convex, subangular and carinatcd above the middle, with 
two or three fine spiral raised lines above the angle upon the 
sloping and somewhat flattened upper portion, and two or three 
similar lines below the angle. Varices three on a whorl, bearing 
five spines upon the convex part and six on the very straight beak, 
with three or four minute secondary ones reflexed and appressed to 
the surface. The uppermost of all, arising from the carina at the 
upper part of the whorls, is the longest, slightly curved, very erect, 
and almost parallel with the axis of the shell. The next, Xo. 2, is 
minute, No. 3 a little shorter than Xo. 1 and arcuate, Xo. 4 much 
smaller, and Xo. 5 a little smaller than Xo. 3. 

The spines on the cauda are straighter than those above, hori- 
zontal, or at right angles to the axis, the third, counting from 
above, being a trifle the longest, the rest on each side becoming 
successively shorter. The body-whorl is transversely lirate through- 
out, the lira? varying in coarseness, the strongest corresponding to 
the longest spines, and being only slightly wavy, whilst some of the 
intermediary ones are almost subnodular. The three nuclear whorls 
are light brown, glossy, and larger than those of 31. tenuispina. 
The fourth whorl has about eleven short, open, and a little upturned 
spines, forming a very pretty coronation at a subcentral angle, and 
has no spiral lines above or below it, but a second series of hollow 
spines below at the suture, smaller than those above. Length 
37millim. : diameter 12, exclusive of spines. 

31. tenuispina, a near ally, has longer and more numerous spines, 
a longer and more pointed spire terminating in a smaller apex, a 
conspicuously channelled suture, and its sculpture is more pro- 
nounced, the spiral ridges being more granular and the lines of 



44 COLLECTIONS PROW MELANESIA. 

i-.\ tli more conspicuous. In .1/. acanthostephes, at the base of the 
spines on the canal there is a small dark spot on one side, which is 
best Been when the shell is wetted. 



14. Murex macgillivrayi. (Plate V. fig. C.) 

Dohm, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1862, p. 203. 

Mun gjillivrayi (Morchv), Sowerby, Thes. Conch, vol. iv. p. Z t 

fig. I ( >i_> (wrongly coloured). 

Hah. Lizard Island (Macgillivray). Port Curtis, Queensland, 
0-11 fins. : Tort Darwin, 8-12 fms. ; and Prince of Wales Channel, 
Torres Straits, 7-9 fms. (Coppinger). 

The figure in Sowerby's •Thesaurus' gives no idea of the colour 
of this species. The specimens described by Dohrn are ovcrcleaned, 
mnl much of the painting is removed. These were in consequence 
correctly characterized as " white, with yellowish lirse." The shells 
collected by Dr. Coppinger at Port Curtis are in fresh aud perfect 
condition, and show the true colouring of the species. It is a yel- 
lowish shell, exhibiting three purplish-brown bands on the body- 
whorl, of which the uppermost is the broadest, being situated around 
the broadest part of the volution. The central one is the narrowest 
in the four specimens under examination, and placed midway between 
the other two, the lowermost falling at the base of the convexity, or, 
in other words, immediately below the third spine on the varices. 
The spiral lira? are fine, reddish, in some examples more deeply 
coloured than in others, and terminate at the margin of the labrum 
in red dots, which fall between the lobe-like prolongations. Other 
larger examples from Port Darwin have the three purplish-brown 
hands less pronounced and the general tint paler. All have the 
il blotched with brown in front belo.v the spine on the dextral 
margin. One of these blotches, situated between the second and third 
spines, is constantly the longest. Within the aperture the external 
handing is seen, and the cavity of the last varix, when not tilled with 
callus, is almost black, forming a dark submarginal stripe. The canal 
is long and straight, tapering, and blotched with brown in two or 
three places. 

The specimens from Torres Straits are paler than the Port-Curtis 
examples, have but little trace of the bands, and have the uppermost 
spine longer, curved, and upturned. 



15. Murex axicornis. 

I At march; Rimer's Coq. 77r.pl. 42. fig. 2; Reeve, Conch. Icon. pi. 1 ; ">. 
fig. 37, pi. 10. fig. 37, v.ir. : Kiister'sl 'on.-Cab. pi. 21.fig.3; Sowerbi/, 
Thes. Conch, pi. 382. fig. 31. 

Hah. Moluccas; Philippines (Reeve): Prince of Wales Channel, 
5-7 fms., and Thursday Island. Torres Straits. 4 fms. (Coppinger)', 
Palm Island, N.E. Australia ( Brazier). 



MOLLUSCA. 45 

This shell is remarkably prickly when in perfect condition, by 
reason of the scaly character of the transverse ridges. The single 
and rather young shell from Thursday Island has the spire of a deli- 
pink colour. A second example, from Prince of Wales Channel, 
belongs to the black-brown variety figured by Itccve (pi. x. fig. 37). 

1 < >. Murex cervicornis. 

Lamarck : Kimcr* ( 'oq. I 'iv. pi. 20, fig. 2 : Sowerby, Genera Rec. Foss. 
Shells, fig. I; id. This. Conch, pi. 382. fig. 30; Keeve, Cowl,. 
Ico/i. fig. 66; Kobelt, Conch.-Cab. pi. 31. figs. 5, 6. 

Hob. Thursday Island. I fms.; Prince of Wales Channel ; Torres 
Straits, 7-9 fms.; Port Darwin, 8-12 fms. ; and Clairmont Island, 
11 fms. {Coppinger) ; Darnley Island, Torres Straits, 20-30 fms. 

( Brazier). 

One specimen obtained by Dr. Coppinger is peculiar on account of 
the unusual shortness of the canal, and the presence of one, instead 
of two, spines upon it. Another example is remarkable for its 
uniform rich brown tint, the ordinary colour of this interesting 
species being considerably paler. 

17. Murex territus. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. figs. 167a, b ; Sowerby, Thes. Con. pi. 9. fig. 77 

(fronds on varices incorrect). 
M urex nuhilus ( = territus, fun.), Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1859, p. 428, 

pi. 49. fig. 4 ; Thes. Conch, fig. 71. 

Hah. Wide Bay and Port Curtis {Mas. Cuming) ; Port Molle, 
15 fms., and Port Curtis, 0-11 fms. {Coppinger). 

Although the figures respectively representing the types of M. 
territus and M. nubilus would not lead one to consider them the 
same species, still on actual comparison such proves beyond a doubt 
to be the case. 

The shell described by Reeve is a fine specimen (alas ! like very 
many of Air. Cuming's shells, terribly spoiled by acid in cleaning), 
with the frondose varices well developed. The three brown bands 
so conspicuous in the young shell {21. nubilus) are only visible 
on the varices in the adult. The canal is a little arcuate, nearly 
closed, and somewhat recurved, and bears three principal spines, as 
mentioned by Sowerby in his description of M. nubilus. Only two 
are seen in the figures of M. territus, a result due to a fracture of 
the third in the shell figured ; but the presence of it is seen on the 
penultimate varix in the same illustration. Although, as a rule, 
there is but a single tubercle between the varices, yet in some spe- 
cimens a second smaller one is developed. The two nuclear whorls 
are smooth, convex, and reddish. 



46 collectiuxs from Melanesia. 

18. Mures monodon. 

Sowerby; 1! • '' . / . igs. 21 a, b; Sowerby, The*. Conch.iv. 

pi. 3 .-Cab. pi. 10. figs. 1. 2. 

Mures aranea. Coq. Viv. pi. 36. fig. 1. 

Hab. Albany Island, North Australia. &-8 fms. (Coppingt :r) ; Du- 
puch's [si nil. Torres Straits (E 

A single specimen from Albany Island belongs to the pale variety 
(fig. 21a, Con. Icon.) with a reddish-pihk peristome, and has a re- 
markable frond on the labium, the second from the top, measuring 
55 millimetres in length. The tooth on the labrum exhibits a 
remarkable development in this species. 

19. Fusus hanleyi. 

Trophon hanleyi, Angas. Proc. Zool. So- p. 110, pi. xiii. fig. 1. 

Fusus hanleyi i^-E". Smith .'), Soicerby, Thes. Con h. p. 83, rig. 14-;. 

Hah. Port -Jackson (Angus and Ooppinger) : Port Curtis (Cop- 
r). 

Air. Sowerby erroneously attributes this species to me : the coarse- 
ness of his figure renders it of but little use, that in the ' Proceedings ' 
being far preferable. 

_ . Fusus heptagonalis. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 2Ga, b\ Soicerby, Tlies. Conch, fig. 132. 

Hab. ? Port Molle. Queensland {Copping r\. 

The colouring of Sowerby's figure is totally incorrect, and it is not 
nearly so accurate with regard to sculpture as that in the ' Concho- 
logia Iconiea." This species is not always heptagonal, the number 
of ribs in three cases out of four being eight instead of seven. When 
in fine condition the spiral ridges of this species are finely irnbri- 
'.V scaled by the parallel wavy lines of growth. The only spe- 
cimen obtained by Dr. Coppinger is in a bad state of preservation, 
and of a considerably more dwarfed or stunted growth than the type 
and two other specimens in the Pritish Museum. It is, however, 
adult, exhibiting the thickened lip and eight line within of an adult 
shell. The canal, too, is short, and the last whorl has an inconspicuous 
pale zone around the middle, also observable in one of the other 
specimens above referred to. 

21. Fusus cereus. (Plate V. fig. D.) 

Shell short, ovately fusiform, pale yellowish, ribbed, and trans- 
versely scabrously lirate. "Whorls about 8, the remaining six 
thickened beneath the suture by a stout ridge, then obliquely slo- 
ping, angled at the middle and contracted at the base, strengthened 
with eight stout costie, which are obliquely continuous up the spire, 
and by four spiral squamose lirce, two of them around the 

lower half of the whurls being twice as thick as the other two above, 
and particularly prominent upon the ribs. The last volution, in 



M0LIASCA. 47 

addition se four, has about nine other equally stout lira?, exclu- 

sive of four or five finer ones upon the extremity : all are prettily 
sealed. The aperture is ovate, contracted anteriorly into a short 
canal, which is much inclined to the left. The columella is smooth, 
covered with a thin callus, and the outer lip is armed within with 
about six coarsish lira-. I. ngth 18 millim., width S| millim. ; aper- 
ture and canal 9 millim. long. 3 millim. wide. 
Hab. Port Curtis. 7 fms. 

22. Urosalpiax contracta. 

Buccinurn contractum. St . 1 _ . ■"•;. 

ccinuni funiculatu:^. Reeve, I.e. fig. 61. 
Yar. = T "rosalpinx innotabilis. Smith, Pr . Z . 8oc. L879, pi. xx. 
fig. 32. 

Hab. Prince of Wales Channel. -7 :. . ; Philip- 

pine Islands B ; Uornbay | W. T. ; Japan for U. m- 

notabilis. 

The operculum of this species resembles that of 1' . The 

- > rather variable in form., the number of costte, in colour, and 
the length of the basal or anterior canal. 

The typical form is rather longer, and has a more prolonged canal 
than the variety from Japan, has more brown colouring, and an 
additional longitudinal rib. All have from - _ht elongate 

denticles or lira?, within the labrum, which is thickened within and 
without, and acute and crenulated along the margin. 

23. Tritoni&ea enrtisiana. | Plate V. fig. E.) 

5 11 ovate-fusiform, yellow, banded with white round the middle 
of the last whorl, with the ribs subaltern ately white also. Volutions 
about 8, obliquely coarsely costate, and spirally closely ridged, a 
trifle convex. I nine on a whorl, attenuated and produced 

almost to the base of the last. Spiral line prominent on the 
four in number on the upper whorls, and about - on the 

A ;-rture small, ovate, narrowed anteriorly, bluish wh: Lip 

thickened, furnished with about nine fine line reaching to the mar- 
gin, which is dotted wi k brown between them. Columella 
covered with a thin callosity, upon which rest eight or nine trans- 
verse tubercles, with brown dots between them. Length 14 millim.. 
diam. 6| millim. ; aperture with canal 7 millim. long. 

Hob. Port Curtis, 1-11 fms. 

sented in the present collection by a single 
specimen ; and it is remarkable on account of the peculiaritv of its 
colour, its small size, and comparative solidity. 

24. Columbella fnlguraus, Lamarck. 

Hah. West Island, Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Straits (Cop- 
pinger). 



t> COLLECTIONS FRftM MELANESIA. 

This species has also been recorded from several localities in 
North-easl Australia by Mr. Brazier in his account of the Mollusca 
of the • Chevert ' expedition. 

25. Columbella scripta, Lamarck. 

Hah. Port Mollc, Queensland, and Prince of Wales Channel, 
5-7 fms. 

C. versicolor, Sowerby, G. variegata, Menke, G. bidentata, Menke, 
and ft tigrina, Duclos, appear to be synonymous with this species. 

26. Columbella pardalina. 

Lamarck; Duclos, Monog. pi. 2. figs. 13, 14; Kiener, pi. 4. fig. 3; 
/,' eve, Conch. Icon. figs. Iba-c. 

1 1 <t l>. Port Molle, on the reef (Coppinger) ; Philippine Islands 
(Cuming). 

A single specimen from Port Molle is somewhat narrower than 
specimens from the Philippines collected by Air. Cuming. 

27. Nassa coronata, Bruguiere. 

Hub. Port Molle, Queensland, on the beach. 

A single specimen from this locality is of a uniform light brown 
tint, with a blotch of a darker colour on the back of the body- 
whorl. 

28. Nassa thersites, Bruguiere. 
Hab. Port Denison, on the beach. 

29. Nassa algida, var. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. pi. 22. figs. 145 a, b. 

Hab. West Island, Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Straits (Cop- 
pinger). 

This pretty variety is not so broad a shell as the type, almost 
white, upon which colour the rows of squarish, light brownish spots 
appear more conspicuous than usual. There are nine whorls, of 
which the two apical are smooth and convex, the four succeeding 
ones strongly ribbed and transversely grooved a little beneath the 
suture, the furrow dividing the ribs into two unequal parts. The 
three last volutions are smooth, and a little more convex than the 
sculptured ones above. The length is 20 millim., and the dia- 
meter 9 millim. 

30. Nassa unicolor. 

Bucciuuiu lseve sinuatum, Chemnitz, Con.-Cab. iv. pp. 54, 59, pi. 125. 
Ggs. 1194, 1195. 

I'.in riiium unicolorum, Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. GO. 
Buccinum unicolor, id. 1. c. pi. 19. fig. 69. 






MOLLUSCA. 49 

Nassa (Alectrion) ttnicolor, A. Adams, J'. /. S. Iti51, p. 10.3. 

Nassa unicolorata, Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 17. 

Nassa rutilans. Reeve, I. r. p. 117. 

Nassa herns. 11. & A. Adams. Genera M"l. vol. i. pp. 110 & 119, 

pi. 12. fig. 7. 
Nassa (Zeuxis) unicolora, Kiener, Adams, I.e. p. 119. 

Ih'h. Cape York, X. Australia (Juices) ; Torres Straits (Brazier) ; 
Port Curtis and Port Alolle, Queensland, 12-20 fms. (Coppinger) ; 
Sir C. Hardy's Island [Jules). 

New Zealand, the locality given by Peeve for X. rutilans, is pro- 
bably incorrect. 

The operculum of this species is unguiculate, curved, with a ter- 
minal nucleus and simple unserrated edges. 



31. Nassaria suturalis, var. 

Ilimlsia suturalis, A. Adams, Proc. Zoul. Soc. 1853, p. 183 ; Soicerby, 
Thes. Cvnch. iii. pi. 220. figs. 15, 10 ; Kobelt,in Rasters Con.-Cub., 
Purpuracea, pi. 77. tigs. 11,12. 

Hindsia bitubercularis, A. Adams, P. Z. S. 1853, p. 183; Sowerly, 
I. c. tig. 5 ; Kobelt, I. c. figs. 9, 10. 

Nassaria recur va, Sowerhy, I. c. figs. 17, 18. 

Nassaria sinensis, Sotcerby, Thesaurus, tigs. 8, 9; Kobelt, fig. 8. 

I lab. Port Darwin, North-west Australia, 8-12 fms. (Coppinger); 
China Sea, Philippine Islands, and Ceylon (Adams and Sowerby). 

A single specimen from Port Darwin agrees precisely with the 
variety sinensis. After a careful examination of the so-called specios 
which 1 have united above, I cannot detect any constant differences. 
The above variety I believe to be founded on non-adult shells for 
two reasons : — first, I find only six whorls, exclusive of the smooth 
apical ones, being one less than in the typical suturalis; and, 
secondly, the aperture is larger, a result due to the less degree of 
thickening of the labrum and columella. It is true that the suture 
is less excavated, but this concavity is variable in specimens un- 
doubtedly normal. The number of costae is also inconstant, varying 
from nine to twelve on a whorl ; in the former case, as might be ex- 
pected, being thicker than in the latter. The tuberculation and 
liration on the columella depend for the amount of their development 
upon age, adult shells having a larger quantity and a greater expan- 
sion of the free columellar callosity than young specimens, but the 
lirse within the outer lip, when countable, are generally about nine 
in number. 

32. Phos scalaroides. 
A. Adams; Sowerby s Thes. Conch, vol. iii. pi. 221. fio-. 13. 

Hab. Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Straits, 9 fms. {Cop- 
■pinger). 

This form 1 cannot separate satisfactorily from P. plicatus and 
P. textilis, both of A. Adams ; and I am of opinion that were the 

E 



50 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

Beries before me larger, there would be little difficulty iu showing 
the specific identity. 

The Bingle specimen from Torres Straits is smaller than the type 
in the Cumingian collection, and consists of nine whorls, three of 
which form the smooth pinkish nucleus. The brown zone around 
the middle of the body-whorl is uninterrupted, and passes up the 
spiic just above the suture, beneath which the whorls are also 
stained with the same colour. The columella is smooth, with the 
exception of one or two elongate tubercles at the upper part; and 
the labrurn is armed within with about fifteen fine lirse, running far 
within the aperture. 

33. Phos senticosus, var. 

Murex senticosus, Linn. 
Var.=Phos muriculatus, Govhl. 
Var. = Phos angulatus, Sowerhy. 

Hab. West Island, Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Straits 
(Coppingt r); Port Essington, 7 fms. (Jukes in Brit. Mus.). 

The variety muriculatus cannot, I think, be distinguished from 
the well-known P. senticosus, of which it has the aspect of being a 
dwarfed form. The style of coloration is similar, and the difference 
in sculpture is very slight indeed, not sufficient to warrant, in my 
opinion, a specific separation. In the British Museum I find a 
series graduating from the short stumpy form of P. muriculatus to 
the more graceful elongate outline of P. senticosus, the latter con- 
sisting of eight whorls, exclusive of the smooth apex, and the former 
of six, other specimens intermediate with regard to length having 
seven. P. angulatus appears to offer very slight differences beyond 
the absence in a greater or less degree of colour. 



34. Purpura bitubercularis, var. 

Lamarck ; Kiener, C'oq. Viv. pi. xi. fig. 32 ; Reeve, Conch. 1c. fig. 37 ; 

Kiister, Conch.-Cab. pi. 31a. figs. 3-8. 
= Purpura kienerii, Deshayes, Anim. sans Vert. vol. x. p. 101. 
Var. = Purpura undata, Reeve (? Lamarck), Conch. Icon. fig. 43. 

J fab. Philippine Islands (Cuming); Port Essington (Jukes); 
Arakan coast (Blanford); Pelew Islands (Dr. King); Port Molle, 
Queensland ( Coppinger). 

This species varies considerably in the length and development of 
the tubercles. The two small specimens from Queensland have 
them short and obtuse, as represented in fig. 3 of Kiister. Some 
other forms, which have been described under various names, may 
eventually be considered conspecific with this : such are P. luteo- 
stoma, Chemnitz, P. alveolata, Reeve, P. clavigera, Kiister, and 
perhaps P. bronni, Dunker. 1 cannot, however, agree with Tryon 
that P. hippocastanum should also be classed with this species. I 
should here observe that the specimen figured by Peeve as P. undata 
of Lamarck is unquestionably a variety of this species (bitubercularis), 



M0LLU8CA. OJ 

and appears to correspond with Rimer's idea of the Limarckian 
shell (Coq. Yiv. t'ol. 3 I, f. 81) and also with the specimen figured by 
Kiister (Con. -Cab. pi. 2-'>. t'. 5). But whether all or none of these 
figures delineate the true P. undata appears to mo questionable. 
However, I do not believe that tin' West-Indian shell which has 
been assigned to it by d'Orbigny (Kamon de la Sagra's Hist. Cuba, 
vol. ii. p. 145) and those figured by Tryon (Man. Conch, f. 82, 100 
1013, and 109) can beyond a doubt be considered Lamarck's species. 
The dimensions he gives, namely 22 lines in length, exceed those 
of the West-Indian examples: nor does the description of the colour, 
" albo et fusco-nigricante Longitudinaliter undatimque picta," apply 
■well to those shells, hut admirably suits the specimens figured by 
Kiister, Reeve, and Kiener. The locality, '* Monte Christi, West 
Columbia," given by Reeve for his shell is no doubt erroneous, and 
applies to two others on the same tablet, considered by Cuming the 
same species, but which on careful examination prove to be without 
doubt examples of P. biserialis, Blainville (=-/ J . bicostalis. Reeve, 
? of Lamarck). This species has a character not found in P. bitu- 
bercfularis and its varieties, namely the oblique plications on the 
lower part of the columella ; and P. fasciata of Reeve, which is also 
conspecirlc with P. undata, d'Orh. (non Lamk.), and P. forbesii, 
Dunker, also has on the columella a distinguishing character which 
lias not been noticed, viz. a small brown stain, most observable in 
fresh specimens, at the inferior end, and au oblique mark of the 
6ame colour in a line with the raised ridge at the base of the body- 
whorl. 

35. Purpura ( Cronia ) amygdala. 

Purpura amygdala, Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 39, pi. 10. tig. L'G ; Chenu r 

Man. de Conch, fig. 807. 
Buccinum amygdala, Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. GO. 

Hub. Port Denison, 4 fms. (Coppinger) ; Home Islands, off Cape 
Grenville, N.E. Australia, also Moreton Bay, Port Jackson, and 
Port Darwin (Brazier). 

The operculum of this species is normally Purpuroid, although 
the basal chauncl of the aperture is unusually narrower than in the 
genus. 

36. Sistrum undatum, var. 
Ricinula fiscellum, Heeve (non Chemnitz), Conch. Icon. pi. 4. fig. 28. 

I lab. Port Darwin (Goppinger) ; Port Essington (Jules in Brit. 
Mus.). 

This variety is also quoted from the north coast of Australia by 
G. and H. Xevill (Journ. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, 1875, vol. xliv. pt. 2, 
p. 83). It differs from the typical form of this well-known species 
in its greater breadth, in having fewer and larger nodose plications, 
and in the fineness and closeness of the transverse squamose 
ridges. 

e 2 



52 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 



37. Sistrum tuberculatum. 



Purpura tuberculatum, BlainviUe, Nbuv. Arch, du Mm. vol. i. 1832, 

p. 204, pi. ii. fie. 3. 
Ricinula tuberculata, Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 11. 
Purpura tuberculata, Kiener, Cot/. J'ir. pi. ■'>. fig. 10. 
Purpura granulata, Duclos, Ann. Sci. Nat. 1832, vol. xxvi. pi. 2. 

tig. 0. 
? Purpura niarginalba, BlainviUe, I. c. p. 212, pi. 10. fig. 6. 

//nb. Lord Hood and Elizabeth Islands (Cuming) ; Madagascar 
and Red Sea (Blainvill >; New Holland and the Friendly Islands 
(Kiener); Port Essington, Port Jackson, Brisbane, Japan, Stewart 
Island, and Lord Hood's Island (Brit. Mas.) ; Port Molle and Port 
Curtis, Queensland (Cojppinger) ; Seychelles and Amirantes Islands 
(Dafo); Reunion (Deshayes) ; Mauritius (Martens). 

38. Latirus angustus. (Plate V. fig. F.) 

Shell narrow, fusiform, of a rich brown colour. "Whorls 11 .7 ; the 
two apical ones smooth, forming a bluntish apex, tbe rest strongly 
ribbed and spirally ridged. Ribs a little oblique, very broad, 
rounded, with scarcely any interstices, not reaching the upper 
boundary of the whorls. Transverse lirae or ridges strong : three 
principal ones on the upper whorls ; the uppermost, or that almost 
bounding the suture, a little wavy, scarcely affected by the longi- 
tudinal costse ; the two others situated round the middle of the 
whorls, prominent, and rather acute on the ribs ; between these 
are fine thread-like lirse, generally one in each interstice. Last whorl 
similarly lirated throughout with large and small ridges. The entire 
surface of the shell exhibits between the transverse lira? coarse lines 
of growth. Aperture small, subpyriformly ovate, brownish white 
within, with about four slender white lirae not reaching to the 
margin of the labium, which is crenulatcd and dotted with brown 
at the ends of the exterior ridge. Columella covered with a promi- 
nent brownish callosity bearing two fine transverse plaits, one at the 
middle and the other below it. Canal almost straight and nearly 
closed. Length 38 millim., diameter 9. 

Hub. Fitzroy Island, Queensland (Coppinger) ; Andaman Islands 
(teste G. B. Sowerby,jun.). 

This species may be recognized by its slender form, in which 
respect it somewhat resembles L. lancea. Viewed with the un- 
assisted eye, the whorls appear to be encircled by three transverse 
prominent lira?, of which the uppermost is nearly simple, whilst 
the two inferior ones are undulate upon and betwecu the ribs. 
The specimen said to have come from the Andaman Islands, appa- 
rently adult, is smaller than that from Queensland, being 20 millim. 
long and 6| broad, but in other respects similar. 



MOLLUSCA. 53 



39. Turbinella (Tudicula) armigera. | Plate V. fig. G.) 

Tudicla armigera, A. Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc. 185o, p. 221 ; Kobelt, 
Conch.-Cab., Purpuracea, iii. p. 20; Trvon, Mini. Conch, vol. iii. 
p. 144, pi. 58. fig. 411. 

Hah. Moreton Bay {Strange); Port Curtis, 0-11 fms., and Port 
Molle, 14 fms. (Cojppinger). 

As the Latin diagnosis given by Adams is defective in 6overal 
important points, I here give a more ample description of this 
remarkable species. Shell clavately fusiform, whitish, longitudinally 
streaked with reddish brown, clot lied with a rather thin, somewhat 
fibrous, yellowish epidermis. Spire short, concavely conical, obtuse 
and mamillated at the apex. Whorls 6 ; the two nuclear ones 
smooth, convex : the three following nearly flat or a little concave 
and sloping, angled at the lower part near the suture, bearing at the 
angle a series of upturned, slightly recurved hollow spines, orna- 
mented with fine wavy spiral lirations both above and below tho 
angle. Last whorl like the three preceding at the upper part, but 
having the spines, about nine in number, much longer, increasing 
in length with the growth of the shell ; body of whorl a trifle 
convex, indistinctly variced or costate beneath each spine, bearing 
three to five lira? armed with numerous short hollow spines, tho 
interstices being ornamented with two or three thread-like lirations; 
lower part of the whorl prolonged into a straight canal occupying 
about half the length of the entire shell, bearing two oblique rows 
of spines, those of the upper series being considerably longest : a 
third row is also indicated at the lower part, and the entire rostrum 
is obliquely lirated throughout. Aperture ovate, white or pinkish 
white. Outer lip thickened, crenulated at the margin, with about 
eight lira? within. Columella covered with a large erect spreading 
callosity extending from the upper extremity of the labrum to the 
lower end of the aperture, armed with three plaits, of which the 
lowermost is the thickest. Operculum ovate, acute at the nucleus, 
which is terminal, brown. Length 65 millim., greatest diam. 30. 

This beautiful shell was originally placed in Tudicla, one of 
those non-admissible divisions of Bolton, and subsequently a new 
genus, Tudicula, was proposed by H. and A. Adams (P. Z. S. 1863, 
p. 429) for the reception of this and a second species, T. spinosa, also 
from Port Curtis. A third form, T. inermis, has more recently been 
described by Mr. G. F. Angas, presumed to have come from Singa- 
pore. All of these species have the plaits on the columella, the 
mamillated apex, and the largely developed and prominent callosity 
on the inner lip as in the typical forms of Turbinella, e. g. T.pyrum 
and T. rapa, and differ mainly in the greater length of the canal. 
The operculum, too, is essentially the same ; and therefore the utility 
of this generic division becomes very questionable. 






54 Ci 1.UTTI0NS FEOM MELANESIA. 

40. Turbinella (Tudicula) spinosa. (Plate V. fig. H.) 

Tudicla (Tudicula) spinosa, II- ty A. Adams, Proc. Zoul. Soc. 1863, 
p. 429. 

Hub. Port Curtis {Coll. Cuming); Prince of Wales Channel, 
Torres Straits, 9 frus. (Coppinger). 

This species is not entirely white as originally described, but has 
an interrupted zone of pale brown around the last whorl immediately 
beneath the crown of short hollow spines at the angle towards the 
upper part of the whorl. The spines correspond in number and 
position with the longitudinal rounded plica? (usually averaging 
about eleven or twelve on the last whorl), are directed obliquely 
upwards and a little backward, and increase in length with the 
growth of the shell, but do not attain any thing like the dimensions 
of some in the preceding species. Messrs. Adams give the number 
of folds on the columella as three ; whilst in three out of four speci- 
mens before me I find four, of which the two lowermost are very 
close together and might bo regarded as constituting one duplex 
plait. In the type specimen this feature is less conspicuous, still a 
slight groove subdivides it. The second or central fold is the most 
prominent in every example. The lirae within the aperture are 
tine, ten or eleven in number, and extend into the interior as far as 
the eye can reach. The columellar callosity is free, prominent, and 
joins the upper extremity of the labrum. The canal is remarkably 
straight, neatly closed, and occupies considerably more than half the 
total length of the shell. The type is 38 millim. long and 16 broad 
at the periphery ; bttt another specimen is 21 wide, and probably, if 
perfect, would have a length of 50. 

Mr. Tryon's supposition that this species (Man. Con. vol. hi. p. 144) 
is "probably identical with T. armigera" and that T. inermis 
(wrongly attributed to Sowerby instead of Angas) "is simply a 
depauperated specimen of the same species,'' is altogether wrong, all 
three being undoubtedly distinct. 

41. Mitra proscissa, var. (Plate V. fig. I.) 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 177; Sowerby, Thes. Conch, pi. 355. fig. 264, 
and pi. 356. fig. 282. 

Shell ovately fusiform, acuminate at the apex, olive-brown, 
irregularly spotted and streaked in a longitudinal direction with 
white, and encircled round the middle of the last whorl with a zone 
of the same colour. Volutions about 10; the upper ones flat at 
the sides, separated by a deep subcanaliculate suture, strengthened 
with three strong spiral costa?, of which the uppermost is a trifle the 
thickest and situated immediately beneath the suture ; the two 
others are equidistant, the lowermost leaving a furrow between it 
and the suture beneath. The interstices are rather strongly sculp- 
tured by elevated lines of growth. Upon a portion of the penulti- 
mate and upon the hody-whorl the two lower of these three ridges 
become double, each being divided by a shallow groove, and the 
uppermost is bipartite. In addition to these the last whorl, which 
is convex at the sides, is encircled by a fourth duplex costa, and 






MOLLUSCA. 55 

again below this by about seventeen others, having the furrows 
between them sculptured like those of the spire. The aperture is 
narrow, brownish within, about half as long as the shell. The 
columella is four-plaited, and the outer lip crenulated at the edges. 
Length 37 millim., diam. L3. 

I tub. Port Curtis, Queensland (Coppinger) ; island of Ticao, 
Philippines (Cuming). 

The above description has been drawn up from two specimens 
differing in certain particulars from the type, one from each of the 
above localities. In the British Museum there are two examples 
of the typical form from Kurrachee and Bombay, presented by 
W. T. Blanford, Esq., by whom they were collected. The variety 
differs in having the spire ungradated, a feature giving the outline a 
very different form, and in having some of the upper lirse upon the 
last and preceding whorls double; both forms have that immediately 
beneath the suture more or less tripartite on the last volution, but 
in the variety this peculiarity extends to the penultimate whorl. 

42. Mitra peasei. 

Dohrn. Proc. Soc. Zool 1800, p. 366; Sowerby, Tlies. Conch, iv. 
pi. 357. fig. 76. 

Hah. Port Molle {Coppinger) ; Australia (Dohrn). 

The figure in Air. Sowerby's work of this species represents the 
spire too suddenly tapering, the aperture too wide, and the plaits 
on the columella should be less equal in size and five in number 
instead of four. The specimen from Port Molle is not absolutely 
identical with the type described by Dohrn : it is rather shorter, 
yellowish, with a white zone at the upper part of the whorls, and 
another round the middle of the body-whorl. But the principal 
difference lies in the greater coai'seness of the spiral ridges : of 
these the upper volutions have three, the penultimate four, and the 
last about twenty-four ; the uppermost beneath the suture is a 
duplex one, and those upon the body-whorl become gradually finer 
towards the anterior end. The five plaits on the columella gradually 
diminish in size until the lowermost is almost obsolete, indeed in 
one specimen in the Cumingian collection it is entirely wanting. 
The grooves between the ridges are crenulated by elevated lines of 
growth, which in the specimen from Port Molle are particularly 
strongly developed. 

43. Mitra (Turricula) corrugata. 

Mitra corrugata, Lamarck ; Reeve, Conch. Icon. figs. 57 a, b ; Kiener, 
Coq. Viv. pi. 22. fitr. 67 ; Sowerby, T/ies. Conch, vol. iv. pi. 354. 
figs. 41, 42. 

Bab. Port Molle. on the beach. 

A specimen from the above locality, of immature growth, is peculiar 
in wanting the fourth small lowermost fold on the columella usually 
met with in this species, in other respects according very closely 
with the form depicted by Reeve's figure 57 6. 



50 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

44. Voluta volva, var. (Plate V. fig. K.) 

(Chemnitz?), Have, Condi. Icon. fig. 24. 
Voluta pallida, Gray, Kiener, Coq. Vie. pi. 48. 

Hah. Thursday Island, Torres Straits, 3-4 fathoms. 

Typical specimens of T". volva should ho uniformly of a fleshy huff 
tint, exhibiting the slightest indication of two bands of a somewhat 
darker colour across the body-whorl ; the normal volutions should 
be spot ltd with dark hrown immediately beneath the suture, and 
stained with yellowish hrown above it, and the aperture at a short 
distance from the margin of the lip should be of a lighter brown. 
Two specimens from Swan River, presented to the British Museum 
by Capt. Mangles, R.N., possess the above characteristics, but in 
addition have numerous, more or less wavy and zigzag pale 
brownish lines, mo icuous upon the two indistinct transverse 

zones, extending downwards from the suture, but not reticulating 
in a longitudinal direction. The only specimen obtained by Dr. 
Coppiuger, although having the labrum much broken away, still 
possesses considerable interest in that it resembles the specimens 
just mentioned, but with all the tints much darkened, in which 
respect it approximates more closely to V. reticulata, Reeve; indeed 
the group of Volutes from Xorth, xsorth-west, and West Australia 
includes a number of species which appear to have several charac- 
ters in common, and present considerable difficulty of distinction : 
such are, in addition to those previously mentioned, V. turneri, 
Gray, V. pratexta, Reeve, and V. ellioti, Howerby. 



45. Ranella rana. 

Murex rana, Linn., Hank;/, Ipsa Linn. Conch, p. 284. 

Ranella albivaricosa, Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 2; Kobtlt, Con.-Cab. 

p. 133 pi. 38. figs. 4, 5, 8, 9. 
Bursa siiensonii, Morch, Cat. Yohli, p. 100. 
Var. = Ranella subgranosa, Beck, Reeve, Conch. Icon. fi<r. 1 ; Sowerby, 

Conch. III. fig. 18; Kobelt, Con.-Cab. p. 135, pi. 39. fig. 2. 
= Ranella beckii, Kiener. Coq. T'iv. p. 5, pi. 4. tig. 1. 

Bab. Port Molle, Queensland, 14 fms., rock. 

Other localities attributed to this species are China and Ceylon 
(albivaricosa); Philippine Islands and China (subgranosa) ; Xicobar 
Islands (silt nsonii). 



46. Ranella pnlchella. 

Forbes, Voyage of the ' Rattlesnake,' vol. ii. (1852), p. 382, pi. 3. 

figs. 6 a, b. 
Ranella jucunda, A. Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1853, p. 70. 

Hah. North Australia (Adams); dredged in 8 to 11 fms. water, 
on a bottom of sand and shells, between Cumberland Island and 
Point Slade (lat. 21° S., long. 140° 20' E.) (Forbes); Port Curtis, 



M0LLTT6CA. 57 

11 fms., and Port Molle, 1 4 fms. (Coppinger) ; Palm Island, Cape 
York, Cape Grenville, Daxnley Island, &c. (Brazier), 

The two embryonic whorls of this pretty species arc smooth, 
glossy, and very convex. The colour of the fresh specimen from 
Port Curtis is light yellowish brown, with a dark brown band at 
the upper part of the whorls immediately beneath the suture. The 
operculum is ovate, rather acuminated below, concentrically striated, 
with the nucleus near, but not at, the lower extremity. 



47. Natica (Lunatia) plumbea. 

Natica plumbea, Lamarck, Philippi in Kuster l e Con-Cab. p. 51, pi. 8. 
figs. 3, 4 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon. figs. 34 a, b. 

Natica strangei, Reeve, 1. c. figs. 81 a, b. 

Exeuiplum di8tortum= Natica leucophsea, Reeve, I. c. figs. 51 a, b. 

Hob. Port Denison, Queensland, on the shore (Coppinger) ; Cape 
Upstart, and from north of Cape Hillsboro', N .E. Australia, crawl- 
ing on sand- or mud-banks at low-water mark (J. B. Jukes in Brit. 
Mus.); Port Essiugton (Capt. Wickham, B.N.); Brisbane Water 
(Strange) ; New South Wales (Angus), &c. 



48. Natica lirnpida. (Plate V. fig. L.) 

Shell subglobose, thinnish, semitransparent, whitish, somewhat 
narrowly unbilicated, glossy, sculptured with fine lines of growth. 
Spire small, culminating in an obtuse apex. Whorls 3|, very 
convex, rapidly increasing, separated by a simple linear suture, 
beneath which there is a narrow opaque-white margin. Aperture 
rather more than semicircular, narrower above than at the lower 
part. Columella slightly oblique, straightish or only feebly arcuate, 
a little thickened, somewhat expanded at the upper part, and joined 
to the extremity of the outer lip by a thin callosity. Outer lip 
(viewed laterally) a trifle oblique, and exhibiting near the suture 
a small shallow sinuation. Umbilicus rather narrow, without any 
internal ridge. Operculum unknown. Length 8 millim. ; greatest 
diameter 9, smallest 0^. 

Hob. West Island," Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Straits, 
7 fms. 

This may prove eventually to be the young state of the species, 
a supposition partly based upon the larger size of the nuclear whorls 
and partly upon the thin semitransparent character of the shell. 



49. Natica (Mamma) columnaris. 

Natica columnaris, Rechtz, Reeve, Conch. Icon. figs. 19 a, b. 

Hub. Prince of Wales Channel, 9 fms. (Coppinger) ; Philippine 
Islands (Cuming) ; Ceylon (E. W. H. Holdsivorth in Brit. Mus,). 



5S COLLECTIONS PROM MELANESIA. 



50. Natica (Mamma) ctuningiana. 

Natica cumingiana, Recluz, Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig?. 13 a, h ; Philippi, 

( 'on.-Cab. p. 47, pi. 7. fig. 5. 
Var.=Natica powisiana, Recluz, Reeve, I. c. figs. 22 a, b ; Philippi, l c. 

p. 46, pi. 7. fig. 4. 
Var.=Natica draparnaudi, Recluz, Journ. de Conch, vol. ii. pi. 5. fig. 

11 ; Reeve, l. c. figs. 44 a. />. 

Hub. Port Molle, Queensland. 

The only specimen from this locality is half-grown, white, with a 
hroad and gradually enlarging band of a rich brown colour round 
the body-whorl, with another narrower yellowish one beneath the 
suture, and a third, also of a yellowish tint, bordering the carina 
circumscribing the umbilicus ; this is less open than in the adult 
shell figured by Reeve 



51. Eulima martinii, var. 
A. Adams, Thes. Conch, pi. 109. fig. 5; Sowerby, Conch. Icon. fig. 6. 

Shell elongate-pyramidal, slightly recurved and laterally flexuous 
towards the apex, white, rather transparent behind the varices 
(perhaps due to the youth of the specimen), which are in a single 
oblique series from the labrum upwards. AVhorls very slightly 
convex, eleven remaining in the single shell under examination, 
which may not be full-grown ; apical ones broken off. Outlines of 
the spire for the most part rectilinear, but a little contracted near 
the summit, thus giving the shell a somewhat club-shaped appear- 
ance. Last whorl broad, indistinctly obtusely angled at the peri- 
phery. Aperture pyriform, oblique. Outer lip prominent near the 
middle, feebly sinuated above. Columella arcuate, thickened with 
a reilexed callosity which joins the upper termination of the labrum. 
Length 19 millim., diatn. 7 : aperture bh long, 3g wide. 

Hah. "Warrior Reef, Torres Straits, on a bottom of pearl-shells 
(Avicula margaritifera) (Coppinyer); China Sea (Adams) ; Darnley 
Island, Torres Straits (Brazier). 

This is as broad a shell as E. martinii of A. Adams, and is solely 
distinguished by the greater height of the whorls. Having but 
one specimen (and that probably not adult) to base an opinion 
upon, it would be unwise to hold it distinct on account of this 
single difference. Sowerby gives the locality of this species " St. 
Helena," which is unsupported by any authority and almost cer- 
tainly a mistake. 

52. Strombus campbelli. 

Gray, Griffith's An. King., Moll. pi. 25. fig. G; Sowerby, Thes. 
Conch, pi. 0. figs. 22,23; Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 4.")'; Chenu, 
Manuel, fig. ItiOO. 

Hah. Port Denison (4 fins.), Port Molle, and Friday Island, 



MOLLUSC A. 59 

Torres Straits (Cqppinger) ; Cape Grenville, North-east Australia 
(15 fms.), and Long Island, Torres Straits (Brazier). 

The operculum is narrow, deeply and acutely serrate on one 
margin, smooth on the other, and has a raised ridge running from 
the smaller end almost to the opposite extremity. 

53. Terebellum subulatum, Lamard-. 

Hah. Flinders Is., Clairmont Is., North-east Australia, 1 1 fms. 
(Coppinger). 

54. Cypraea arabica, Linn. 

Hah. Port Molle coral-reef. 

55. Cypraea lynx, Linn. 
Hah. Port Molle coral-reef. 

56. Cypraea annulus, Linn. 
Hah. Port Molle coral-reef. 

57. Cypraea errones, Linn. 

Hah. Port Molle, Queensland (Coppinger) ; New South Wales, 
rare ! (Angas) . 

The only example of this species from the above locality is of 
unusually small size. It is only 19 millim. in length and lOi- wide. 

58. Cypraea walkeri. 
Gray, Reeve, Conch. Icon. figs. 50 a, b, &c. 

Hah. Flinders Is., Clairmont Is., North-east Australia, 11 fms., 
sand and mud ( Coppinger) ; Philippine Islands (Sowerhy, Tfies.); 
Palm Island and Cape Grenville, North-east Australia, also Darnley 
Island, Torres Straits (Brazier). 

59. Ovula (Radius) angasi. 

Ovulum angasi, Adams, Reeve, Conch. Icon. figs. 43 a, b. 
Yolva angasi, Angus, Froc. Zool. >S'«c. 1867, p. 207. 

Hah. Port Curtis, 11 fms., sand and shell bottom (Coppinger) ; 
Port Curtis (Reeve) ; Watson's Bay, New South Wales, on a branch 
of red Gorgonia, amongst the rocks at extreme low water (Angas). 

In the brief description in the ' Conchologia Iconica ' one or 
two important characters are not noticed. The dorsal surface of 
the shell towards both ends is very prettily sculptured in an 
oblique direction with fine wavy striae, as indicated in the figure 
in the above work, the waviuess being due to the fine transverse 
lines of growth. The colour is white, more or less transparent, 



60 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

with the extreme tips tinged with orange or pink. The ventral 
surface is peculiarly humpy near the middle, owing to a consider- 
ahle deposit of callus. Figure 43 a represents the dextral outline 
rather too prominent, and hoth this and fig. 43 b delineate the shell 
too hroad and the outer lip too thick. 

60. Littorina scabra. 

Linn., Fhilippfs Abbild. vol. ii. p. 221, pi. 5. figs. 3-7; Reeve, Conch. 
Icon. figs. 21 a-d. 

Ifab. Thursday Island, Torres Straits, in mangrove-swamps. 



61. Littorina filosa. 

Sowerfa/, Genera lice. 8f Foss. Shells, fig. 5 ; Reeve, Conch. Syst. 
pi. 212. fig. 5 ; Conch. Icon. figs. 24 a-c; Philippi, Abbild. vol. iii. 
pp. 40 & 55, pi. 0. fig. 4, and pi. 7. figs. 1, 2. 

Hab. Boko Island, Endeavour Strait, Xorth Australia, in man- 
grove-swamps. 

62. Littorina niauritiana, Laniard: . 
(Tar. diernenensis.) 

Hab. Port Jackson (Qoppinger). 

This species is very variable in size, the difference in this respect 
being the only distinction between the typical form and the variety 
named L. diernenensis by Quoy and Gaimard (vide Philippi's excel- 
lent monograph of this genus in the ' Abbild. imd Beschreib. neuer 
Conch.' vol. ii. p. 195). L. antipodum of Philippi (I.e. pi. 4. fig. 2) 
and L. acuta of Menke are also small varieties. The European 
L. neritoides of Linu. ( = Turbo ccerulescens of Lamarck) is considered 
the same species by Mr. Tenison-Woods (Proc. Linn. Soe. X. S. 
Wales, vol. iii. pp. 65-72); but this determination, I think; requires 
still further substantiation, and I rather incline with Philippi to 
retain that form as distinct. Littorina ziczac is a well-known 
West-Indian species, but is also recorded from the Eed Sea and 
Kangaroo Island, South Australia, by Philippi, who remarks that it 
is scarcely separable from Ij. niauritiana, with the exception of 
colour and, in most cases, a slight difference in the transverse stria- 
tum (I.e. p. 165). Mr. Tenison-Woods believes it to be only a 
variety, but at the same time is not prepared to assert this posi- 
tively. He also fails to see any specific difference between this shell 
and L. africana (Krauss), Philippi. I should here point out that the 
shell figured by Eccve (Conch. Icon. figs. 37 a, b) is not the true 
Philippian species, but merely L. mauritiana ; and consequently if 
Mr. Tenison-Woods based his opinion upon that figure he is certainly 
correct. />. africana is compared by its author with //. neritoides, 
from which it is said to differ in sculpture, form, and the columella. 



MOLLUSCA. (11 

The L. Icevis of Reeve is also L. mauritiana, and quite distinct from 
the L. Icevis of Philippi (/. c. vol. iii. p. 10, pi. 6. tig. 6), which is 
also from the Mauritius. /,. undulata of Gray is also considered a 
variety of L. mauritiana by Mr. Tenison-Woods (/. <•. p. 72) ; hut 
here I think ho overstrains the power of variation. Besides the 
difference in form and colour, the violet columella and sculpture 
readily distinguish that shell. In adopting the Lamarckian name 
L. cwrulescens, even supposing the Mediterranean and Australian 
shells were the same species, 1 think Mr. Tenison-Woods is wrong, 
considering what is said upon this point by Philippi (op. cit. vol. ii. 
p. 166), llanley ('Ipsa Linnau Conchylia,' p. 32t>), Jeffreys, and 
others. 

63. Risella lutea. 

Trochus luteus, Quoy 8r Gaimard, Voy. ' Astrolabe,' vol. iii. p 271, 
pi. 62. tigs.. 8-11 ; Kiener, Coq. Viv. pi. 38. fig. 2. 

Trochus cicatricosus, Jonas, PhilippVs . Ibbild. pi. 2. fi?. 2. 

Bembicium luteum, Philippi, Zeitsch. Mai. 184(">, p. 132. 

Risella lutea, Philippi, Kit, iter's Con.- Cab. p. 4, pi. 1. figs. ], 2. 

Risella kielnmnnse^i, Zvlc ! "ir, Ve rhandl. zool.-botan. Gesellsch. Wien, 
18G6, vol. xvi. p. 913; Voy. ' Nbvara,' pi. xi. tigs. 11 a-d. 

Bab. Port Jackson, Port Denison, Port Curtis, and Port Molle 
(Coppinger). 

This genus has been suppressed by Mr. Tenison-Woods (Proc. 
Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 1879, vol. iii. p. 61); but, in my judgment, 
it may be retained with advantage as distinct from Littorina. The 
Trochoid form and flattened base of the species is not approached in 
that genus, and the character of the columella is very different. 

According to Mr. Tenison-Woods there is but one species otRisella 
in Australia (R. melanostoma of Graelin), under which name he 
includes fifteen varieties or species, which have been named and 
described by Lamarck, Quoy, Gray, Philippi, and others. 

Although the separation of many species or constant local forms 
seems impossible, we must not therefore ignore their existence. 
Risella bruni is a South-Australian shell, and does not attain any 
thing like the size of several of the other species, e. g. R. nana, 
R. melanostoma, and R. imbricata. Although it might be possible 
to get together an immense series of specimens which would unite 
step by step the two most extreme forms, nevertheless the R. bruni 
would still remain the small species from South Australia, and the 
other, the R. imbricata from Sydney, Port Stephens, &c, would also 
be recognizable as such. 

I am far from admitting the validity of all the described species ; 
but there are some, I think, which may be retained, at all events, 
with convenience. It is not my intention now to discuss this subject 
further, but, in conclusion, will call attention to Philippi's mono- 
graph of the genus, which has been altogether overlooked by Crosse 
( Journ. de Conch. 1864) and by Tenison-Woods ; it was published 
in 1853 in Kiister's ' Conchylien-Cabinet,' and contains the following 



62 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

species, not mentioned by the above authors : — R. fimbriata, 
R. flavesceng, R. grisea, and R. plicatula. Another species wbich 
has also escaped attention is the Trochus melanostoma of Iteeve 
( Proc. Zool. Soc. 1842, p. 185; Conch. Syst. vol. ii. pi. 218. fig. 16). 
Tin's is the same as Risella fimbriata of Philippi, which I think 
should be regarded as a large form of R. melanostoma, Gmelin ; and 
with this species I would also unite R.fiavescens and R. plicatula of 
Philippi. I Junker has also described a species from Sydney under 
the name of R. crassa, which appears to be remarkable on account 
of a thickened channelled lip (Mai. Plat. 1861, vol. viii. p. 42). 

R. hielmannseggi, Zelebor, is the R. h/tra, Quoy, of which R. 
imbricata may be a variety. The two following species resemble 
Risella in form, but have the concentric multispiral operculum 
of Trochus, from which they are distinguished by their non-pearly 
apertures — Trochus tantillus, Gould, and Risella isseli, Semper. 
The Tectarius luteus of Gould, Risella infracostata, Issel, R. par- 
vula, Dunker ('? = tantillus), and Trochus conoidalis of Pease will 
probably have similar opercula ; these four species differ from 
Risella not only in the operculum, but in being narrowly per- 
forated. The statement with regard to Risella a u rata being the 
male of R. nana (although both are hermaphrodite) made by 
Mr. Tenison- Woods (Proc. Linn. Soc. N". S. Wales, vol. i. p. 244), 
and that " all breed freely with one another," seems to me to re- 
quire some further corroboration. He himself hesitates to assert 
positively that either of these two forms are incapable of repro- 
ducing their own kind, " for there are many places on the coast 
where no species can be found except the variety now known as 
R. aurata." This, in my judgment, proves that that species at all 
events is self-propagating ; yet Mr. Tenison-Woods says that 
specimens of this species kept in glass jars for a few weeks did not 
become fertile. Experiments rmtde for so short a time are far from 
conclusive, especially when made under such artificial conditions. 

64. Rissoina clathrata. 

A. Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851, p. :?<>.*>; Schwartz von Mohrenstern f 
Denkschrift. Ahad. Wissenschqft. Wten, 1861, vol. xix. pt. 2, p. 154, 
pi. vi. tig. 49 ; Smith, Jburn. Linn. Soc. vol. xii. p. 553. 

Ifab. Prince of Wales Channel, 7 fms. (Coppinyer); Philippine 
Islands (Cumin;/) ; var. minor, from the Caroline Islands (J. 
Brazier). 

The specimen obtained by Dr. Coppinger is of a yellow-wax 
colour, faintly tinged with rose towards the apex and at the aper- 
ture. It has the upper whorls broken off. the remaining four and 
a half measuring 10 millim. in length. The figures in Kiister's 
' Conchylien-C&binet,' pi. iv. tigs. 12, 13, do nol give the faintest 
idea of this species, and probably represent another. 



Mul.I.lXA. 63 

65. Rissoina curtisi. (Plate V. fig. .M.i 

Shell elongate, thick, white, very coarsely cancellated. Number 
of whorls unknown, the apex being broken off; the remaining four 
are obliquely sloping at the upper part, and, with the exception of 
the last, biangulaled at the sides, the angles being caused by the 
prominence of two spiral line upon the longitudinal costae. A third 
lira is seen at the base of the whorls at the suture. The costae are 
about fourteen on a -whorl, about as thick as the transverse ridges, 
and nodulous at the points of intersection. The body-whorl has 
five spiral lira>, the lowermost being separated from those above by 
a broad smooth furrow, in which the costae are almost obsolete. 
Aperture obliquely subovate, rather widely channelled in front. 
Columella oblique, covered with a thin callosity, which at the base 
forms the sinistral side of the canal. Labrum much thickened ex- 
teriorly, acute at the margin, and (viewed laterally) is produced to 
the left at the front part. 

Probable length about 7 millim. ; actual length of remaining four 
whorls oh millim., width 2^. 

J lab. Port Curtis, 7 fms. 

This species might be considered a dwarfed, strongly cancellated 
form of 11. claihrata ; it is less slender, has fewer and stouter costae, 
and the spiral lira? are also thicker and two in number upon the 
upper whorls exclusive of those at the suture, whilst in the species 
referred to there are three. The outer lip is much thickened and 
the aperture rather more contracted. 

G6. Cerithiurn morus. 

Lamarck, Anim. sans Vert, ed. 2, vol. ix. p. 302 ; Kiener, Coq. Viv. 

p. 52, pi. 15. rig. 1 ; Sowerby, T/tes. Conch, rigs. 159-161 ; id. Conch. 

Icon. fig. 42. 
Var. = Cerithiurn moniliferum, Dafresne, Kiener. Coq. Viv. p. 49, 

pi. 16. fig. 3; Sowerby, Thes. figs.'l63, 165 ; id. Conch. Ic. rig. 20. 
Var. = Cerithiurn carbonarium, Soicerby (non Philippi), Conch. Icon. 

tig. 59. 

Hah. Philippine Islands (Cuming) ; Samoa Islands (Rev. S. J. 
Whitmee in Brit. Mus.) ; Port Jackson, 7 fms. ; Friday Island, 
Boko Island, Endeavour Strait, and West Island, Prince of Wales 
Channel, Torres Straits (Goppinger) ; Dungeness Island, Torres 
Straits (Brazier) ; Hall Sound, Xew Guinea (Brazier). 

The small group of species to which C. moras belongs, including 
C. tuberculatum of Linnaeus as defined by Hanley ("Ipsa Linnaei 
Conchylia,' p. 270, pi. iv. fig. 4), G. lemniscatum, C. breve, and C. 
variegatum, Quoy and Gaimard, G. petrosum and G. rugosum of 
Wood (non Lamarck) = C.patiens, Bayle, C. moniliferum, Kiener, G. 
gemma, G. purpurascens, C. bifasciatam, C. pupa, and C. nigro- 
fasciatum of Sowerby, is very perplexing, owing to the great simi- 
larity in sculpture of the various species. 

1. G. tuberculatum, to which I unite as varieties C. variegation, 



64 C0LLF.CT10X9 FROM 1IEI.AN I>1A . 

C. pupa, and C. petrosum, may be recognized in all its forms by the 

oblique varix on the back of tbe body-whorl, a feature not found in 
0. morus and C. patiens ( = rugosum). The typical form and the 
variety C. variegatum are pupiform, having the spire acutely conical 
towards the apex and the last whorl scarcely broader than tho 
preceding one. The granulations appear to be never in more than 
three rows on the upper whorls, but on the penultimate a fourth is 
frequently, but not always, observable adjoining the lower suture. 
The body-whorl has normally seven principal series of granules ; 
but in many instances the minor or intermediate series attain as 
large a size as the principal ones, when the number of rows may be 
nine to a dozen or even more. The variations in colour are consider- 
able : normal specimens are whitish varied with black, brown, and 
white tubercles. 

The var. variegatum is irregularly blotched with light or dark 
brown, and some specimens are almost entirely of a uniform dark 
brown (Conch. Icon. fig. 41 a). Another has a light brown band im- 
mediately beneath the suture and a second broader one at the base 
of the body-whorl, as in C. pupa (Conch. Icon. fig. 84), which is 
remarkable on account of the remoteness of the tubercles on sub- 
distant longitudinal costa3. All of these forms of the variety varie- 
gatum have a more or less lilac-tinted aperture ; but in others (vide 
Conch. Icon. figs. 41 b, c) it is white, and the style of colouring reverts 
more to the typical form of the species. The form which has been 
named C. petrosum (Wood, Index Test. Suppl. pi. iv. fig. !) of Strom- 
bus) and its varieties (Sowerby, Thes. Conch, figs. 171, 17-? : Conch. 
Icon. figs. 43 «, b) differ very considerably from the normal C. tuber- 
culatum ; but in the specimen depicted by the two last figures we 
find the connecting link. 

In the type figured by Wood, now in the British Museum, the 
tubercles are much compressed and united laterally so as to form 
lirse continuous on and between longitudinal folds ; however, upon 
the uppermost volutions the granules become more prominent. 

The colouring of this shell is similar to that of the variety C. 
pupa, excepting some of the tubercles and liras being black, indi- 
cating a return to the black nodulation of the typical 0. tuberculatum. 

2. C. morus, the synonymy of which is given above, has three 
rows of granules on the upper whorls, and if a fourth be present 
on the penultimate whorl, as is sometimes the case, it invariably 
consists of much smaller tubercles than those on the three other 
series. The last varix is situated on the side of the body-whorl 
exactly opposite the labrum, and never on the back of it, as in C. 
tuberculatum and its varieties. The principal rows of granules on 
this whorl are six in number, and may best be counted upon the 
labrum, where the sixth or lowermost terminates at a little distance 
from the canal, those actually ending at the canal being secondary 
or smaller series and wind round the short basal cauda of the whorl. 
The Labrum also becomes mure thickened in adult specimens of this 
species than in C. tuberculatum. The specimens collected by Dr. 



KOLLtrSOA. 05 

Coppinger at Port Jackson are like fig. 59 in tlio Conch. Icon. (C. car- 
bonarium, Sow. non Phil.), but a little narrower, and those from 
"West Island in Torres Straits are of a peculiar short stunted 
growth. 

'-'>. G. paiiens, Bayle, = G. rugosum, Wood (non Lamarck), of 
whirl: species G. breve, Quoy and Gfaimard, appears to he a variety, 
may he only a form of G. morus; still there is a character about 
the coarse ribbing and granulation and i he blotchy irregularity of 
the painting which seems to demand their separation. Besides, 
MM. Quoy and Graimard state that the animals present certain 
differences. 

In conclusion, I should observe that the G. tuberculatum of Sowerhy 
(Conch. Icon. figs. 21 a, b) is a peculiarly coloured specimen of this 
species (G.patiens); also (hat the shell figured as G. bornii (Thes. 
fig. 1 75 ; Conch. Icon. fig. 26) is the true G. carbonarium of Philippi, 
fig. 59 of the Conch. Icon, not representing the latter species, but 
merely, as already staled, a form of G. morus. 

G. tuberculatum, as defined by Lamarck and Iviener, is a common 
Red-Sea species, which has been named 0. cceruleum by Sowerby 
(Thes. Conch, vol. ii. p. 860, pi. 179. figs. 61, 02). 



67. Cerithiuni nigro-balteatum. (Plate V. fig. N.) 

Shell elongate, pyramidal, while, banded with brownish black 
above the suture, around the middle and base of the last whorl. 
Volutions about twelve, constricted above at the suture, longitudi- 
nally strongly costate and spirally ridged and sulcated. The costae 
are prominent, about nine in number on the upper whorls, somewhat 
interrupted by the depression beneath the suture. The spiral ridges 
are rather prominent upon the costae and unequal in thickness ; 
there are about four principal ones and several smaller intervening 
ones. On the body-whorl (in the single specimen under examina- 
tion) the costae are rather finer and about eleven in number — one, a 
little stouter than the rest on the left side, extending to the base 
and forming a lateral varix, the others becoming obsolete a little 
below the middle, where the whorl is somewhat angulated and con- 
cave below the angle. The transverse principal lira? number about 
six, of which the two lowermost are granulous, white, and situated 
between the dark base and the zone above the middle. The lower 
part of the whorl is finely concentrically striated and lirate. Aper- 
ture broadly suboval, oblique. Basal canal short, oblique, slightly 
recurved. Columella obliquely arcuate, blackish. Labrum thickened 
by the last costa, grooved and lirate within. Length 15 millim., 
diameter 0. 

Hub. Prince of Wales Channel, 5-7 fms. 

This species is readily recognized by the peculiarity of its colours, 
the depth of the subsutural depression, and the concave base of the 
last whorl. 



00 i "i.i.i (i roNs from mi:um-i \. 

68. Cerithium torresi. (Plate V. fig-. 0.) 

Shell elongate-pyramidal, white blackish towards the apex, 
ornamented with transverse series of dark-brown dots upon the 
Lirse between the longitudinal granose coshe. Whorls 11, very 
slightly convex, separated by a deepish suture, costate and trans- 
versely lirate, the points of intersection of the ribs and ridges being 
developed into prominent white nodules. The spiral line which 
become nodulous arc three in number in the upper whorls, the 
uppermost being situated close to the suture, the next a little above 
the middle, and the lowermost below it, but more remote from the 
suture than the uppermost. In addition, there arc one or more 
simple thread-like lines revolving between the granulous ridges, 
which are also articulated with brown. The body-whorl has about 
eight principal transverse ridges, of which the three uppermost are 
tho thickest, the two next rather fiuer and also granulous, the 
three remaining ones being still more slender and more feebly 
nodulous. The longitudinal ribs are about twelve on a whorl, one 
of them being swollen or varicose. The last varix on the body- 
whorl is situated on the left of the aperture : this is small, obliquely 
oval, terminating anteriorly in a short, oblique, and very slightly 
recurved canal. The columella is considerably arched, white, 
covered with a thin callosity, developed at the upper part into an 
elongate ridge which runs within the aperture. Labrum varixed 
externally, also thickened a little within and shallowly grooved, 
the grooves corresponding with the external ridges. Length 144 
millim., diam. 5 ; aperture 4| long and 2| wide. 

I lab. Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Straits, 3-4 fms. 

69. Cerithium (Colina) macrostoma. 

Cerithium macrsotoma, Hinds, J'"//. i Sulphur] p. 27, pi. xvi. figs. 1 1. 
12; Sowerby, Thes. Conch, pi. 184. fig. 219; id. Conch. Icon. figs. 
118 a, b. 
Var. = Colina pupiformis, A. Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1853, p. 17i'>, 
pi. xx. tig. 14 (enlarged). 
= Cerithium pupseforme (A. Adams), Sowerby, The*. Conch. 
vol. ii. pi. 184. fig. 221 ; id. Conch. Icon. figs. 122 a, b (bad !). 
Var. = Colina costata, A. Adams, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 86. 

= Cerithium costiferum, Sowerby, Thes. Conch, vol. ii. pi. 184. 
figs. 222; id. Conch. Icon. figs. 117 a, b. 
Var. = Colina pygmsea, II Adams, lYoc. Zool. Soc. 1807, p. 308, 
pi. 19. ilg. 19. 

flab. Thursday Island, Torres Straits, 5-7 fms. (Cojjpinger) : 
Straits of .Macassar. 11 fms. (Hinds); Damaguete, Philippine 
[slands {Cuming for C. pupiformis)', Philippine Islands (Cm 
for ('. costata) ; Borneo \ll. Adams for C.jpygmwa). 

The above-named and so-called species I believe to be mere 
variations of one and the same shell. Compare the extreme forms 
( ('. macrostoma and C. pygmcea), and one perceives avast difference 
in outline and the number of whorls ; but even here several features 
in common will be found, namely tho spotted expanded outer lip, 






MOLLUSCS.. 67 

the oblique pale brown stripes on the narrowest extremity of tho 
body-whorl, the longitudinal more or less nodulous costse subobsoleto 
on the last whorl, and the transverse striation and line. Tho 
Dumber of whorls seems to vary very considerably in the ten speci- 
mens under examination, and the apex of the spire appears to be 
invariably broken off. When this has occurred the animal closes 
the top with a smooth, shelly, spiral callosity, and it becomes 
a matter of uncertainty how many whorls may have been lost. 
This will account for the great difference in the number oi remaining 
volutions in the following specimens: — IS T o. 1 (the type of G. pyg- 
mcea from the collection of tho late Henry Adams) has six and a 
half normal whorls left; Nos. 2, 3, and 4 have seven each, 5 and 6 
havo eight each, No. 7 has nine, No. 8 ten, No. 9 eleven, and 
No. 10 has twelve. The number of whorls represented in tho 
figures of C. macrostoma are not reliable, as fig. 12 represents 
seventeen, whilst fig. 11 (evidently taken from the same specimen) 
exhibits but fifteen. The costto are also somewhat variable in 
number and prominence, but invariably become more or less obsolete 
on the contracted body-whorl, where, being crossed by the spiral 
sulci, they present the granular aspect described by A. Adams in his 
diagnosis of C. costata. The outer lip, which is very liable to be 
broken away, is expanded, thickened but not varixed, grooved ex- 
ternally and spotted with red lines, which for the most part fall in 
the grooves referred to. Within it is smooth, and in full-grown 
specimens exhibits a slight tubercular prominence, above which a 
small sinus is observable, close to the suture. 

70. Cerithium (Khinoclavis) fasciatum. 

Cerithium fasciatum, Brwj., Kiener, Coq. Viv. pi. 20. figs. 1-1 c; 
Sowerby, Conch. Icon., Vertagus, figs. 9 a, 9 b. 

Hob. Friday Island, Torres Straits. 

The young specimen from this locality is very like Sowerby's 
figure 9 b, but the lower part of the last whorl is white entirely. 

71. Cerithium (Khinoclavis) vertagus. 

Cerithium vertagus, Linn., Kiener, Coq. Viv. pi. 18. fig. 2. 
Vertagus vulgaris, Schumacher, Essai Nouv. Syst. p. 223; Adams, 
Genera, i. p. 285, pi. 30. figs. 1-1 e. 

Hob. Port Mollo, Queensland, and Friday Island, Torres Straits, 
on the beach. 

72. Cerithium (Khinoclavis) kochi. 

Cerithium kochi, Philippi, Abbild. iii. pi. 1. fig. 3 ; Sowerby, Thes. 
Conch, vol. ii. pi. 176. figs. 13-15 ; id. in Reeve's Conch. Icon., Ver- 
tagus, figs. 26 a, b. 

Bab. Red Sea (Mac-Andrew) ; East Africa (Philippi) ; Mauritius 
{Mbbius) ; Amirantes Islands, at Poivre Island in 20 fms., and lie 

p2 



68 COLLECTIONS FU0M MELANESIA. 

des Roches in L3 ftns., also Friday Island and Prince of Wales 

Channel (5-7 fins.), Torres Straits (Coppinger) ; Zebu, Philippines 

(Mus. Cuming); Nagasaki (Lischke); Matoza Harbour, Japan, 
6 fins. (Capt.St. John). 

73. Cerithium granosum. 
Kiener, Coq. Viv. pi. 4. fig. 3 ; Sowerby, Conch. Icon. fig. 73. 

Hab. Friday Island, Torres Straits (Coppinger) ; Port Essington 
(Brit. Mus.); lied Sea (Kiener). 

74. Cerithium novse-hollandiae. 

A. Adams ; Sowcrby's Thes. Conch, vol. ii. pi. 178. fig. 54 ; Reeve, 
Conch. Icon. fig. 30. 

Hab. Port Molle, Queensland, Prince of "Wales Channel, and 
Friday Island, Torres Straits (Coppinger); Cape York, Mud Bay, 
N. Australia (Brazier). 

75. Lampania australis. 
Cerithium australe (Q. fy 67.); Kiener, Coq. Viv. pi. 8. fig 2. 

Hab. Port Curtis. 

76. Pyrazus sulcatus, Bom. 

Hab. Thursday Island, Eoko Island, in mangrove-swamps (Cop- 
pinger) ; Dungeness Island, Torres Straits (Brazier). 

77. Telescopiuin fuscum, Schumacher. 
Hab. Eoko Island, Endeavour Straits, in mangrove-swamps. 

fS. Siliquaria angutna, Linn. 
Sowerby, Conch. Icon. figs. 7 a-7 c. 

Hab. Port Darwin, 8-12 fms. 

The single specimen from the above locality belongs to the pur- 
plish-rose variety of the species. 

79. Siliquaria ponderosa. 
Mb'rch ; Sowerhfs Conch. Icon. pi. 2. fig. 3. 

Hab. Port Molle, Queensland, and Prince of Wales Channel, 
Torres Straits, 5-7 fms. 

80. Narica cancellata. 

Chemnitz ; Ricluz, Mag. de Zool. 1845, pi. 119 ; Sowerby, Conch. Icon. 
figs. 1 a, b (Vanikoro I. 

Hab. Port Molle, 12-20 fms. (Coppinger); Moluccas and Lord 



1I0LLUSCA. (>9 

Hood's Island (Recluz) ; Oomaga Reef (Jukes) ; Mauritius (Martens) ; 
Home Islands, off Cape Grenvillc, N.E. Australia, and Darnley 
Island, Torres Straits (Brazier). 

With this species N. cidaris and N. petitiana have very close 
relationship, ami, indeed, at present I cannot appreciate their points 
of distinction. 

81. Nerita chrysostoma. 
RScluz ; Reeve, Conch. Icon, pi. iv. tigs. 18 a, b. 

Hab. Friday and Thursday Islands, Torres Straits, and Endeavour 
Straits, N. Australia (Goppinger) ; Philippine Islands (Cuming). 

With this species should probahly ho united N. Le guillouana, 
N. savieana, N.longii, A 7 , aurantia (all of Recluz), and N. funi- 
culata, Eeevo. 

82. Nerita melanotragns. 

Nerita atrata, Reeve (nonChemnitz), Conch. Icon. figs. 1G a, b ; Hut ton, 
Manual Moll. New Zealand, p. 80; Anyas, Proc. Zool.Soc. 18G5, 
p. 175 ; op. cit. 1867, p. I'll*. 

Nerita nigra ( Quoy 8f Gaimard), Gray, Dieffenbacli's New Zealand, 
vol. ii. p. 240. 

Hab. New Zealand, common in the north, not found south of 
Wellington (Sutton) ; Australia and Tasmania (Sutton) ; Port 
Jackson (Coppinger, Angas, Sfc); Norfolk Island (Brenchley) ; 
Eaoul or Sunday Island, Kermadec Islands (MacGillivray, Voy. 
of H.M.S. ' Herald '). 

I am inclined with Deshayes * and Martens f to consider the shell 
figured by Reeve not the A 1 , atrata of Chemnitz. That author 
describes both lips as white, whereas the species figured by Reeve 
has the outer lip remarkably margined with black. Besides, the 
localities quoted in the ' Conchylien-Cabinet,' namely the coast of 
Guinea and the West Indies, do not support Reeve's identification. 
It is not, however, improbable that the Nerita mentioned by 
Chemnitz in the concluding paragraph of his description may have 
been the N. atrata of Reeve, for he states it to have been boug lit 
from the South Seas by one of the expeditions under Captain Cook. 
I cannot find any species described by Quoy and Gaimard under 
the name N. nigra quoted by Gray in Dieffenbach's work, although 
they figure the animal only of a Nirite noirdtre in the ' Voyage de 
l'Uranie et la Physicienne.' The shell of that species they do not 
describe, on account of its bad condition. The A', punctata, Q. & G., 
from the Mauritius is placed as a synonym of the present species 
by Mr. Angas (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1865, p. 175); but that species I 
consider perfectly distinct, being probably the same as the N.niger- 
rima of Chemnitz as figured by Reeve, which varies to a considerable 
extent in the amount of white dotting. The spire of A', punctata 
is described as "■conrc.ra, prominenti."' The aperture is said to be 

* Anim. sans Vertebres, ed. 2. vol. viii. p. 603. 

+ Beitrage zur Meeresfauua der Insel Mauritius und der Seycliellen. p. 292, 



70 COLLECTIONS FBOM MELANESIA. 

"blanche, quehpiefois un pen jaundtre, avec des pits en arriere," 
and the operculum is " rougeatre." None of these features are 
present in A. melanotragus ; its spire is scarcely raised above the 
last whorl, the labrum is margined with intense black, the colu- 
mella is white and destitute of the " plis en arriere," and the oper- 
culum is flesh-coloured, marked with two arcuate purplish-black 
stripes. 2sot finding any name which can be retained for this 
species, I have imposed upon it that of A. melanotragus, being 
descriptive of the black labrum. The name N.nigra appears in the 
• Conchylien-Cabinet,' and was given by Chemnitz to another speci* s. 
If such were not the case I would have applied it to tins species, as 
was done by (nay to specimens brought home by Dr. Dieffenhach 
from New Zealand. 

83. Nerita costata. 

Chemnitz ; Reeve, Conch. Icon. figs. 6 a, b. 
Hab. N.E. Australia, beach. 

84. Nerita lineata. 
Chemnitz; Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 13. 

Hub. Straits of Malacca (Chemnitz) ; Port Essington and Philip- 
pine Islands (Reeve) ; Port ITolle, 12-20 fms., and Port Curtis, in 
mangrove-swamps above high -water mark (Coppinger). 

85. Nerita squamulata. 
Le Gillou, Revue Zool. 1841, p. 344; Reeve, Conch. Icon. figs. 63 a-f. 

Hab. Port Curtis, Port Denison, Port Molle, Queensland, 12- 
20 fms., on a rocky bottom (Coppiriger) ; Singapore and Philippine 
Islands (Reeve) ; Samoa Islands (Brcnchleg) ; Pelew Islands (King). 

86. Nerita signata. 
Macleay ; Reeve, Conch. Icon. pi. x. figs. 44 a, b. 

Hab. Friday Island, Torres Straits, in mangrove-swamps. 

One small specimen, obtained at the above locality, has the ridges 
of a blackish colour articulated with creamy white, the interstices 
being of a dirty white colour. 

87. Turbo concinnus. 

Philippi. Con.-Cab. p. 44, pi. xi. tig. 6 (published in Lief. 65 in the 

year L847). 
=T. articulatus, Reeve, Conch. Icon. sp. 39 (1848). 

Hab. Porl Molle, Queensland, on a coral-reef (Coppinger). 

The operculum of this species is solid, convex, more or less pale 
greenish, coarsely granular, especially near the outer margin, and 
exhibits a slight, obliquelj arcuate depression extending from the 
centre to the opposite or inner side. 



MOLj D8CA. 71 

88. Trochus (Isanda) coronata. (Plate V. figs. P-P2.) 

A. Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc. L853, p. 189, & I 354, pi. 27. fig. 5 ; Genera 

Bee, Moll. pi. 46. fig. 2; Chemn. Man. Conch, fig. l'010. 
Var.=I. lepida, J. ^te, P. X. .S'. 1853, p. L90. 

//«//. Port Curtis, 7 fms., and Friday Island, Torres Straits, on 
the beach ( Coppingi r) ; South Australia ( ( 'uming). 

With the exception of differences in colour and the height of the 
spires, there appears to he little or no sufficient reason why the two 
above-named forms should be specifically separated. The subangu- 
lation of the body-whorl, said to exist in /. lepida, isveryslighl and 
equally present in /. coronata. The types of the latter are described 
as being ornamented with white transverse lines and brown spots, 
arranged in transverse series and having a broad white band at the 
sutures. This band is not in fact at the suture, but just below the 
coronation of the whorls, the latter portion and tho channelled top 
being coloured like the greater part of the shell. This stylo of 
painting is far from constant. Two specimens presented to tho 
British Museum by A. Adams, Esq., lack the conspicuous white 
baud, but have the entire surface covered with oblique, slightly 
wavy, pinkish-brown stripes, resting upon a pinky-white ground. 
A single specimen dredged by Dr. Coppinger at Port Curtis exhibits 
the typical coloration, with the exception of having a second white 
transverse zone just below the periphery of the last volution. 
Another example from Friday Island more nearly resembles the 
variety previously mentioned ; but the oblique stripes are less 
regular, being more interrupted and in the form of spots. 

Mr. Adams describes the inner lip of this genus as " straight, 
forming an angle with the outer lip." This description is scarcely 
accurate. All the specimens which I have examined have tho 
columella a little oblique, slightly incurved at the upper part and 
middle, and then prominent anteriorly, terminating in an indistinct 
siihtruncation, or, in other words, it is subnotched at the base at tho 
termination of the double series of tubercles surrounding the umbi- 
licus. It is very slightly expanded and connected with the upper 
extremity of the outer lip by a thin callosity (which is subtubercular 
in adult shells) upon the whorl close to the end of the columella. 
The aperture has a thin coating of nacre, which in worn shells is 
not very apparent. 

89. Trochus ( Calliostoma) speciosa. 

Ziziphinus speciosus, A. Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1854, p. 38 ; Reeve, 
Conch. Icon., Zizyphinus, sp. 9, liu's. 9 a, h. 

1 lab. Port Curtis, Queensland, 7-11 fms. {Coppinger) ; Moreton 
Bay {Mr. Strange). 

In form this species approaches T. comtus of Philippi, which, 
however, in addition to difference in colour, does do! possess the 
peculiar smooth orange-yellow callosity at the umbilical region so 



72 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

characteristic of T. speviosus. Ziziphinus comptus, A. Adams, is a 
different Bpecies from that described by Philippi, and has since been 
described by Souverbie under the name of T. poupineli. 

90. Trochus (Calliostoma) decoratus. 

Trochus decoratus, Philippi, Con.-Cab. pi. 13. fig. 1. 
Zizyphinus decoratus, Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 28; A. Adams, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1851, p. 165. 

//„/, « ? ** ( Philippi); Brisbane waters, East Australia (11' eve) ; 

Sydney and Port Jackson ( Coppingi r and Lieut. A. Smith, R.N.). 

The interior of the aperture of this species, close to the outer and 
basal margin, is thickened with a whitish and more or less cloudy 
pearly deposit, which conceals to some extent the beautiful iri- 
descence observable further within. 

91. Trochus (Calliostoma) rubropunctatus. 

Ziziphinus rubropunctatus, A. Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851, p. 107 ; 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 56. 

Hah. ? (Adams c\ Reeve); Albany Island, N. Australia, in 

3-4 fms. on a muddy bottom, and Port Darwin, ET.W. Australia, 
8-12 fms. (Coppinger). 

This is a most charming littlo species, and readily recognized by 
its peculiar painting and remarkable sculpture. Adams describes 
the colour as " lutescens." I should rather consider it pale fleshy 
pink, with dark red dots in the interstices between the oblique 
cost* and tho transverse or spiral ridges. The latter are said to be 
four in number on the last whorl ; but on careful examination I find 
six, of which four are, however, more prominent than the rest. 
The upper volutions are encircled by three principal lira?, and a 
fourth secondary one at the suture. The points of intersection of 
these spiral ridges and the oblique costa? ;v;e produced into quite 
acute nodules or prickles. The base of the shell is almost flat, 
ornamented with about six concentric lir-^, which are more or less 
granulous, with the interstices exhibiting strong lines of growth 
and translucent nacre. The colour closely approaches the rest of 
the surface, varied with brown dots both upon and between the 
granules. 

92. Trochus (Thalotia) torresi. (Plate VI. fig. A.) 

Shell sharply conical, subperforated or with the perforation con- 
cealed, greenish (sometimes pinkish red), with oblique white narrow 
stripes and darker green (or rosy black) spotting at the base of tho 
whorls and upon the angle of the last. Volutions about 8, flat, 
margined at the lower part with two rows of closely packed granules 
rather mure prominent than five others above. Between these, in 
well-preserved specimens, very fine lirae (one in each interstice) and 
oblique lines of growth are discernible. Last whorl rather acutely 
angled at the periphery, beneath with about nine concentric rows of 



MOLLUSC A. 73 

granules alternating with others very much liner, having smaller 
and subobsolete tubercles. The aperture is obliquely subquadrate, 
Columella a little arcuate at the upper part, white, reflexed over 
the white umbilical region and subtruncate anteriorly. Height 
12 millim., diam. 9| ; another specimen is 13 high, and 12 in 
width. 

Bub. Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Straits. 

There are two varieties of ibis pretty species, which may be 
termed the green and pink. The former is represented by four 
specimens in the Museum (three belonging to the Cumingian col- 
lection) and the latter by two, which fact, however, can hardly be 
accepted as indicating the relative abundance of the two forms. 

In the green variety the base in three out of the four examples is 
somewhat pinkish, radiately streaked with white, whilst in the 
fourth specimen it is green with irregular streaks and has a more 
tessellated aspect. The perforation is small, and may cither be con- 
cealed by a thin callosity or remain open. 

This is a smaller species than T. fragum (Phil.), has more nume- 
rous granules (of which there axe Jive instead of four rows, besides 
the basal girdle), and intervening fine lira; are generally to be met 
with on the spire, which are wanting in Philippics shell. I should 
also observe that the columella of T. fragum, judging from the 
figure, is less incurved than in this form. 

93. Troclms (Monilea) lifuaua. (Plate YI. figs. B, B 1.) 

Fischer, Journ. tie Con. 1878, vol. xxvi. p. G3. 
Monilea lifuana, Fischer, I.e. 1870, vol. xxvii. p. 30, pi. 3. fig. 5. 
Troclms lifuanus, Fischer in Kicncr's Coq. Viv. p. 3^8, pi. 110. 
fig. 4. 

Shell suborbicular, only slightly elevated, moderately thick, nar- 
rowly umbilicated, spirally lirate and striated throughout, and 
marked with rather distinct lines of growth, pinkish white, varied 
with large brownish blotches and transverse lines articulated with 
white and dark purplish brown. Whorls 5|-0, convex, separated 
by a deepish suture. Last whorl compressed, convex and concen- 
trically striated beneath, obtusely subangled at the peripherv. Spire 
not much elevated, having slightly convex outlines. Umbilicus 
narrow, perforate to the apex, margined with a thickened spiral 
white or spotted callus and furnished with a second more elevated 
one within, which terminates on the columella in a lateral yellowish 
projection. Aperture quadrately subcireular, oblique, only thinly 
nacreous within. Columella oblique, arcuate, thickened by the ends 
of the two spiral callosities of the umbilicus and slightly reflexed. 
Outer lip (viewed laterally) obliquely excurved above the periphery 
and broadly sinnated beneath. Height G| millim. ; greatest dia- 
meter 9, smallest 7§. 

Hub. Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Straits, 7 fms. 

The colouring in the two specimens from this locality is very 
similar, differing only in the amount and size of the blotches, which 



71 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

have a somewhat radiating disposition on the spire. Both specimens 
have a series of small patches around the periphery of the body- 
whorl and a second below it on the under surface. They are con- 
siderably smaller than those described by Fischer, but may not be 
full-grown ; this is probably the case, as the umbilicus is more 
open than in the shells fromLifu. The whorls also exhibit little or 
no trace of an angle above the middle. 

HI. Trochus (Monodonta) labio. 

Linn., Philippi in Krister's Cun.-Cub. p. 106, pi. 27. figs. 1-3, & pi. 44. 
fig. 8. 

Hab'. West Island, Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Straits (Cop- 
pinger) ; Darnley Island {Brazier). 

95. Trochus (Labio) zebra, Menke. 

Hab. Port Jackson (Coppinger Sf Angus). 

This species is the T. tceniatus of Quoy & Gaimard, 1834 (not 
T. taeniatus, Wood, 1828), and Labio porcata of A. Adams is only a 
slight variety. 

Philippi (Con.-Cab. p. 160) is inclined to consider T. zebra merely 
a variation of T. const rictus, and possibly he is correct ; still 1 think 
further evidence is requisite in order to place this supposition beyond 
a doubt. 

Specimens of this species are in the British Museum from N.E. 
Australia, Port Jackson, Port Phillip, Tasmania, and New Zealand. 

96. Trochus (Perrinia) elisus. 

Trochus elisus, Gould, Proc.Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 1849, vol. iii p. 92 ; 

Otia Conch, p. 57 ; Wilkes, Explor. Exped. Moll. p. 176, Atlas, 

pi. 13. figs. 216-216 c. 
Thalotia elisa, Goidd, Otia, p. 245. 

Hah. Port Molle, Queensland, 12-20 fails. {Copping r); Singapore 

(Gould); Island of Capul, Philippines, on the reefs at low water 

(ClllltilKj). 

The two specimens of this beautiful species from Port Molle are 
peculiar in having four spiral lira; instead of three upon the upper 
whorls, and those beneath the periphery of the last rather finer than 
in the Philippine examples. The deep suture and the character of 
the sculpture rather suggest Perrinia than Thalotia as the section 
for this species. 

97. Trochus (Euchelus) atratus. 

Turbo atratus, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. p. 3601. 

Trochus atratus, Philippi, Conch.-Cab. p. 174, pi. 27. fig. 14. 

Monodonta ca .. Lculata, Lamarck, An. s. Vert. no. 20; Delessert, 

i;, i in it. pi. 37. fig. I ; Quoy 8f Gaimard, Voy. Astrclabe, pi. 04. 

figs, 21- 25 (as Trochus). 



MOI.l.l BOA. ( •) 

Euchelus denigratus, II. Sf A. Adams, Qen. Reo. Mull. i. p. 418, 

pi. 47. figs. 6-66. 
Var.=Monodonta sulcifera, . I. Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851, p. 175. 
Var. minor = Euchelus brunneus, Adams *S~ Angas f MS.f in Mus. 

( him in ij 8f „ tngas. 

Huh. Port Molle and Port Curtis, Queensland (Cojppinger). 

This species varies considerably in size and colour. The typical 
form, as figured by Philippi, is a small strong shell of a black-brown 
colour, the spiral granulous ridges being articulated "vith yellowish 
white. The coluinellar tooth is well developed : the aperture small 
and strongly sulcate within, especially at the base. Another form 
is considerably larger, having a total length of 25 millim. In this 
variety, which is generally of a lilac-black colour, paler between the 
ridges, the articulation upon the latter is less conspicuous, the tooth 
on the columella smaller, the aperture more slightly sulcate, and the 
whole structure of the shell proportionally thinner than the typical 
form. Monodonta sulcifera is a light-coloured variety, with very 
little articulation or spotting, and of immature growth. This 
accounts for the words "labro tenui" and " columella ad basin tri- 
sulcata " in Adams's diagnosis. The latter feature is not strongly 
marked even in the type, and in the adult shell it becomes obli- 
terated by the deposition of callus and nacre. Euchelus brunneus, 
which appears to be a MS. name attached to shells in the Cumingian 
collection and to a series presented to the British Museum by 
Mr. G. F. Angas, is a dwarf variety, and with the exception of size 
(10 millim. in length) agrees in all respects with the normal form. 
The following is the geographical distribution of the species : — 

Nicobar Islands (Chemnitz); Tonga-Tabou, Yanikoro (Quo//); 
Kingsmill Island, Timor, Flores (Martens) ; New Guinea, Fiji 
Islands (Brit. Mus.); N.E. Australia, Torres Straits and Port 
Essington (large var. in Brit. Mus.) ; Roebuck Bay, North Australia 
(var. sulcifera) ; Moreton Bay (Angas") and Sydney (Mus. Cuming) 
for var. brunnea. 



98. Bankivia (Leiopyrga) picturata. (Plate VI. figs. C-C 2.) 

Leiopyrga picturata, II. Sf A. Adams, Ann. $ Mag. Nat. Hist. 18G3, 
vol. xi. p. 19; Angas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 18G5, p. 181, 1867, p. 216. 

Hub. St. Vincent's Gulf, South Australia (Angas) ; Middle 
Harbour, Port Jackson (Angus and Coppinger); Stuart Island, New 
Zealand (C. Traill). 

This is a very pretty species, presenting variations in colouring 
very similar to those of the common E. various. The form originally 
described by Adams is whitish, ornamented with fine undulating 
longitudinal red-brown or pinkish lines, which, at the sutures and 
at the periphery of the last whorl, are darker and assume the 
appearance of spots. 

Another variety has the middle of the whorls encircled by a plain 
narrow zone, without the series of spots at the periphery of the last. 



76 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

Messrs. Adams described these spots as being "round'' in the 
specimen they examined ; in those before me they are rather 
angular, being the zigzag turn of the longitudinal lines. A third 
variety has a pale band round the middle of the last volution which 
falls at the lower part of the upper ones, the upper portion being 
pinkish or closely lineolated with pink. The lower half of the body- 
whorl has a broad pinkish band beneath the centralwhite one, which 
is succeeded by a narrower plain zone, which in turn is followed by 
another fine pink one. 

A fourth form, with the exception of the upper part of the spire 
and the umbilical region, is of a uniform greyish violet. 

The largest specimen is twelve millim. long, and consists of 
eight whorls. The spiral sulcation and ridging is much more deve- 
loped in some specimens than others. In the largest there is quite 
a strong keel near the base of the upper whorls, which gradually 
diminishes upon the last. In others the whorls are almost smooth, 
with the exception of the base of the last, which invariably presents 
a few sulci circumscribing the narrow umbilicus. The presence of 
the latter peculiarity and the very slight difference in the columella 
do not appear to me sufficient characters to separate this species 
generically from Bankivia. The general form of the shell, its 
texture, and the style and variation of painting are the same. Other 
poiuts of resemblance are the thickening or margination of the whorls 
at the suture, the striation or sulcation of the base of the last, the 
non-pearly aperture, and finally their geographical distribution. 

A second species (?) of the section Leiopyrga has been briefly 
described by A. Adams (P. Z. S. 1863, p. 507) from Poi't Essington, 
under the name of L. cingulata. It presents similar variations in 
colouring as in the other species, and, indeed, might even be con- 
sidered another form of it with the carinations and line more pro- 
nounced. 

99. Stomatella cancellata. 

Krauss, Sudaf. 3Ioll. p. 93, pi. 5. fig. 2^§ ; A.Adams in Sowerby's 
Thes. Conch, vol. ii. p. 83G, pi. 174. figs. 6-9; Sowerby, Condi. 
Icon. figs. 13 a, b. 

Hub. Table Bay, Capo of Good Hope {Krauss) ; Islands of Bohol 
and Luzon, Philippines (Mus. Cuming); Prince of Wales Channel, 
Torres Straits, in 3-4 fins., and Port Curtis (Coppingt r). 

100. Stomatia rubra. 

Lamarck; A. Adams in Sowerby's Thesaurus, vol. ii. p. ^42, pi. 17">. 
figs. 53-56 : Genera Rec. Moll. pi. 49. figs. 9-9 b (animal) ; Sowerby, 
Cm, fit. Ir,,n. tigs. 8 a, b; Dunker. Index Moll. Mar. Japan, pi. vi. 
figs. 11 -13. 

I/nb. Philippine Is. (Cuming) ; Korea (A. Ad.) ; Port Essington, 
7 fms., mud (Jukes in Brit. Mus.); Port Darwin, S-12 fms., mud 
and sand (Copping< r i. 



MnLUJSCA. 77 

I'M. Haliotis (Teinotis) asinina, Linn. 

II ah. Port Molle on coral-reef. 

A single young specimen was collected, having but five perfora- 
tions open. The two nuclear whorls are fleshy pink and smooth, 
and the radiating ridges are beset with fine granules alternately 
turquoise-blue and scarlet. 

1 02. Dentalium javanum. 
Soicerby, Thes. Conch, vol. iii. p. 102, pi. 223. fig.12 ; Conch. Icon, fig.14. 

Hub. Java (Sowb.); Malacca, coarse sand, 12 fms. (Cuming in 
lint. Mus.) ; Port Darwin, 8-12 fms., sand and mud (Copping&r). 

This species is very nearly related to D. octogonum of Lamarck. 
The eight ridges are conspicuously acute, the interstices being 
flattish, and marked only with cross lines or striae of growth. The 
colour of this shell is white, varying to pale green. 

L03. Scutus unguis. 

Patella unguis, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12, p. 12G0(part.) ; Hanley, Ipsa 
Linn. Conch, pi. 3. fig. 4. 

Hub. Flinders and Clairmont Islands, N.E. Australia, 11 fms. 
(Coppinger), also Thursday Island. 

For full synonymy of this species I would refer the reader to a 
paper by the author on this genus in the 'Journal of Conchology,' vol. ii. 
pp. 252-2ii4. The animals from the above locality are yellowish or 
buff, copiously blotched and stained irregularly w T ith blackish grey, 
the sole of the foot being of a uniform buff tint. The shells are of 
the same width (13 millim.) ; but one of them is 25 millim. long, the 
other only 234, which gives to the former a more elongate appear- 
ance. 

104. Fissurella jukesii. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 45 (only half-grown). 
Juv. = F. fimbriata, Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 104. 

Hob. Port Darwin, N".W. Australia (Coppinger) ; Port Molle, 
Queensland (Juices). 

This species may be recognized by the elevated squamous character 
of the radiating ridges, which are more or less tinted with pale rose. 
In the young state the apex is more conical than in older shells, and 
the foramen (as is usually the case in immature specimens of this 
genus) is more central. 

105. Fissurella singaporensis. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. figs. 100, 101. 

Hub. Port Molle, Queensland, coral-reef, Port Curtis beach, and 
Port Darwin, N.W. Australia, 8-12 fms. (dead) (Coppinger) ; Singa- 
pore (Reeve). 

This form is allied to F. ticaonica, but may be separated on 



78 COLLECTIONS PKOM MELANESIA.. 

account of its more central and differently shaped foramen, which is 
larger, wider, and broadly ovate. The more median position of it 
considerably alters the contour of the shell. 

106. Fissurella quadriradiata. 

Reeve, Conch, lean. \'vs. UK 

Huh. Port Mulle. Queensland (Copping er) ; Island of Negros, 
Philippines ( ( 'uming). 

The single specimen from Port Molle is rather more elevated than 
the t j pe from the Philippines, but a second example from the latter 
locality has an equally high elevation. The Australian shell is 
18 miilim. loDg, 1 \\ broad, and 10| in height. The type has the 
Bame Length and width as the preceding specimen, but is only 8 
miilim. high. 

F. ticaonica, lleeve, is rather more elongate than this species, has 
finer radiating costae, the foramen is rather more anterior and 
circumscribed with the exception of the posterior end by a narrow 
dark olive line, which is more or less visible on the exterior. F. 
quadriradiata is not always four-rayed, but may be altogether white 
or have the costoe, principally the larger ones, spotted with olive 
and flesh tints. However, judging from the few specimens under 
examination, where rays are present, they appear to be of the 
number and in the positions depicted by Reeve. 

107. Chiton jugosus. 

Gould, Proe. Boat. Soc. Nat. Hist. 1846, vol. ii. p. 142; Wilkes'a 
Explor.Exped. p. 317, fig. 430 ; Otia, p. 3,& p. 242 (0. Lophyrus j.). 
Chiton concentricus, Reeve, 1847, Conch. Icon. pi. 16. fig. 95. 

Hab. Xew South Wales (GJd.); New Zealand (Reeve); Port 
Jackson (Coppinger, Angas, and Rev. R. L. King); Newcastle (Dr. 
Bieffenbach in Brit. Mus.). 

Confirmation of the New-Zealand locality of this species is still 
wanting. 

108. Chiton (Isehnochiton) curtisianus. (Plate VI. fig. D.) 

Shell oval, flatfish, of a dirty dark greyish colour, having a con- 
spicuous black broadish line from end to end down the middle of the 
back, with a pale one on each side of it, and with the mantle patched 
alternately light and dark, irregularly granulated throughout. 
Valves are! ied, not carinate at the vertex, with very indistinct 
lateral areas, exhibiting strong concentric lines of growth, especially 
conspicuous at the sides and anterior margins. Front plate well 
curved anteriorly, the posterior margin being broadly sinuated. 
Second plate longer than the other intermediate valves, slightly 
incurved on each Bide, the central outcurved point in front, rather 
peaked in the middle of the hinder edge. The third, fourth, fifth, 
sixth, and seventh valves are very short in comparison with their 
width in proportion as 1 is to 3. The jugal sinus is large and 



M0LLU8CA. 79 

arcuate. Last valve of a narrow acutely elliptic form, with the 
mucin prohahly near the centre. Inferior of the plates greenish 
blue, stained dark brown in the middle. Lamina of insertion in tho 
front plate with about ten notches at unequal distances, leaving 
different-sized teeth between them, which are striated on both sides, 
but more strongly externally, tluur edges being sharp, but not 
smooth. The central plates have a single minute notch on each 
side, tho insertion-lamina being comparatively smooth on the upper 
Burface and marked with a small brown spot on each side against 
the edge of the valve. Tail-plate much thickened within along the 
posterior edge, which is roughened by tine cross stria?, there being 
no prominent teeth, and of course no notches. Mantle-margin 
covered with small subimbricating oval granules. Length without 
margin 16 millim. ; width of fourth plate 9. 

]Inl>. Port Curtis (Coppinger). 

The granules of the surface have an irregular concentric dis- 
position, following to some extent the lines of growth. 

109. Chiton (Ischnochiton ?) adelaidensis. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 123. 

Hal. Port Molle, Queensland (Coppinger) : Port Adelaide (Reeve). 

The entire surface of this species is minutely granoscly reticulated, 
the front valve, the lateral areas of the narrow central valves, and 
the hinder area of the posterior are in addition somewhat irregularly 
radiately sulcate. The prevailing colour is pale greenish, streaked 
and dotted with red, the posterior margin of the valves being paler 
than the general tone of the shell, and conspicuously spotted with 
the same red colour. The grains of the mantle are smooth, arranged 
in alternate greenish and reddish patches, and individually have a 
dark spot generally on the outer side, which is only seen under 
a lens ; those near the valves are considerably smaller than those 
situated towards the edge of the girdle. Having parted the valves 
of one of the specimens I find the front one has the margin of 
insertion divided into seventeen unequal, squarely cut, slightly 
crinkled, sharp-edged teeth, of which the two outer on each side are 
the largest. The sixteen slits between the teeth are very small and 
shallow. The second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth valves have 
on each side a single very small narrow central notch, from which a 
groove or depression runs to the apex of each valve ; the seventh is 
probably abnormal, having a single notch on the right side and two 
on the left, and the terminal valve has nineteen similar slits. 

110. Chiton (Callistochiton) antiquus. 

Chiton antiquus, Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 109. 
Callistochiton sarcophagus, Carpenter, MS. in Coll. Cuming. 

Hah. Australia (Reeve); Port Molle, Queensland (Coppinger); 
Port Jackson, rare (Angas). 

Reeve's figure of this species is much enlarged, the type shell 



s '» COLLECTIONS PROM MELANESIA. 

being only 14 millim. in length. The number of radiating ridges 
in the terminal valves varies considerably : the type has ten in 
the front mie. and nine in the posterior; the single specimen from 
Port Molle has the same number in front, but one less behind; a 
third example has seventeen anterior and sixteen posterior ones. 
The central valves are arched, but exhibit a carina at the vertex. 
The two radiating costae are sometimes more or less double at the 
outer etrxemities. The longitudinal thread-like lirae are rather 
granular through being connected with the still finer cross raised 
lines ; they are fairly regular upon the greater part of the surface, 
but down the centre form an irregular network, not unlike the 
reticulation of a thimble. The interior of the valves is for the most 
part pale greenish white, but towards the straight posterior margin 
of the central ones a buff tint prevails. The lamina of insertion in 
the front valve is divided (a single specimen only has been examined) 
by eight minute notches into nine suhequal squarely-cut curved 
teeth, together forming a festooned semicircle ; from each slit a 
feeble groove runs to the vertex corresponding to an external rib. 
The central valves have a single notch on each side immediately 
beneath the termination of the anterior of the two external ridges. 
The lamina is turned outward at this point and also at the other 
rib, forming a little festoon. The last plate has nine notches, one 
corresponding to each rib. with a single (probably unusual) exception, 
where there are two. The vertex in this valve is central. The 
scales of the girdle are excessively minute, densely crowded, hardly 
visible under an ordinary lens, and in alternate light and dark patches. 

111. Chiton (Callistochiton) coppingeri. (Plate YI. fig. E.) 

Shell elongate, greenish white, stained with a dark green colour 
along each side near the girdle, with a paler indistinct stripe on 
each side of the central line, the apex of the valves being somewhat 
livid. Central valves with a straight posterior margin, arched, with 
only the faintest indication of a carina at the vertex. Lateral areas 
somewhat raised, with two radiating rows of coarse transverse rugae, 
of which the hinder or marginal are the largest. The surface 
between them is finely granular. Central areas convered with a 
more or less criss-cross granulation, the granules at the centre being 
very minute, and gradually increasing in size towards the sides, 
where there is very little of the criss-cross arrangement seen at the 
vertex, but rather a longitudinal disposition of them. The front 
valve is minutely granulated and has about twenty fine radiating 
ridges, here and there some of them bifurcating near the circumfer- 
ence. Posterior valve rather large, concave behind the subcentral 
mucro, in front of which the surface is sculptured in the same 
manner as the front of the central valve, as is usual with most, if 
not all, Chitons. The posterior half is finely grained and sparsely 
covered with pustules of different shapes and sizes, the coarsest 
being near the margin and the smallest near the centre. The in- 
sertional plates are thin, with twelve slits in the last, at unequal 



M0L1.USCA. 8] 

distances, eleven in the front one, and one on eaili side of the inter- 
mediate valves. The interior is pale bluish, the latter valves having 
an olive-brown stain radiating i'loin the vertex behind on each side, 
and the two terminal valves have marks of the same colour near the 
middle. 

The girdle is covered with alternately pinkish and dark greyish 
patches of tine oval compressed imbricating scales, of which those 
towards the outer margin are much smaller than those near the 

valve-. 

Length without girdle 21 millim. ; diameter of fifth central plate 8. 

Hub. Port Jackson (Coppinger). 

This species is closely allied to 0. antiquus, but is differently and 
more finely sculptured and the scales on the mantle are larger. 

112. Chiton (Acanthopleura) spiniger. 

Chiton spiniger, Sowerby, Conch. III. fig. 68; Reeve, Conch. Icon. 

fig. 75; Gray, 1857, Guide Moll. Brit. Mus. p. 184 ( Maugeria)J; Ball, 

Hull. U.S. Xat. Mus. i. p. 80 (Acanthopleura). 
Chiton granatus, Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 24. 
Chiton macgilliyrayi, A. Adam*, l'roc. Zool. Soe. 1855, p. 120. 
Acanthopleura glareosa, MS. in Mas. Cuming. 
Maugeria owenii, Gray, Guide Moll. p. 184. 
? Chiton borbonicus, Deshayes, Moll, cle Reunion, p. 37, pi. v. figa. 

12, 13. 
? Chiton piceus, Reeve {non Gmeliri), Conch. Icon. fig. /0. 
= Chiton obesus. Shuttleiom'th, Bern. Mitthcil. 1853, p. 79. 
? Chiton cunninghamh, Reeve, I.e. fig. 18. 

Hub. Philippine Islands (Cuming); Port Essington (Jukes); 
Port Molle and Clairmont and Bird Islands (Coppinger) ; Fiji, for 
C. macgillivrayi. 

The specific difference, if it exist, between the "West-Indian 
( '. pia us of Gmelin and C. spiniger is not very apparent. On close 
comparison I find that the central valves of the former are as a rule 
more peaked posteriorly, the colour within is bluish, with a con- 
spicuous mark, almost black, at the jugal sinus. On separating 
these valves the greatest diameter is found to exist at the posterior 
margin, the laminae of insertion narrowing in front. On the con- 
fcrary, in C. spiniger the greatest width is across the laminae anterior 
to the lateral notch. There appears to be very little difference in 
the insertion-teeth of the first and last valves of these two forms. 

113. Chiton (Acanthopleura) incanus. 

Chiton incanus, Gould, Proc. Bost. Sue. Nat. Hid. 1846, vol. ii. 
p. 14o; '■Otia,' pp. 6, 248 (Maugeria); Wilkes s Explor. Exped. 
p. 315, figs. 432, 432 a. 

Bah. Xew South Wales (Gould); Port Jackson (Coppinger); 
Stewart Island. New Zealand (C. Traill, Esq., in Brit. Mus.). 

Externally this species bears considerable resemblance to G. spi- 
nigi r, both as regards the sculpture of the valves and the character 

G 



g2 coiXEcnoKB from Melanesia. 

of the girdle. On parting the valves a feature is at once discovered 
in the posterior one which enahles us to distinguish the species : 
in this the margin is very much thickened within, of a dark brown 
colour, smooth, flattened, and destitute of teeth, whilst in C. spiniger 
the latter are strongly developed and coarsely striated. The colour 
of the interior also differs : C. incanus is stained with dark brown, 
the centre of the valves exhibiting a large defined black-brown mark 
over the jugal sinus, the lamimo of insertion being whitish. The 
central valves have a single, very small slit on each side, and the 
front one has about nine : the former, with the exception of the 
seventh, are broadest across the posterior margin, as is also the case 
in the closely allied AYest-Indian C. piceus, whilst in 0. spiniger 
the greatest diameter is across the laminae of insertion in front of 
the notch. The jugal sinus appears to be rather deeper than in the 
latter 6pecies. The specimens from Stewart Island, presented to 
the British Museum by Mr. C. Traill, agree in all respects with this 
species ; the form, sculpture, and the insertion-plates are quite the 
same. 

114. Chiton ( Schizochiton ) incisus. 

Chiton incisus, Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1841, p. 61 ; Reeve, Conch. 

Icon. fig. 43. 
Chiton elongatus, Reeve, I. c. figs. 40 a, b. 
Schizochiton incisus, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, p. 169 ; Shuttle- 

worth, Bern. Mittheil. 1853, p. 68 ; H. Sf A. Adams, Genera Rec. 

Moll. vol. i. p. 477, pi. 54. figs. 6, 6 a. 

Hub. Island of Zebu, Philippines ( Cuming) ; Baines Island, 
Torres Straits (luce) ; Clairmont and Bird Islands, X.E. Australia 
(Coppinger). 

The mantle is thick, of a somewhat spongy texture, alternately buff 
and dark brown, the latter colour falling opposite the middle of the 
valves and forming interrupted irregular narrow stripes. The spines 
upon it are very short, scattered, and of two colours, brown and 
white. The raised ridges, generally six in number on the terminal 
valves, but sometimes varying to seven or eight, and two on the 
central ones, are remarkable in being studded with minute blackish 
beads. The longitudinal flue ridges are peculiarly flat-topped, 
those on the central areas being straight, whilst on the lateral areas 
and the front valve they are wavy or zigzag. The lamina of inser- 
tion in the front valve is thin, externally striated, with six notches 
corresponding to the radiating costa? on the outer surface. In the 
central valves the lamina is considerably produced in front, with a 
single small slit on each side : in the last valve it is thickened 
posteriorly, interrupted in the middle by a large sinus, is coarsely 
btriated on the outside, and is slit in three or four places. The in- 
terior of the valves is greenish, stained with brown in the middle. 



MoM.CSCA. 83 

1 15. Chiton ( Macandrellus ) costatus. (Plate VI. fig. F.) 

Acanthoehites custatus, II. Attains 8f Angas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1864, 

p. 11)4 ; Angas, I. c. 1867, p. 224. 
Macandrellus costatus, Doll, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mas. i. p. 81, fig. 40 

(dentition). 

Hob. Port Jackson {Angas and Coppinger). 

The single specimen before me, preserved in spirit, shows the 
girdle to be of a pale buff colour, thick, fleshy, the outer margin 
being delicately ciliated with a minute fringe of white spicules. 
The tufts of spicules are seven in number along each side, and four 
surrounding the front valve. The middle of the central valves is 
occupied by a raised, transversely substituted flattened ridge, on each 
side of which the surface is granulated or rather squamose, the 
scales being flat, imbricating, rather large, and disposed in rather 
regular series. The lateral areas are well defined by a raised keel. 
The front valve has five radiating costa?, and apparently the same 
number of slits in the thin lamina of insertion, of which the three 
central are quite distinct, and the two outer ones only feebly indi- 
cated. The single notch on each side the intermediate valves is 
also very slight. The posterior valve has a raised, somewhat ex- 
centric and pointed mucro, from which six more or less distinct 
radiating ridges descend to the margin, beneath which the lamina 
of insertion is scalloped by a similar number of notches. 

116. Chiton (Acanthochiton ) asbestoides. (Plate VI. fig. G.) 

Shell small, greyish brown, with a pale line on each side the 
middle of the central valves, slightly converging behind, leaving a 
dark wedge-shaped space between them. Surface covered with a 
coarsish granulation, the granules being somewhat flattened, and 
those at the vertex of the central valves rather smaller than tho 
rest. The lateral areas are not defined in these valves ; the posterior 
curved margins are produced in the middle, at times almost forming 
a right angle ; their insertion-plates are large, thin, produced ante- 
riorly, with a very slight notch quite close to the hinder margin on 
each side ; the sinus between them in front is deep and arcuate. 
The "first valve has a straighter posterior margin than the succeed- 
ing ones, and a semicircular outline in front ; the lamina of inser- 
tion is rather deep, thin, feebly striated exteriorly, and interrupted 
by five very small subequidistant notches. The last valve is con- 
spicuously small, transversely subovate, depressed-conical, with a 
nearly central mucro ; insertion-plate very large, laterally produced, 
with only two notches behind. Interior of the valves bluish. 
Mantle very minutely spinulose, bearing very conspicuous compact 
tufts of silky spicules along the sides, not at all unlike in their fibrous 
texture that of asbestos. Length 15 millim., width of the broadest 
central valve 5g. 

Hah. Flinders Island, Bass's Straits (Joseph Milligan); Port 
Molle, Queensland {Coppinger). 

g2 



84 COLLECTIONS FKO.M MELANESIA. 

The single specimen from the latter locality is rather more coarsely 
granulated than those from Flinders Island, which have been exa- 
mined by the late Dr. P. P. Carpenter, and bear his manuscript 
name asbcstouJes. 

117. Chiton (Tonicia) fortiliratus. 
Chiton fortiliratus. Reeve, Couch. Icon. fig. 1 12. 

Hub. Port Darwin. 8-10 fms., sand and mud (Coppinger) ; 
Haines Island, Torres Straits i Zi 

The single specimen collected by Dr. Coppinger is of a greyi>h- 
pink colour, copiously blotched with black along the sides of some 
of the valves. The head-plate is regularly well-curved forward, 
rather high, the posterior margin being obtusely angled in the 
middle. The inserted edge is much thickened, coarsely striated 
exteriorly and on the broad margin, and divided into nine unequal 
parts by eight short narrow slits. The exterior surface is coarsely 
subsquamately granulated throughout, and exhibits numerous minute 
black raised dots, disposed in rather irregular radiating series. The 
second valve is long in comparison with those which follow, feebly 
peaked behind ; the fourth, fifth, and sixth plates are about equal in 
width and a trifle broader than the third and seventh. All the inter- 
mediate valves are very coarsely ridged and sulcated on the central 
areas, and coarsely grained and minutely black-dotted at the sides. 
The ridges are flat-topped, clean-cut, nearly smooth, attenuated 
posteriorly, wavy, converge on each side towards the front, and the 
intervening grooves are finely punctate. All have the hinder margin 
nearly straight, and but very feebly pointed at the posterior apex. 
The laminie of insertion of these valves are thin, narrow at the 
sides, moderately deeply sinuated in front, strongly striated above 
in rear of and for a short distance in front of the single minute 
lateral slit on each side. The posterior valve is strong and thick, 
obtusely mucronated at the centre, very coarsely striated and ser- 
rated upon the thickened inserted margin, which is subdivided by 
about ten distinct notches. The interior of the valves is light livid 
bluish, with a reddish stain along the middle of all, with the excep- 
tion of the last. The mantle, as described by Reeve, is simply 
" horny." Length without girdle 18 millim., diameter of fifth 
valve 9. 

The type is a larger specimen, being 24 millim. long, with an ex- 
treme width of 13. 



118. Chiton (Chitonellus) striatus. 

Chitonellus striatus, Lamarck, An. s. Vert. ed. 2, vol. vn. p. 481; 

Sowerby, Gen. fig. -4 : id. Couch. III. fig. C2; Reeve, Conch. Icon. 

fig. 4; Conch. Syst. pi. 135. tig. 1. 
Chitonellus oculatus, Reeix (? <•/ Quay), I.e. figs, la, b. 
\ ar.=( 'hitonellus gunnii, Reeve, fig. 5. 
Chitonellus rostratus, Reeve, tip. 6. 



I 



MOLLUSCA. 85 

Cryptoplax striata, gunnii, rost rat a, Adams, Genera, vol, i. p. I I: 
Angas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, pp. 224, 225. 

/fab. Raines Island, Torres Straits (Reeve, for C. rostratus and 
C. striatus), Port Lincoln (J. B. Harvey), Newcastle (Dr. Dieffen- 
bach), Port Jackson (Goppinger, Richardson, Jukes, King) — all in 
Brit. Mus. ; Flinders Island (./. MiUigan) ; Tasmania (Reeve, 
C. gunnii); Tasmania (Macgillivray and Gfunn, in Brit. Mus.). 

The variety gunnii, from South Australia and Tasmania, may be 
recognized bv the valves being narrower, with the exception of the 
first two. This form also appears to attain a larger size than speci- 
mens from New South Wales and other localities further north. A 
specimen in spirit, from the mouth of the river, Tamar, Tasmania, 
presented to the Pritish Museum by J. Macgillivray, exceeds four 
inches in length. The mantle of the southern form also appears to 
be rather less densely covered with the minute conical spines. The 
number of gills on each side varies with age, and even in individual 
specimens : 1 have found 30 or 31 on each side in specimens of 
equal size from both regions — that is, north and south ; and in the 
largest specimen before referred to there are 37 on the right side 
and 34 on the left, and there is no appearance of any having been 
removed. The plates of insertion offer no distinctions, each having 
three slits in the front valve and none in the rest, as is the case in 
all Ghitonelli. The colour both of the valves and mantle seems to 
agree very closely in all the varieties. The O. rostratus of Reeve 
I cannot in any way distinguish from the shells figured by him as 
Lamarck's G. striatus, and the same observation also applies to his 
notion of Quoy's C. omlatus. What the latter may in reality be is 
an uncertainty to me at present, for I cannot identify any specimen 
in the Pritish Museum with it. 



119. Chiton (Chitonellus) bnrrowi. 
Cbitonellus larvseformis, Reeve (non Burroic), Conch. Icon. fig. 3. 

Hab. Port Molle ( Goppinger) ; Port Adelaide (Reeve). 

This curious species is known by the small size of the valves, tho 
remoteness from one another of the fourth, fifth, and sixth, and the 
excessively short and densely packed spines on tho mantle. The 
single specimen in spirit, from Port Molle, is of a buff colour, 
copiously mottled with green : this accords with a specimen (also 
in spirit) mentioned by Reeve, collected by Capt. Pelcher in the 
Straits of Macassar. 

The dried specimens are greyish, more or less rose-tinted. 

The sculpture of the valves is very like that of C. striatus, consist- 
ing of a central smoothish ridge, with two or three finer and more 
or less wrinkled ones on each side, the front valve of course being 
wrinkled throughout and lacking the central smooth ridge. They 
are yellowish at the mucro or posteriorly, and pinkish red in front. 
The plates of insertion are like those of G. striatus, and of a pale 
greenish colour. 



86 COLLECTIONS PROM MELANESTAi 

C. larvceformis (Blainville), in Burrow's ' Elements of Concho- 
logy' (1815), p. 19J, pi. 28. figs. 2, 3, 4, is not this species as 
supposed by Reeve, but is beyond question the same as C. fascia tus 
of Quoy,=C eruciformis, Sowerby (Genera Rec. & Foss. Shells, 
fig. ;5),= C Icevvi, Lamarck, 1819 (Anim. sans Vert. vol. vi. p. 317). 
The crude figure of C. larvceformis in Blainville's ' Malacologie ' 
( 1> S 27), pi. 87. fig. 6, is probably also merely a young specimen of 
the same species, judging from the sculpture and form of the 
detached valves. In the drawing of them in situ on the back of the 
animal, the anterior ones are rather narrow. The valves figured 
by Burrow are still preserved in the British Museum ; but I cannot 
find the dried animals or that in spirit which he mentions. 

Blainville's figure represents the mantle as clothed with compara- 
tively longish spines, and the gills extend nearly halfway up the side 
of the foot. In (J. burroivi, on the contrary, the gills are very short, 
do not occupy a third of the length, and are only 22 in number. 

C. oculatus of Quoy and Gaimard I believe to be a young state 
of their C. fasciatns. In the British Museum there are some small 
specimens of this species which answer very closely to the descrip- 
tion ; they have the two dark bands meeting over the back, the 
posterior valves narrow and separated, and the three anterior ones 
pale greenish and surrounded by a border of short black spines 
with a pale zone outside it. The other spines on the mantle in the 
smallest specimen are a trifle longer than usual and very closely 
packed. The gills are said to number twenty on each side in 
G. oculatus, being three less than in C. fasciatus, a discrepancy 
accounted for by age ; for in adult specimens of C. striatus I find a 
few more than in the young. 

120. Tornatella solidula. 

Linn. ; Reeve, Cotich. Icon. figs. 3 a, h. 
Var. =T. coccinata, Reeve, I. c. figs. 1 a-c. 

Hah. Friday Island, Torres Straits, on the beach ; also Port 
Jackson. 

This species has a wide geographical range, having been recorded 
from man j- localities in the Indian and Pacific oceans. The so- 
called species T. affinis, A. Adams, should, I think, be regarded 
as a small form of T. solidula. 

121. Cylichna arachis. 

Bulla arachis, Quoy Sf Gaimard, Voy. Astrolabe, Zool. vol. ii. p. 361, 
pi. 26. figs. 28-30: A. Adams, Thes. Conch, vol. ii. p. 590, pi. 125. 
fig. l:M. 

Hab. Port Jackson (Coppinger and Angus) ; Port King George 
(Q. \ <•'. \ : Tasmania, Stewart Island, Xew Zealand {Brit. Mas.). 

1 22. Atys naucum. 
Linn.; Reeve, Covrh. Icon, fiffs. 1-1 c. 

Hab. Friday Island, Torres Straits ( Coppinger) ; also recorded 



MOLLUSC i. 87 

from Torres Straits, New Ireland, New Britain, and Solomon 
Islands by Brazier. 



123. Haminea cuticulifera. (Plate VI. fig. H.) 
Smith, Ann. $ May. Nat. Hist 1872, ix. p. 300. 

Hub. Port Jackson and New Zealand, 

Dr. Coppinger dredged this species at the first locality in 7 
fathoms. It must not be confused with II . brevis, Quoy, which is a 
shorter shell with more convex outlines. I would here call atten- 
tion to a few inaccuracies in Professor Hutton's English translation 
of the original Latin diagnosis (' .Manual of New-Zealand Mollusca,' 
p. 122). The epidermis was described by me as whitish, not 
"white," and 1 did not say it was " shining near the vertex." 
The word shining applied to the whole of the surface, and is 
followed by a comma which disconnects it from the words " verticem 
basimque versus luteo tincto " which succeed. " Incrementi lineis 
et superius basique transversim subdistanter striata " is thus ren- 
dered — " transversely subdistantly striated with lines of growth, both 
above and below." Capt. Hutton makes tho labrum " thin, thickened 
in the middle," whilst no such thing is said in the diagnosis. 
The words are " labrum tenue, verticis medio junctum et ibi iu- 
erassatum." 

12+. Akera soluta. 

Hab. Port Jackson (Coppinger); Philippines, North Australia, 
Zanzibar, Mauritius, Ceylon. 

In addition to the other synonyms of this species, I would add 
A. tenuis of A. Adams (Thes. Conch, vol. ii. p. 573, pi. 121. fig. 45 ; 
and Conch. Icon. figs. 7«, 7b). I have carefully scrutinized the type 
and can see no distinction. Angas (P. Z. S. 1867, p. 227) comes to 
a similar conclusion. The more slender form referred toby Sowerby 
in the ' Conch. Icon.' is altogether a variable character in this shell ; 
the elevation of the spire above or its depression beneath the body- 
whorl is likewise an unreliable characteristic. 



125. Doridium marmc-Tatum. (Plate VI. figs. I-I4.) 

Animal (in spirit) blackish, copiously mottled with a dirty buff 
colour. Cephalic disk longer than wide, rather narrower in front 
than behind, with a thickened twofold margin anteriorly and at 
the sides, more expanded and simple posteriorly. Hinder dorsal 
disk a little shorter than the front one, lobed posteriorly on each 
side, with an intermediate sinus, with a free margin at the sides, 
but not in front, where it is covered by the hinder free extension 
of the cephalic disk. Viewed posteriorly, the animal is truncate, 
terminating in a curved expansion of the dorsal disk on each side, 
which conceal the gills beneath them. Foot extending the whole 
length of the animal, with a duplex margin in front below the 



88 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

mouth and for a short distance along the sides, and then simple and 
gradually increasing in the width of the expansion towards the 
end, where it is very wide beneath Ihe branchia; it is stained with 
black on the inside of the edge. Branchial plume posterior, concealed 
between the foot and the hinder lobes of the doi'sal disk. Head 
presenting exteriorly a small lobe on each side the oral opening. 

Shell internal, situated at the hinder extremity above the branchia, 
white, calcareous, uncoiled, consisting of one or two volutions, 
thickened at the free " sutural line," convex externally and concave 
within, cup-shaped at t he commencement, with the outer edge 
extended by a broadish membranous expansion. 

Total length 33 millim. ; cephalic disk 18 long and 10 wide at 
the broadest part ; shell with a greatest diameter of 8 millim., and 
about 2 in height. 

I lab. Thursday Island, Torres Straits, 4-5 fathoms, on a sandy 
bottom. 

The only species which appears to have been recorded from the 
Australian coasts is Aglaia lin olata, figured by H. & A. Adams in 
the ' Genera of Recent Mollusca,' vol. iii. pi. 58. tig. 4. This differs, 
however, in the form of the anterior dorsal disk and its small 
size in proportion to the hind part of the animal, in addition to 
which the colour and markings appear to be quite distinct. Aglaia 
gigliolii, from Japan, described by Tapparone-Canefri ( Voy. Magenta, 
p. 110, pi. l.fig. 18), may be distinguished by the posterior lobation 
of the cephalic disk, different colour, and apparent different position 
of the branchial plume. 

Doridium cyaneum, D. nigrum, and D. guttatum, described by Dr. 
Von Martens from the Indian Ocean, have not yet been figured. 
Until all these exotic species have either been compared or much 
more amply described and illustrated, there will remain much un- 
certainty respecting the identification of all or any one of them. 

126. Pleurobranchus angasi. (Plate VI. figs. K, K 1.) 

Animal (in spirit) uniformly pale buff, elongate ovate. Mantle 
probably smooth in life, wrinkled by contraction, not very widely 
produced at the free margin. Foot broad, tapering behind, roundly 
subtruncate in front, where there is a thickening forming a double 
margin beneath the proboscis. The frontal veil is straight in front, 
angular at the sides, which are grooved. Tentacles shortish, slit at 
the outer side, with the minute eye-specks at their base behind. 
Branchial plume consisting of about sixteen leaflets. Penis spine- 
like, very acute, and slightly curved at the tip. 

Shell placed well forward, the pale apex being posterior. It is 
brown in front, glossy, and beautifully iridescent on the exterior. 
It consists ot about a whorl aud a half, the nucleus being spiral and 
hollow within. The last whorl is much prolonged by additional 
strongly defined concentric layers, and also ornamented with fine 
Mt distinct transverse striae. The columella is arcuate, and has an 
umbilical groove parallel with it. 



MOLLUSCA. v 9 

Length of animal 17 millim., diam. 7j length of shell, from 
nucleus to opposite end, 4\. 

///iff. Port Jackson (Coppinger). 

This may be the P delicatus of Pease, but there appear to be 
certain differences in the shells of the two forms which may be of 
specific value. 

1 27. Dolabella rumphii. 
( kwi r, Ann. du Mas. v. p. 137, pi. 29. fig. 1. 

Hab. X.E. Australia (Coppinger); .Moluccas (Rumphius) ; Timor 
( /' rmi) : Waigiou (Qhoij and (Jaimard) ; Mauritius (Rang and von 
Mart, us). 

There is no indication of any caudal prolongation in the specimen 
before me, the hinder end being (in spirit) very broad and obtusely 
curved. 

The shell agrees with the figure given by Ivang (Hist. Nat. des 
Aplysiens, pi. 1). 

128. Aplysia sparsinotata. 

Animal of a pale colour in spirit, varied with a few dark distant 
dots along the sides, caudate posteriorly. Middle of back between 
the mantle-lobes in front of the shell, also the inner surface of the 
anterior portion of the lobes themselves, exhibiting irregular brown- 
ish patches. Lobes commencing a short distance behind the dorsal 
tentacles, and terminating behind at about the same distance from 
the end of the body. Ural tentacles moderately large and long ; 
posterior conical, acuminate, not far apart. 

Shell elongate, rather beaked behind, sharply arcuate in front, 
15 millim. long, 10 broad. Animal about 45 in length. 

Bab. Same as A. piperata. 

129. Aplysia piperata. 

Animal (in spirit) olivaceous, minutely and closely dotted every- 
where, with the exception of the foot, with black ; hinder third 
part of the body sometimes paler than the rest, from which it is 
marked off by a blackish band passing right round the animal. 
Lobes of the mantle narrowish in front, where they arise quite close 
to the posterior tentacles, considerably dilated behind. Oral ten- 
tacles large, long, and pointed ; posterior small, close together, 
conical. 

Shell white, concave within, subquadrate. Length 27 millim., 
width 22. Animal about 80 long. 

Hab. Thursday Island, Torres Straits, 4-5 fms., sandy bottom. 

Peculiar on account of the position of the posterior tentacles, close 
to the origin of the mantle-lobes. 

130. Aplysia denisoni. 

Body (in spirit) high, exhibiting a distinct pedal disk, produced 
posteriorly into a caudal termination. The entire surface wrinkled, 



90 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.. 

dirty whitish, black-veined in the wrinkles (? .stains only). Mantle- 
lobes moderately large, commencing in front some distance behind 
the posterior tentacles and terminating a little in advance of the 
cauda. Ajiterior tentacles large, compressed, much dilated. Pos- 
terior tentacles large, cylindrical, with the apical slit not extending 
halfway down the outer side, placed a little nearer the oral tentacles 
than the beginning of the mantle-lobes. Eyes minute, situated 
near the outer anterior base of tentacles. 

Shell very thin, straw-colour, 30 millim. long and 27 broad. 

Animal about three inches in length in its contracted state. 

Hub. Port Denison, Queensland. 

This species is remarkable for the large size of the oral tentacles. 

131. Stylocheilus, sp. 

Hab. Thursday Island, Torres Straits, 4-5 fins., on a sandy 
bottom. 

There are four specimens from the above locality evidently belong- 
ing to the genus Stylocheilus, which, having lost all colour and being 
in rather poor condition, I refrain from describing. One of them, 
the smallest, differs from the rest in having a decidedly larger 
branchial opening in the mantle, which is not, I am of opinion, duo 
to any contraction in the other three. All present a feature not 
mentioned by Gould in his description of the genus, viz. a duplicaturo 
of the anterior margin of the foot. In the figure, however, of S. 
quercinits (Wilkes's Explor. Exped., Atlas, Mollusca, pi. 16. f. 271) 
this peculiarity is indicated, of which a better idea is given in 
Savigny's figure of Aplysia savignyiana, Atlas to the Explorations 
in Egvpt, pi. 2. figs. 2 2, also copied in Hang's Hist. Nat. dos 
Aplysiens, pi. 20. f. 2. 

132. Miamira nobilis. 

Bergh, Journ. Mus. Godeffroy, 1874, Ileftvi. pi. 1. fig. 5; 1875, Heft 
viii. p. 53, pi. 8. figs. 1-30, pi. 9. tigs. 1-4 ; Semper, Reisen Philip- 
pinen, Bd. ii. pi. 33. fig. 2; Bergh in Semper's Reisen, vol. ii. 
Heft 10 ; p. 411. 

Hab. Port Denison, Queensland, 4 fms. (Coppinger). 

Only a single specimen of this beautiful Nudibranch was obtained 
by Dr. Coppinger. It still retains in spirit the vivid orange spots, 
which in time will probably disappear. Dr. Semper found this 
species at the Philippines, and it has also been met with at Amboina 
( Martens) and the Samoa Islands. 

133. Ceratosoma tenue. 

Abraham, Ann. $ Mag. Nat. Hist. 1876, vol. xviii. p. 141, pi. 7. 
tigs. 5-56 ; Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 234. 

Hab. Thursday Island, Torres Straits, 4-5 fms. 
This species and C. caledonicum of Fischer (Journ. de Conch. 
1876, p. 92) may eventually prove to be identical, in which case 



MOLLUSC A. 91 

the latter name should be retained, having a few months' priority of 
publication. 

The single specimen from Torres Straits agrees with the excellent 
description given by Mr. Abraham except in respect of the greater 
proportional length of the caudal portion of the hody, which equals 
half the entire length of the animal, and the greater breadth of the 
foot, two differences probably due to the various degrees of con- 
traction at death. 



134. Doris (Platydoris ) infrapicta. 

Body flattened, elongate oval. Mantle softish, fleshy, finely 
granular above, smooth beneath the widely expanded border. Foot 
broad, rounded at both ends, widely spreading all round except 
beneath the mouth, where it is more narrowly expanded, and has a 
narrow lamina above, which is notched in the middle and is pro- 
duced a little in advance of the edge of the foot itself. Oral ten- 
tacles compressed, curving forward. Bhinophores short, with com- 
paratively few lamime, pointed at the apex. Branchial plume six- 
lobed, each lobe trifurcate above, surrounding the small central 
yellow six (?)-lobed anus. 

Colour pale buff, variegated with a dirty brownish tint above. 
Beneath, the mantle-expansion is copiously stained and blotched with 
dark chocolate-brown, except near the border, which is pale and 
unspotted. Foot spotted with the same colour, especially towards 
the centre, the margin being pale and destitute of markings. 
Length 50 millim., width 32 ; foot 43 long, 18 broad. 

Bab. Queensland, 4 fms. 

This species appears to be closely related to D. inframaculata, 
Abraham, from Amboina. It differs in coloration somewhat, the 
greater width of the foot, which is not " truncate in front," the 
softer character of the mantle, and the coarser granulation of its 
dorsal surface. 

135. Plocarnophorus insignis. (Plate VI. figs. L, L 1.) 

Body elongate, ending posteriorly in a laterally compressed and 
obliquely truncate termination ; (in spirit) of a pale colour, dotted 
with black along the sides close to the foot, on the oblique carinate 
margin of the posterior end, and on the sides of this caudal extremity, 
which also exhibits a few small rounded tubercles. Branchial 
plume a little posterior to the middle of the back, trilobed, one lobe 
central, anterior, the other two lateral, one on each side, bifurcate, 
all branching above. Anus stellate, situated between the lateral 
lobes. On the back, a little behind the branchiae, is situated a single 
black-spotted elongate papilla on each side. Foot elongate, with a 
double margin in front, finely tuberculated in the groove between 
the two edges, much attenuating posteriorly. Head with the 
frontal margin black- dotted, bearing a fringe of about eight slender 
prolongations ; beneath this and between it and the mouth is a 



92 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

narrow lamella, which on each side becomes rather broader, forming 
a small lappet of supraoral tentacles. Bhinophores rather lateral, far 
apart, conical, acute at the tips, carinate oil the outside, concentri- 
cally lamellato-striated. Length 27 millim. 
Ilah. North Australia, Albany Island, 4 fms. 

130. Bornella digitata. 

Adams fy Reeve, Toy. * SamarangJ p. 07, pi. 19. fig. 1 ; Alder § Han- 
cock, Tran<. Zool. Soc. vol. v. p. 140, pi. 33. tigs. 8,9; Beryh in 
Semper 8 Reisen Arch. Philippinen, vol. ii. p. 301, pi. 37. figs. 14-19, 
& pi. 38. figs. 13-22. 

Hah. Port Denison, Queensland, 4 fms. (Goppinger). 

I have three specimens before me, which otter certain differences 
in the number of lobes on the branchial papilla; and even in the 
number of the papillae themselves. All these have the four anterior 
pairs branchiferous, and in each case the two foremost pairs have 
two branchial tufts at the inner base (in contraction), but the two 
hindmost pairs exhibit considerable variation. In specimen No. 1 
both pairs are provided with three tufts, of which the central one is 
very small. Specimen 2 has three tufts adjoining each of the third 
pair and two to each of the fourth. Example 3 has three tufts at 
the base of the left papilla of third pair, and two at the base of the 
opposite one of the same pair ; of the fourth pair the right papilla 
is provided with three plumes or tufts and the left with two. 

The annexed table will best illustrate the variation in the lobation 
of the papilla? : — 

First pair. Second. Third. Fourth. Fifth. Sixth. 

No. 1 3 lobes. 2 2 1 1* 1 

.,2 3 „ 3 2 2 1 1* 

„ 3 3 „ 2 2 1 1 1* 

The number of the frontal lobes is also very variable. In speci- 
men No. 1 there are eighteen in both groups, in No. 2 twelve on 
the left and eleven on the right, and in No. 3 the left consists of 
sixteen and the right group of twelve. 

Considering these variations, it appears to me very probable that 
B. arborescens of Pease is only a variety of this species. The 
original account by Pease differs considerably from that given by 
Pergh. The number of lobes on the six pairs of papilla? according 
to these authors varies, and even the number which are gill-bearing. 

137. Oncidium (Peronia) punctatum? 

Onchidium punctatum, Quay § Gaimard, Voy. de V Astrolabe, Zooloyie, 
vol. ii. p. 215. 

Hah. Albany Island and Thursday Island, N. coast of Australia 
( Coppinger). 

* These are not in pairs, but consist of a single simple papilla on the central 
dorsal line. 



WOLLUSCA. 93 

Four specimens from the above localities appear to agree fairly 
with the superficial description given by the zoologists of the 
' Astrolabe,' whose examples were obtained at Port Dorey in New 
Guinea. 

III. CONCHIPERA. 

1. Teredo (Xylotrya) antarctica ? (Plate VII. figs. E-E 2.) 

Sutton, Cat. Marine Moll. New Zealand. 187S, p. 59; Jburn. de 
Conch. L878, vol. xxvi. p. 43 ; Man. X. /.. Moll. 1880, p. 133. 

//ah. Auckland to Dunedin (Huttori) ; Port Denison, Queensland 
(Co/>pinger). 

The specimens from Port Denison, which may belong to this 
species, are very like T. norvegievs and T. palmulata externally. The 
Bculpture is similar, but the notch or angle in the anterior side is 
not quite so deep as in the former. The interior of the valves has 
no! a distinct ridge marking off the posterior lobe. The pallets, 
wanting in the specimens before me, are said to be " elongate, 
slightly curved, penniform."' 

2. Saxicava arctica. 
Mya arctica, Linn. 

Hah. Port Jackson (Ooppinger). 

Four specimens from the above locality and others in the British 
Museum, also from New South Wales, I am unable to separate from 
this northern form. Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys and others have also failed 
to distinguish Australian from Arctic examples. 

3. Venus lamellaris. 

Antigona lamellaris, Schumacher, Essai, p. 155, pi. 14. fig. 2. 

Venus lamarckii (Gray), Reeve. Conch. Icon. figs. 39a, 6. 

Venus lamellaris, Pfeiffer in Truster's Con.-Cab. p. 142, pi. 8. figs. 10, 

Var. = Venus nodulosa, Sowerby, T/ies. Conch, pi. 153. fig. 16. 

Hah. Friday Island, Torres Straits. 

A single valve from this locality is rather longer than usual, 
having a length of 5'3 millim. and a height of 38. 

4. Venus toreuma. 

Gould, Wtlkes's Explor. Exped. p. 419, figs. 537, 537a ; Reeve, Conch. 

Icon. figs. 64 a, b. 
Venus jukesi, Deshayes, Cat. Brit. Mas. p. 100; Pfeiffer, Con.-Cab. 

p. 217, pi. 35. figs. 7-9. 
Venus sculpta, Deshayes, Reeve, I. c. fig. 5. 

Hab. Port Molle, Queensland, 14 fms., on a rocky bottom (Cop- 
pinger) ; Port Essington (Jukes for V. jukesi) : mudflats at Facing 
Island, Port Curtis (Brit. Mus.); Sooloo Sea (Gould). 

A specimen from the last locality but one is almost globular and 



04 COLLECTIONS PROM MELANESIA. 

has a remarkably deeply sunken lunule ; it is 34 millim. long, 
31 high, and 28 in diameter. 

5. Venus torresiana. (Plate VI. figs. M-M 2.) 

Shell subovate, moderately thick, nearly equilateral, concentri- 
cally finely ridged and radiately sulcated, white, irregularly rayed, 
streaked, and spotted with lightish brown. Anterior and posterior 
ends subequal, obtusely rounded, the latter rather the narrower ; 
ventral margin broadly arcuate. Posterior dorsal slope straightish, 
rather more oblique than in front. Lunule narrowly cordate, gene- 
rally of a chocolate-brown colour, partly so or merely whitish. 
Umbones small, red at the tip. Concentric ridges somewhat flat- 
tened, crowded, and subnodnlous anteriorly through being crossed by 
the radiating stria?, thin and lamellar behind. Striae less distinct 
on the central portion of the valves than at the extremities, and 
finer and closer together down the posterior side than elsewhere. 
Interior more or less pinkish, finely crenulated at the margin. 
Pallial sinus moderate, sharply rounded. Length 16 millim., 
height 12|, diameter 8. 

Hab. West Island, Prince of Wales Cbannel, and Thursday Island, 
Torres Straits, 4 fms. (Goppinger). 

This species is somewhat like V. (Chione) mesodesma, Quoy and 
Gaimard, but is distinguished by its greater length and difference of 
colour in the interior. It is also not so high, the concentric riblets 
are thin and lamellar posteriorly ; and the presence of radiating 
stria? at once separates it from the New-Zealand form. There are 
several specimens from the above localities, all having a rosy tip to 
the beaks, the lunules more or less dark-coloured, the ridges thin 
posteriorly, and the stria? in the same region finer and more numerous 
than elsewhere. 

6. Venus gladstonensis. 

Angas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1872, p. 612, pi. 42. fig. 8. 

Hab. Port Curtis (Anr/as and Goppinger). 

This species is remarkable for the fineness of the concentric 
lamella?, which exhibit the radiating slender lira? on the outer side 
as is the case with other species. The crenulation of the inner 
margin of the valves is also excessively fine, and tho pallial sinus is 
of moderate size and not very acute. 

7. Venus subnodulosa. 

Hanky, Cat. Bivalve Shells, p. .360, pi. 16. fig. 19 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon. 
fig. 102 ; Deshayes, Cat. Conch. Biv. p. 143, as Chione. 

Hab. Philippine Islands (Hartley) ; Moreton Bay {Strange in coll. 
Cuming); Port Curtis (Coppinger). 

This species is remarkable for the stoutness of the concentric 
ribs, which are rendered more or less subnodose by fine radiating 



HOLI/T78CA. 95 

sulci cutting across them. The margin of the valves within is den- 
ticulate everywhere except down the posterior dorsal slope, the 
denticles on tho edge of the lunule being finer and closer together 
than elsewhere. The pallial line is posteriorly nearly straight, or 
even a little incurved just before the commencement of the sinus, 
which is rather deep. The interior is generally somewhat rosy, 
especially towards the beaks. 

8. Cytherea (Caryatis) coxeni. (Plate VII. figs. A-A2.) 

Shell small, inequilateral, subtrigonally oval, white, variegated 
with pale zigzag brown or reddish lines forming an irregular broken- 
up network. Anterior dorsal margin straightish, much descending, 
sharply curving at the end into the upturned ventral outline. 
Posterior slope much longer, somewhat arcuate and less oblique than 
the anterior. Hinder extremity produced, roundly acuminated. 
Lower margin widely curved, about equally ascending at both ends. 
Umbones small, well curved over towards the front. Lunule long- 
ish heart-shaped, a little sunken, slightly elevated along the middle, 
and defined by an impressed line. Area indistinct. Surface of the 
valves finely sulcate-striated, the intervening lira? being somewhat 
rounded, much crowded at the sides, some of them not extending 
quite to the lateral outlines, especially posteriorly. Central cardinal 
tooth of the left valve thick, triangular, the two others slender and 
lamellar ; posterior in the right valve elongate, the central erect, 
conical, free. Posterior muscular scar nearly circular, the anterior 
narrower, ovate. Pallial sinus moderately deep, rather wide, squarely 
truncated at the end. Length 13 millim., height 10£, diameter 7. 

Hob. Port Molle, Queensland, 14 fms. 

This species I am unable to identify as the young stage of any 
known larger species. It apparently becomes more pointed behind 
as it increases ; so that if it be the early growth of the species, the 
adult form will be much produced at that part. C. minuta, Koch, 
has no coloured pattern and a different pallial sinus. 

The form of this species resembles very closely that of C. pura, 
Deshayes, a species found at Callao in South America. It is, bow- 
ever, more strongly concentrically lirate, is ornamented with pale 
brown zigzag lines and dots, and the form of the pallial sinus is 
quite different. 

9. Cytherea ( Caryatis) albina. 

Lamarck ? ; Homer, Monogr. Venus, Novitat. Conch, p. 87, pi. 23. 
figs. 5-5 b. 

Bab. Port Molle, Queensland (Coppinger). 

The shell from the above locality agrees with Homer's determi- 
nation of this species ; and two specimens from Cape York in the 
Museum, named D. bullata of Sowerby by Deshayes (Cat. Conch. 
Biv. p. 70 ). are also referable to it, for they have not the straightish 
ventral margin of that species. 



96 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

10. Dosinia histrio (vax. alba). 

Gmelin; Homer, Monogr. Dosinia, Novitat. Conch, p. 33, pi. 0. 

figs. 2 & 3. 
Artemis variegata (Chenu), Reeve, Conch. Icon. figs. 33 a-c. 

Il<il>. Clairniont Island, N.E. Australia (Cojijiini/cr). 

A fine specimen from the above locality is entirely white, with 
the exception of the extreme tips of the beaks, which are of a pah' 
rose tint, a feature apparently common in most white examples of 
the species. The specimen in question is 37§ millim. in length, 
the same in height, and 20 in diameter. In this species the dorsal 
area is very distinct and smooth in the left valve, but sculptured 
with the terminations of the concentric lamellae in the right. On 
the contrary, the half of the lunule in the latter valve is generally 
greater than the remainder of it in the left. 

11. Dosinia deshayesii. 

A. Adams ; Homer, Monogr. Dosinia, Novitat. Conch, p. 55. 

Hub. Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Straits, 9 fms. (Coppinger) ; 
North Australia (Cuming). 

12. Circe pectinata. 

Venus pectinata, Linn. 

Hub. Thursday Island and West Island, Torres Straits (Cop- 
pinger). 

13. Circe australis. 

Sowerby, TJics. Conch, ii. pi. 137. figs. 10, 17; Reeve Conch. Icon. 
fig. 19. 

Hub. Friday Island, Torres Straits, on the beach (Coppinger) ; 
N.E. coast of Australia (Brit. Mm.). 

One specimen from Friday Island is peculiar on account of the 
unusual style of its coloration. It is white, with a large orange- 
brown patch covering the greater part of the surface, and exhibits a 
total absence of colour within. 

14. Circe (Lioconcha) castrensis. 
Linn., vide Ranter's Monograph, Novitat. Conch, pi. 44. 

Hub. Port Denison, Queensland, 4 fms. 

The variety of this well-known species from the above locality is 
very closely depicted by the second figure from the top on the left 
side of Romer's plate. 

15. Tapes hiantina. 

Venus hiantina, Lamarck; Delessert, Recueil, pi. 10. fig. 8; Philippi. 

. Ibbild. \<>1. iii. p. 21, pi. 8. fig. 1. 
Tapes biantina, Romer, Monogr. Tapes. Novitat. Conch, p. 99, pi. 34, 

fag. 1 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon. figs. 28 a, b. 

Hub. Friday Island, Torres Straits. 



MOLLUSCA. 97 

16. Tapes malabarica. 

Chemnitz ; Miner, Monog. Tapes, Novitat. Conch, p. 34, pi. 10. 
figs. 3-3 d. 

Hah. Port Molle, 14 fins. (Coppinger) ; Malabar, Molucca and 
Philippino Islands (Rimer). 

17. Tapes variegata. 

Sowerby ; Homer, I. c, supra, p. 78, pi. 27. figs. 2-2 e. 

Hah. Port Curtis, 7 fins. (Cvppinger) ; Philippine Islands and 
Japan (Itbmer). 

18. Tapes araneosa. 

Venus araneosa, PhUippi, Abbild. vol. iii. p. 2-">, pi. 7. fig. 6. 

Tapes araneosa, Homer's Monogr., Novitat. Conch, p. 53, pi. 19. fig. 1. 

Hah. Port Darwin, N.W. Australia, 8-12 fms. 

The locality of this species I believe has not hitherto been re- 
corded. In the single specimen before me the umboncs are all but 
terminal, so that the anterior end is even more perpendicular than 
as represented by Dr. Homer's figures. T. deshayesii is not unlike 
this species as regards its general form ; but the anterior end is 
hardly so short, and the concentric sculpture decidedly coarser. 

19. Tapes (Textrix) textrix. 

Venus textrix, Chemnitz. 

Hah. Port Jackson (Coppinger). 

Two young examples of this well-known species are of a buff colour, 
mottled with bluish white at the umbones, and spotted with red- 
brown on the dorsal margins. 



20. Venerupis crenata. 

Lamarck; Delessert, Recueil, pi. 5. fig. 2; Pfeiffer, Con.-Cab. pi. 31. 
figs. 22, 23 ; Sowerby, Conch. Icon. fig. 3; Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 5 
(as Cypricardia serrata). 

Hah. Port Jackson (Coppincjer). 

21. Trapezium vellicatum, var. 
Cypricardia vellicata, Reeve, Conch. Icon. pi. 2. fig. 7. 

Hah. Port Darwin, 8-12 fms., bottom mud and sand (Coppinger)', 
Philippine Islands (Cuming). 

The ]S T orth-Australian variety of this species is peculiar on account 
of the absence of the coloured rays which distinguish the typical 
form. 



98 COLLECTIONS FEOM MELANESIA. 

22. Petricola lapicida. 

Venus lapicida, Chemnitz, Con -Cab. x. p. 356, figs. 1664-5 ; Sowerby, 
Conch. Icon. (Petricola) figs. 22, 24; Martens in Jw der Decken's 
Eeisen in Ost-Afrika, vol. iii. p. 66, pi. '■'>. figs. 3 a, b. 

Hah. AVcst Indies (Chemnitz, d'Oirbigny, S[C.)', North Australia 
(J". P. Elsey in Brit. Mus.) : ^'est Island, Prince of Wales Channel, 
Torres Straits (Copjnnger) ; Zanzibar (Peters, teste Martens). 

This and the Vt nus divaricata of Chemnitz I regard as one species, 
and from his description of the former it seems probable that he had 
before him specimens which to a great extenl had lost the fine zigzag 
sculpture mentioned in his description of the latter. The raised 
oblique ridges from the umbones down the posterior slope have 
various degrees of development in different specimens, in some existing 
only near the posterior margin of the valves, whilst in others they 
extend the whole distance from the beaks downwards, and, again, in 
young shells they may be altogether wanting. These ridges are 
easily removed, and seem to be superimposed upon the zigzag sculp- 
ture beneath. After a careful examination of Australian specimens 
and others from the West Indies, I cannot detect any material 
specific differences. 

The example figured by Dr. E. von Martens as P. divaricata is 
unsually peaked at the umbones. 

23. Psammohia rnodesta. 
Deshaijes, Proc. Zool. Soe. 1854, p. 319 ; Peeve, Conch, Icon. fig. 3. 

Hah. Port Jackson (Coppinger) ; Moreton Bay (Deshayes). 

The single specimen before me is rather narrower than that 
figured in the ' Conchologia Iconica.' is purplish lilac within for the 
most part, yellowish near the muscular scars, and exibits the pinkish 
rays on the ventral margin. The epidermis is brightish yellow. 
Oblique strise are sometimes present at the central portion of the 
valves, but are not conspicuous. 

24. Psammobia gracilenta. (Plate VII. figs. B-B 2.) 

Shell concentrically striated, transversely elongate, very inequi- 
lateral, almost twice as long as high, not very compressed, dirty 
whitish with a few diaphanous zones and several light reddish 
narrow rays beneath a thin pale yellowish-olive epidermis, verj 
narrowly gaping at both ends. Anterior dorsal margin of the valves 
about twice as long as the posterior, subrectilinear, and nearly 
parallel with the ventral. Hinder ' dorsal edge oblique, a little 
arcuate. Lower margin straightish, obliquely curving upward in 
front and more sharply tinning at the opposite extremity. Interior 
bluish white, iridescent, exhibiting the reddish rays. Beaks small, 
adjacent, posteriorly inclined. Ligament sin irt, but prominent, placed 
on a conspicuous ligament al plate in each valve behind the umbones. 
A second minute ligament exists immediately in front of them and 



MOLLUSC 'A. 99 

is partly enclosed when the valves arc shut. Cardinal teeth two in 
each valve, those of the right most prominent . Front dorsal margin 
of right valve narrowly grooved just within, simple in the left. 
Corselet linear. Posterior muscular impression rotund-pyriform, 
anterior more elongate. Pallial sinus moderate, extending forw 
beyond the middle of the valve. Length 19 1 millim., height 10, 
diani. 5. 

Hob. Prince of Wales Channel, 9 fms. 

A very elongate narrow species, recalling to mind certain slender 
forms of the genus Donax. 

2d. Tellina semen. 

Hartley, Thesaurus, vol. i. p. 249, pi. oO. tig. 8; (? Sowerby, Conch. 
Icon. vol. xvii. fig. 232, bad!). 

Hah. Thursday Island, Torres Straits, in 5-7 fms. 

Among the specimens from this locality is one of a purplish-rose 
tint, the rest being white like the type. The hinge of this species 
is composed of two cardinal teeth in the right valve (the posterior 
one larger and bifid, with one lateral tooth on each side and a groove 
between it and the margin), and of a single bifid cardinal in the left 
valve with a marginal lateral tooth or prominence on each side. The 
pallial sinus is very large, almost reaching to the anterior scar. 

The form of this species is very similar to that of T. obtusalis, 
Deshayes, which is the same as T. malaccana, Sowerby (Con. Icon, 
figs. 281 a and 125). The posterior end, however, is not so obtuse 
and the form is not so like that of a Donax. In T. obtusalis the 
concentric stria3 are rather coarser than in the present species, and 
become very much finer anteriorly, so that in that part the shell is 
more glossy and comparatively smooth, which is not the case in 
T. semen. Another form, T. semitecta, Sowerby, from Xew South 
Wales, is very closely related to the present species, and is mainly 
distinguished by its rather more elongate form, and finer and less 
elevated sculpture at the hinder extremity. 

26. Syndosmya elliptica. (Plate VII. figs. C, C 1.) 
Tellina elliptica, Soioerby, Conch. Icon. fig. 223 (bad !). 

Hub. Port Jackson {Ancjas and Cqppinger). 

The type and a second specimen of this species were presented to 
the British Museum by Mr. Angas in 1871. Neither of these nor a 
third collected by Dr. Coppinger exhibit the sinuation at the pos- 
terior end of the ventral margin depicted in Sowerby 's figure. His 
words " concentrically ridged behind the angle " are scarcely appli- 
cable, for in the first place there is only the feeblest indication of an 
angle and the sculpture behind it consists of mere concentric stria- 
tion. The hinge-characters show this species to belong to the genus 
Syndosmya, and Tellina simplex of the same author (Conch. Icon, 
sp. 240) requires a similar location. The hinge of the present species 
consists of two cardinal teeth in the right valve, the posterior larger 

h2 



100 COLLECTIONS FKOM MELANESIA. 

and bifid, and two in the left, of which the anterior is the larger and 
bifid. A single lateral tooth occurs in the right valve on each side 
not far from the cardinals, with a groove between them and the 
margin. Left valve with a slight tooth-like projection on the mar- 
gin on each side fitting into the grooves in the other valve. The 
pallial sinus is largo and deep. Internal cartilage minute, narrow, 
oblique, posterior to the cardinal teeth. External ligament small. 
The largest specimen measures 13 millim. by 9|. T. alba of Wood 
is somewhat like this species, but is more acute posteriorly, the 
detail of its dentition is different, and the cartilage larger. 

27. Mactra exirnia. 
(Deshayes) ; Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 31 (rayed variety). 

Hab. Port Denison, Queensland (Coppinger) ; Port Curtis, More- 
ton Pay (coll. Owning) ; X.E. coast of Australia (Brit. Mas.). 

There are altogether eight specimens of this species in the Museum, 
three of them being ornamented with numerous reddish rays, and 
the remaining five uniformly white beneath the greyish and yellowish 
epidermis. 

28. Mactra producta, var. 

Spisida producta, Angus, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 909, pi. 44. fig. 7. 

Hab. Port Jackson (Angas and Coppinger). 

The three shells dredged by Dr. Coppinger are probably a variety 
of this species. They are all small, apparently immature, and differ 
from the types presented to the Museum by Mr. Angas in being 
less produced posteriorly. They are proportionally longer from the 
umbones to the ventral margin, which exhibits a very faint incurva- 
tion near the hinder extremity, and the posterior dorsal slope is a 
trifle more arcuate. 

29. Mactra (Oxyperas) coppingeri. (Plate VII. figs. D-D 2.) 

Shell transversely elongate, triangular, a little inequilateral, 
rather compressed, thinnish, narrowly gaping posteriorly, smooth 
towards the beaks, concentrically plicately ridged elsewhere, white, 
covered with a pale yellowish epidermis, spotted somewhat sparsely 
throughout with brownish dots, and ornamented on the dorsal areas 
with cross lines of a deeper brown, and with a large patch of the 
same colour on the hinder slope of each valve. Umbones moderately 
acute, not large, inclining towards and situated a trifle in advance 
of the centre. Lunule sunken, not circumscribed by acute ed 
extending more than halfway down the anterior slope. Posterior 
area as deep as the lunule and a trifle longer, smoothish, not much 
affected by the terminations of the concentric ridges. Two lateral 
teeth on each side in the right valve, separated by a deep gr> 
quite approximated to the cardinal teeth in front and the cartila 
pit behind. The latter is large, deep, and located posterior to the 
beak. The cardinal tooth is small, insignificant, bounds the ligament, 
and has a cross piece above it immediately beneath the apex of the 



I 



M0LLTJS0A. 101 

umbo. In the left valve; the single Lateral tooth on each side is 
elongate, narrow, and erect. Only one cardinal tooth (unless the 
front raised edgo of the ligamental fossa be considered a tooth), which 
is elongate, but little raised, situated between the pit and edge of 
the lunule. Muscular scars pyriform, the front one elongate, the 
posterior more rounded. Pallial sinus extending halfway across the 
valves, sharply rounded at the end. A second sinuation within 
tho other, and consequently shorter and less acutely curved, is a 
remarkable feature in both valves of the single perfect shell before 
me; in a separate valve this is not noticeable, but may have been 
obliterated, as the specimen is somewhat sea-worn. The inner sur- 
face of this species is glossy and radiately suhstriated, one impressed 
ray from the umbones to the end of the mantle-sinus being especially 
conspicuous. Length .'>')] millim., height 24, diameter 12. 
Hah. Thursday Lsland, Torres Straits, 4-6 fms. ' 
This very interesting species bears a rather close relationship 
to Mactra triangularis of Lamarck; it is, however, quite distinct. 
It is a trifle shorter, less angular, not so strongly concentrically 
costate, has au excavated lunule and a sunken area not defined 
by carinate edges, and the dorsal margins not prominent, forming a 
keel on each side ; the umbones as in M. triangularis. M. aspersa, 
Sowerbv. is a more finely sculptured shell, more rounded posteriorly, 
with a shallower lunule and a narrower dorsal area. The pallial 
sinus in the present species reaches halfway across the valve, whilst 
in M. aspersa it has a further extension and lacks the duplex feature 
described previously. 

30. Mactrinula angulifera. 

Mactra angulifera, Deshayes, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1854, p. 70; Reeve, 
Conch. Icon. fig. 83. 

Hah. Island of Ticao, Philippine Islands ( Cuming) ; Port Curtis 
( Coppinger). 

Behind the conspicuous keel which marks off the posterior area, 
about midway between it and the margin, there are one or two 
minor ridges. In the Cumingian collection there is a second 
specimen, somewhat larger than that figured by Reeve, having a 
length of 32 millim. and a width of 47. 



'&■ 



31. Cardium reevianiun. 

Bunker, Kovitates Conch, p. 22, pi. 6. figs. 6, 7, 8. 

Hah. Port Darwin, 8-12 fms., bottom mud and sand (Coppinger) ; 
Port Essington (Mus. Cuming). 

Cardium vertehratum, Jonas (Zeitschr. fiir Malak. 1844, p. 33), 
from West Australia, is apparently closely related to the present species. 

32. Cardium hystrix. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. figs. 40 a, h ; Rb'mer, Conch.-Cah. p. 112. 

Hah. Corrigidor, Philippines (Cuming) ; Flinders and Clairmont 
Islands, N.E. Australia (Coppinger). 



lML> COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA.. 

33. Cardiurn, sp. jun. 

Hab. Port Curtis, Queensland (Coppinger). 

The two young shells from the above locality are closely allied to 
C. unicolor, Sowerhy. 

34. Chama divaricata. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 20. 

Hab. Torres Straits, 10 fins., sand and shell bottom (Coppinger) ; 
island of Samar, Philippine Islands (Cuming). 

35. Chama pulchella. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. figs. 10 a, b. 

Hab. Port Molle, Queensland, 12 fms. (Coppinger); Cape Upstart 
i Jukes). 

The posterior brown ray is generally rather deeply sunken in this 
species. 

36. Cardiurn inaculosum, var. 

Wood, General Conch, p. 218, pi. 52. fig. 3 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 76 ; 

var., Soiccrby, Conch. 111. fig. 63. 
Cardiurn rnultistriatum, Sowerby, Conch. III. fig. 59. 
Cardiurn areuicolum, Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 78. 

Hab. Port Molle, Queensland, 14 fms. (Coppinger); Ceylon 
(Holdsworth in Brit. Mus.) : Molucca and Philippine Islands 
(Cuming) ; ? (Wood). 

A single shell from Port Molle, nearly an inch long, differs from 
all specimens of this species which I have examined in having fewer 
ribs, sepai'ated by broader intervening sulci, especially down the 
anterior side, and in being yellowish with less and paler blotching 
with reddish purple except within the valves, where, on account of 
not being concealed by a deposit of callus, it is especially vivid. 
The number of costae in this specimen is forty, and in typical ex- 
amples there are usually about ten more. Cardiurn modestum of 
Philippi is also an allied species, with still fewer and stouter ribs, 
numbering altogether about thirty-five or thirty-six. C. multi- 
striatum was originally described by Sowerby in the Proc. Zool. Soc. 
without a locality, and subsequently was stated by him to come 
from. St. Elena, West Colombia; but this, I am inclined to think, 
requires corroboration. 

37. Cardiurn multispinosum. 

Sowerby; Reev . Conch. Icon. fig. 10; Romer in Euster's Con.-Cab. 
p. 67, pi. 12. figs. 1,2. 

Hab. Port Molle, Queensland, 14 fms. (Coppinger); China (/. 
Reeves in Brit. Mus.) ; Philippine Islands (Cuming). 

The number of ribs in this species may vary from thirty-one to 



M0LLT/SCA. 103 

thirty-seven, the latter number being attained by tbo only small 
specimen (about a quarter tho size of the adult shell) from Port 
Molle. 

38. Cardium (Hemicardium) unedo. 

Cardium unedo, Linn. 

Hub. Port Molle,, Queensland, on the beach. 

This species has a wide distribution, having boon recorded from 
the Mauritius. Ceylon, Philippine Islands, Cochin China, Cambodja, 
West Australia, and it has also been met with at the Solomon, Fiji, 
and other islands in the Pacific. 

39. Corbula tunicata. 

Hinds, Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 5. 

Hub. Port Molle, 14 I'ms. ; Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Straits, 
5-7 fms. ; Arafura Sea, N.W. coast of Australia, 32-36 fms., and 
Port Darwin, 8-12 fms. (Coppinger) ; Philippine Islands {Cuming) : 
South Africa (Hinds) ; Port Jackson (Angus). 

40. Corbula fortisulcata. 

Smith, Proc. Zool, Soc. 1878, p. 819, pi. 50. figs. 23-23 b. 

Hab. Port Darwin, N.W. Australia, 8-12 fms., sand and mud 
bottom ( Coppinger) ; Port Essington (Jukes) ; and Andaman Islands 
( Wilmer). 

41. Corbula scaphoides. 

Hinds, Proc. Zool.. Soc. 1813, p. 56; Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 21. 

Hub. Port Molle, Queensland, 14 fms. (Coppinger) ; Cape York, 
1ST. Australia, in 5 fms., muddy sand and sea-mud (./. Mucrjillivray in 
Brit. Mus.) ; Singapore and Philippine Islands (Hinds). 

The specimens described by Hinds were only half the length of 
the adult shells collected by Dr. Coppinger and Mr. Macgillivray. 

42. Lucina (Divaricella) ornata. 

Lucina ornata, Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 48. 

Lucina (Divaricella) angulifera, Martens, Moll. Mauritius, p. 321. 
pi. 22. fig. 14. 

Hub. Friday Island, Torres Straits (Coppinger)-, Port Jackson 
(J. B. Jukes in Brit. Mus.); coast of Africa (East or West?) (Capt. 
Owen, B.N., in Brit. Mus.) ; Mauritius (Robillard) ; ? (Reeve). 

This species should, I think, be separated from the West-Indian 
L. dentutu, Wood ( = L. divaricuta, Lam. non Linn., = X. strrata, 
d'Orb.), to which it has been united by Pfeiffer in the ' Conchylien- 
Cabinet,' ed. 2, Yeneracea, p. 269. 

Tho incised lines are deeper, and form a more acute angle at the 
point of divarication. The type specimen is somewhat abnormal 



104 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

in form, the more usual outline being represented by Reeve's fig. 
47 b, which lie wrongly ascribes to the West-Indian species. The 
difference in the angle of divarication of the ridges is at once seen 
by comparing the two figures 47a and 47 b. 

43. Diplodonta subcrassa. (Plate VII. figs. 1, 1 1.) 

Shell roundly subquadrangular, only moderately inflated, thickish, 
decidedly inequilateral, dirty white, not glossy. Anterior side 
shorter than the posterior, somewhat pointed at the extremity ; 
hinder side very broad, squarish, yet rounded. Posterior dorsal 
margin si raightish, only a trifle oblique; anterior a little concave 
near the beaks, then feebly curved and suddenly descending. 
Ventral outline arcuate, considerably upcurving in front. Surface 
concentrically finely striated, somewhat uneven through periodic 
interruptions of growth. Umbones small, contiguous, incurved, 
pellucid, located in advance of the median line. Hinge-teeth 
rather strong, posterior of the right valve and anterior in the 
left stout, snbequal, bifid, and the anterior in the fonner is rather 
thicker than the hinder in the latter, which is sublamellar. Muscular 
scars somewhat small, deepish, subequal. Interior of the valves 
not very glossy, roughish. 

Length 15 millim., height 14, diameter 8|. 

J lab. West Island. Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Straits, 7 fms. 

This is rather a solid species and peculiarly acuminated at the 
extremity in front, with rather conspicuous bines indicating periodic 
growth. 

44. Diplodonta snblateralis. (Plate VII. fig. K.) 

Shell very inequilateral, much broader behind than in front, 
scarcely longer than high, moderately inflated, white, finely concen- 
trically sculptured with the lines of growth. Posterior dorsal 
margin nearly horizontal, straight at first, then gradually curving 
into the broadly arcuate lateral outline. Front dorsal edge some- 
what oblique, scarcely recurved near the beak, but afterwards 
rounding into the side margin, which is very much more suddenly 
curvate than at the opposite end. Ventral margin more sharply 
arched than the posterior, but less so than the anterior. Umbones 
small, acute, only slightly elevated, situated far in advance of the 
centre. Hinge-plate narrow in the right valve, conspicuously 
grooved in front of the two cardinal teeth ; of these the anterior is 
very small, lamellar, and falls perpendicularly beneath the beak, 
the posterior being about three times as thick and deeply bisected. 
The ligamental furrow is narrow and 5| millim. in length. The 
muscular scars are subequal, the posterior a trifle broader. Length 
19| millim., height 18^-, diameter 10. 

Nab. Torres Straits, 7-10 fms. 

Only a right valve of this species was obtained by Dr. Coppinger, 
which, however, is apparently distinct in form, the chief distin- 



M0LLTT8CA. 105 

guishing character in species of this genus. It recalls to mind D. 
lateralis, mihi, from the island of Rodriguez, although it is sufficiently 
distinct in form. The anterior Bide is longer, the beaks loss lateral, 
and the height of the shell in proportion to the length is greater. 



45. Kellia jacksoniana. (Plate VII. figs. F, F 1.) 

Shell obliquely and suhquadrately rounded, rather convex, pale 
grey, a little transparent towards the umbones, inequilateral ; ante- 
rior end, or that toward which the beaks incline, rnuch shorter than 
the postorior. Front margin obliquely curved ; base straightish, 
but little arcuate. Hinder extremity produced somewhat at the 
lower part. Surface a little glossy, concentrically striated, some of 
the stria) towards the margin more pronounced than those nearer the 
umbones. The latter a trifle prominent above the hinge-line, 
approximated, terminating in an incurved vitreous glossy apex. 
Teeth strong ; in the right valve ono immediately beneath the umbo 
and another posterior to the ligament ; the left valve has two be- 
neath the umbo and one posterior to the ligament. Muscular scars 
la rge, placed high up, the anterior subpyrif orm, the posterior longer. 
Pallial impression joining the scars high up on their outer margin. 
Length 7 millim., width 8i, diam. of closed valves nearly 5. 

Hab. Port Jackson (Coppinger). 

K. rotunda, Deshayes, and K. solida, Angas, are also Port-Jackson 
species and the nearest allies of the present one. The former is 
almost as long as broad, nearly equilateral, of a thinner growth, 
and has slighter teeth ; the latter is more solid, more transverse, 
rather more equilateral, is opaque white, highly glossy, has the 
interior thickened and subpunctate, and the pallial impression 
appears to join the lower extremity of the muscular scars. 

46. Scintilla cuvieri. 

Deshayes, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1855, p. 174 ; Sotverby, Thes. Conch, vol. iii. 

p. 180, pi. 235. figs. 59, 60 ; id. Conch. Icon. figs. 15 a, b. 
? Var. =S. flavida, Deshayes, I. c. p. 175 ; Soioerby, Thes. fig. 64; Conch. 

Icon. fig. 24 ? 

Hab. Port Molle, Queensland (Coppinger) ; Baclayon, island of 
Bohol, Philippines (Cuming) ; Basay, island of Samar (Cuming, for 
var. flavida). 

The figures of this species in the ' Conch. Icon.' are most inaccu- 
rate, and that in the 'Thesaurus,' although much better, is not 
quite correct. The umbones arc smaller, more acute, and incline 
anteriorlv, and the colour is not nearly so bright as depicted in 
the figure. The representation of the var. flavida, fig. 64, is still 
more unfaithful ; the hinder margin is not obliquely truncate, but 
curved. I cannot discover any material distinction in this variety. 
It is smaller, which may be a matter of age, and the type is slightly 
narrower than the type of S. cuvieri ; but of both forms I have 



106 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

before mc gradations in respect to length and breadth. Both are 
slightly narrower in front than behind, sculptured with fine con- 
centric striae and more or less indistinct shallow radiating markings, 
a feature unnoticed by Deshayes. Although the dentition is 
described by that author as somewhat different, I am bound to Bay, 
after a most careful examination, that both the number and position 
of the teeth are absolutely similar. In the left valve I find three 
teeth, the anterior one being very small at the termination of the 
inner margin of the hinge-plate, which is grooved on both sides of 
the beak. The central tooth is large, prominent, situated imme- 
diately beneath the point of the umbo, and the third is insignificant 
and posterior to the narrow oblique ligament. The right valve has 
a large prominent tooth a little in front of the apex of the umbo, 
and generally the extremity of the inner edge of the grooved hinge- 
plate is raised into a tooth-like prominence behind the ligament, 
which extends not only within the valves, but also along the hinge- 
line just above the teeth. The single specimen from Port Molle and 
'one in the Cumingian collection are peculiar in having two or three 
of the shallow radiating impressions towards the hinder ventral ex- 
tremity deeper, thus producing a wavy margin to the valves at that 
particular spot. 



47. Scintilla aurantiaca. (Plate VII. figs. H, HI.) 

Deshayes, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1855, p. 179 ; Soicerby, Thes. Conch, vol. iii. 
p. 170, pi. 234. fig. 5. 

Hah. North Australia, under stones at low water (Juices) ; island 
of Xairai, Fiji, at low water (Brit. Mus.) ; Port Molle, Queensland 
(Copplmjer). 

The specimens from Port Molle agree precisely with the types of 
8. aurantiaca in the national museum. There are some other species 
which I cannot distinguish from it; these are 8. faba, Desh., S. 
Forbesii, Desh., 8. pallidula, Desh., 8. ambigua, Desh., 8. bornei nsis, 
Desh., and 8. adamsi, Desh. The last and 8. faba are placed by 
Sowerby in the group of " species with no hiatus" in the ventral 
margin. This location is incorrect, for both gape slightly, and in 
fact Deshayes, in his description of the latter, says " margine infe- 
riore angustissme hiante." This opening appears to be subject to 
variation in shells which are unquestionably the same specifically j 
and therefore I believe it probable that all the above-mentioned 
so-called species will prove to be variations of Lamarck's Psam- 
bia aurantia, which, according to Sowerby's figure (Conch. Icon, 
fig. 20, 8. mauritiana), has an extremely wide gape beneath. The 
latter species is said to be synonymous with 8. aurantia by Deshayes 
(Anim. sans Vert. vol. vi. p. 180, Galeomma aurantia), and von 
Martens expresses a similar opinion (Mobius, ' Meeresfauna Mauritius 
&c.,' p. 322). Deshayes (P. X. S. 1855, p. 167) says that the La- 
marckian shell is a Galeomma. 

The animal of Dr. Coppinger's shells agrees with the description 



MOIXTTSCA. 107 • 

given by Quoy and Gaimard of their Psam/mobia vitrea and with the 
figure in Mobius's work above referred to, pi. xxi. figs. 10 a, 6. The 

foot protrudes at the narrower end of the shell; it is small when 
retracted, of a boot-like form, roundly carinate at the base, pointed 
at the tip, and furnished with what is probably a byesiferous process 
at tho posterior end (" talon," ',>. & (J.) : this is of an opaque white 
colour. The mantle is opon in front and the anterior half of the 
ventral margin for the passage of the foot, and united along the 
rest of the basal and hinder margins, whore there is a minute 
siphonal perforation. The surface of the mantle beneath is covered 
with papillae, and the membranous marginal expansion in life pro- 
bably covers nearly the entire surface of the shell, for even in spirit 
specimens it still extends halfway up the valves. There are two 
labial palpi on each side. From this description the close relation- 
ship with Qaleomma is very apparent. 

The dentition of this species, according to my observation, does 
not agree with the description given by Deshayes. In the right 
valve I find a prominent tooth a little in front of the beak, and a 
second more remote behind it ; the left valve has two teeth, of 
which the anterior is the smaller, just beneath the umbo, and a 
third a little behind it. The ligament is externally visible, being 
attached to the hinge-line above the teeth, a portion of it being 
internal above and between the teoth. 

48. Scintilla alberti. (Plate YII. figs. G, G 1.) 

Shell small, pellucid, milky white, considerably inequilateral, 
transversely oblong, shorter and narrower in front of the umbones 
than behind them, moderately swollen. Lateral and dorsal mar- 
gins curved, ventral rather rectilinear. Surface glossy, exhibiting 
(under the lens) distinct concentric lines of growth and also minute 
radiating and somewhat interrupted stria), visible only under a 
compound microscope. Umbones small, slightly elevated above the 
hinge-margin, not quite adjacent, the valves being closed. Cardinal 
teeth insignificant, consisting of a single subumbonal denticular 
slight obtuse prominence, which is more distinct in the left than in 
the right valve. Ligament small, visible externally, extending on 
both sides of the apices of the beaks, but further posteriorly than in 
front. Height 5-| millim., width 1, length 7-t. 

Hah. West Island, Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Straits 
(Coppinger). 

S. hydatina, Deshayes, appears to be more closely related to this 
species than to any other in the genus. It is, however, higher, more 
equilateral, flatter, with more equal sides and a curved ventral 
margin. 

49. Crassatella pulchra. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 16. 

Hah. Thursday Island, Torres Straits, 3-4 fms. {Coppinger) ; Port 
Essington (Capt. Wiclham, B.N., in Brit. Mus.). 



I I IS COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

This so-called species, also G. donacina, Lamarck, G. cvmingii, A. 
Adams, C. castanea, Reeve, C. errones, Reeve, and C. decipiens, 
Reeve, I believe to be mere variations of one and the same form, 
namely ft hingicola, Lamarck. The composition of the hinge is the 
same in all, and the peculiar colouring of the interior is similar (vide 
Reeve, fig. 16, and Delessert, pi. iv. fig. 1 b). The variation in form 
is partly due to age ; for instance, a young ft decipii ns has the form 
of donacina, and it is only towards maturity that the posterior end 
becomes markedly produced ; and the same observation applies to ft 
errones. The amount of concentric ribbing is not constant ; but all 
intermediate forms are met with, from ft castanea and G. donacina 
(type), which have least, to G. pukhra, which has most, being cos- 
tate throughout, except at the posterior extremity. The pallial line 
in every specimen examined does not appear to be parallel with the 
margin of the valve, but becomes gradually more remote anteriorly, 
the space between it and the margin being radiately shallow ly 
subsulcatc, seen better in some lights than others. The epidermis 
scarcely varies at all : in some examples it appears to have lost the 
dull bloom which covers others ; but this defect is the result of fric- 
tion, for a dull specimen in perfect condition is easily rendered 
glossy by merely being rubbed with a wet cloth, the bloom disap- 
pearing as it does from fruit under similar circumstances. Judging 
from the specimens in the British Museum with reliable localities 
attached to them, it appears that the species ranges from Queensland 
on the east side of Australia, along the north coast to Swan River on 
the west. I find a specimen of the variety cumingii from Port 
Curtis and another from Sandy Cape on the north-east coast ; var. 
pulchra from Port Essington ; vars. decipiens and castanea from 
Swan River. 

50. Modiola, sp. 
Hah. PortMolle. 

A single distorted specimen only is before me, remarkably like 
the European M. barbata. 



51. Modiola glaberrirna. 
Dunker ; Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 48. 
flab. Sydney (DunJcer) ; Port Jackson (Goppinger and Angus). 

52. Modiolaria niiranda. (Plate VII. fig. N.) 

Shell transversely elongate, highest at the middle, of pale greenish 
tint, varied with a few indistincl light reddish irregular markings, 
not glossy, rather strongly radiately ridged at both ends and very 
finely on the central portion of the valves. Whole surface concen- 
trically striated, producing a subgranose appearance upon the cos- 
tulae ; the anterior are about ten in number, the posterior about 



MOLLTTSCA. I ( .) 

twice as many, and produce a denticulate margin to the valves. 
Interior slightly iridescent. Umbones small, glossy, not radiately 
sculptured like tho rest of the shell. Length <> millim., height 3|-, 
diam. 3. 

lliih. Dundas Straits. 

This is a very prettily sculptured species, approaching, as regards 
outline, M. vartcosa. It is, however, quite distinguishable by the 
greater coarseness and subgranular character of the radiating ante- 
rior and posterior ridges. 

The single specimen described above may not be full-grown ; but 
I conjecture it never attains a much larger size. 



53. Modiolaria varicosa. (Plate VII. figs. M,M1.) 
Gould, Proc. Bost. Sue. Nat. Hist. 1861, vol. viii. ; Otia Conch, p. 176. 

Hah. Port Jackson (Coppinger) ; Sydney {Gould). 

This pretty little species was figured by Peeve (Conch. Icon. fig. 83) 
as the young of Modiola strigata, Hanley ; and this must have in- 
duced Gould to observe that it " is marked like" that species, for 
in reality there is very little resemblance in the painting of the two 
shells. The radiating scrdpture is faintly indicated in the above 
figure by means of scratched lines, but these are only noticeable 
under a lens. 

54. Lithodornus teres. 

Modiola teres, PhUippi, Abhild. vol. ii. p. 148, pi. 1. fig. 3. 
Lithodornus teres, Peeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 13. 

Hub. Pacific Ocean (Phil.): Philippine Islands (Cuming); Port 
Denison, Queensland (Coppinger). 

The anterior perpendicular strise are rather coarse in this species ; 
the raised interstices between them are very conspicuous at the 
margin, and gradually become finer as they ascend the valves, some- 
times furcating at one or more of the concentric lines of growth. 
The interior is pinkish or bluish, and more or less iridescent. 

55. Area navicularis. 

Bruguiere ; PhUippi, Abbild. vol. ii. pi. 3. fig. '2; Peeve, Conch. Icon. 

fig. 70 ; Wood, Index Test. pi. 9. fig. 5. 
Var.=Arca linter, Jonas, PhUippi, I. c. fig. 1. 
Var.=Arca subquadrangula, Dunker, PhUippi, I. c. fig. 3. 
Var. = Area cunringii, Dunker (MS. in coll. Cuming ) ; Adams, Genera 

Moll. ii. p. 533. 

Hab. Port Molle, Queensland ( Coppinger) ; Port Phillip, China, 
Cape Capricorn, Amboina (Brit. Mus.). 

The varieties respectively called A. linter and A. subquadrangula 
are distinguished only by very variable characters, snch as form and 
the amount of ligament, which in this group of Arks are of little 
value. 



110 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

56. '? Area imbricata. 

Ilniguiere ; Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 73. 

Hab. Port Molle, Queensland, 12 fms. (Goppinger) ; Geelong, 
Port Philip (Mas. Cuming); Port Essington and ^'.E. Australia 
{Brit. Mus.). 

The specimens from the above localities belong to one species, 
and so closely resemble, with the exception of colour, West-Indian 
examples of this species, that I hesitate to separate them specifi- 
cally. I fail to discover any good distinctions between A. cunealis, 
Peeve, A. kraussi, 1'bilippi, and A. imbricata =A. wnibonata, Lamarck, 
except that the two former generally, but not always, have more 
rhomboidal grooves on the ligament. 

57. Area (Barbatia) lima. 
Area lima, Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 101. 

Hab. Port Molle, 14 fms., and Thursday Island, 2-6 fms. (Cop- 
pinger); Burias and Corrigidor, Phibppines (Cuming). 

" Light brown, stained with brown, spotted with brown, pos- 
teriorly covered with a thin, very fine bristly epidermis." Such is 
the erroneous description given by Peeve of this species. It is, in 
fact, a purely white shell throughout, and all the brown stains and 
spots are merely the remains of the epidermis. The entire surface 
is ornamented with very numerous close-set fine radiating riblets, 
which are finely granular, the granules so placed as to form con- 
centric series. About half a dozen of the costae down the posterior 
side and a few at the anterior end are thicker than the rest on the 
central portion of the valve, and consequently have larger granules, 
those behind being further apart also. The few ribs towards the 
middle being duplicate, as stated by Peeve, is an individual rather 
than a specific character. The interior is white, and the margin 
crenulated, the crenulation corresponding in coarseness with the 
radiating costoe. 

58. Area (Barbatia) tenebrica. 
Ana tenebrica, Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 105. 

Hab. Samar, Philippines (CV,« ting); Port Essington (Capt. Wick- 
ham in lirit. Mus.); Port Curtis (Dr. Coppinger) ; Bombay (Mus. 
Cuming). 

The surface of this species is minutely reticulated with exces- 
sively fine radiating and concentric lira?, of which the former are 
the coarser, subgranular, and generally alternating finer and coarser. 
The vahes exhibit an indication of a faint depression down the 
middle, from the umbo to the centre of the ventral margin, which 
in some specimens is slightly incurved or sinuated at that part. It 
is also thickened within, smooth, and rounded. 

The interior is bluish white and radiately striated, the striae being 



MOLLUSCA. 1 1 I 

particularly conspicuous at the pallial line, where they terminate. 
The muscular scars are large, well defined by a line radiating from the 
umbones. Hinge-teeth rather numerous, minute in the centre, 
considerably larger at both ends. In the type there are forty, and 
a specimen about half-grown has thirty-five. The ligament is 
narrow, but very coarsely striated transversely. The epidermis is 
thinnish and somewhat fibrous near the margins, especially pos- 
teriorly. 

59. Area (Barbatia) symmetrica. 

Area symmetrica, Reeve, Conch. Icon. st>. 117, and fig. 120. 
PVar.=Arca zebueusis, Reeve, I.e. fig. 117, sp. 120. 

Hub. Port Molle, Queensland, 12-20 fms. (Coppinger) ; Bay of 
Manila {Cuming). 

In the ' Conchologia Iconica' the numbers of the figures 120 
and 117 should be reversed. The specimens of A. symmetrica 
which were described by Keeve are of a greenish tint, and not so 
oblique as A. zebiu nsis: The sculpture in both consists of fine 
radiating lira?, rendered minutely granular by the concentric lines 
of growth. The lira? vary but little in thickness, with the excep- 
tion of a few finer intermediate ones here and there and those on 
the posterior extremity, which are a trifle stouter. A. zebuensis 
ditiers, in addition to its extra obliquity before referred to, resulting 
from the less central position of the umbones, in being a trifle more 
finely lirate. One of the specimens from Port Molle is somewhat 
intermediate in form, being more oblique than A. symmetrica and 
less so than A. zebuensis. The measurements of two specimens will 
indicate to what extent the form and proportions may vary : — 

No. 1. Height 7§ millim., length 11, diameter 8. 

No. 2. „ 6^ „ „ 11, „ 6|. 

60. Area (Trisis) tortuosa. 
Area tortuosa, Linn. 

Hob. Singapore and Malacca (Cuming); Xorth-west Australia 
(Du Boulay) and China (Reeves), in Brit. Mus. ; Port Curtis in 
11 fms., sand and shell bottom (Copjpinger). 

The right valve of this well-known and remarkable shell always 
appears to retain more of the epidermis than the left. The foot and 
mouth of the animal, as might be expected, are at the narrow end 
of the shell. The foot (in spirit) is small, narrow, and grooved 
beneath, retaining a small byssus. 

61. Leda darwini. (Plate VII. figs. L-L2.) 

Shell a little inequilateral, rather convex, transversely irregularly 
ovate, acuminate posteriorly, thinnish, glossy, moderately coarsely 
concentrically ridged and sulcate throughout, except upon the lunule 
and area, the ridges being finer and the sulci broader on a slightly 
depressed portion of the surface down the posterior side, which is of 



112 COLLECTIONS FKOM MELANESIA. 

a transparent white colour, and not pale olive-green like the rest 
of fche surface. At the anterior end a few oblique lines, commencing 
at the ridge which borders the lunule, fall across the concentric 
sculpture, but are only noticeable in certain lights. The dorsal 
margin is very faintly arcuate in front and scarcely descending, a 
trifle more oblique behind, and rectilinear except near the extremity, 
where there is a very feeble sinuation. The lower outline is broadly 
arcuate, considerably upcurvingin front, and at its junction with the 
dorsal edge forms an obtuse or rounded angle : at the posterior 
end it ascends more gently (the curve being indistinctly interrupted 
by a very faint prominence which defines the portion of the surface 
upon which the concentric ridges are finer than elsewhere), pro- 
ducing with the dorsal slope a sharpish rostrate end. The umbones 
are rather large and prominent, coarsely concentrically sculptured, 
situated a little posterior to the centre, and incline somewhat 
towards the hinder side. The dorsal areas are distinctly defined by 
elevated margins, and the posterior is broader than the anterior or 
lunule. Teeth about 43 in number, whereof about 16 are on 
the posterior side, and the rest in front. The interior of the valves 
is transparent milky white, and the margin is acute and smooth. 
The pallial sinus is deep, narrow, and rounded at the end. Length 
17g millim., height 9§, diameter 7. 

Hah. Port Darwin, <^-12 fins., mud and sand bottom. 

This species is very closely related to L. confusa, Hanley. It is, 
however, thinner, not so equilateral, more coarsely sculptured, has 
more prominent umbones, and the margin of the valves is not 
minutely crenulated within. 

62. Malleus legumen. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 2. 

Hah. Philippine Islands {Cuming); Port Curtis (Coppinger). 

The interior of this species is waxy white, except the upper part 
of the nacreous portion beneath the ligament, where there is a large 
dark purplish spot. The non-nacreous portion exhibits a raised sub- 
central ridge extending from the margin of the pearly lining nearly 
to the lower extremity. 

63. Avicula lata. 

Gray, 1845, Appendix to Eyre's Central Australia, p. 435, pi. 6. fig. 1 ; 

Reeve, C'tmth. Icon. fig. 5. 
Avicula serrulata, DunJcer, Zeitsehr. f. Maldk. 1848, p. 178 ; Conch.- 

Cab. ed. 2. p. 18, pi. 5. figs. 1, 2. 

Hot,. West Island, Torres Straits, in 7 fms., sand (Coppinger); 
Port Essington (J. B. Jukes in Brit. Mus.); Raine's Island, Torres 
Straits ( Lieut, luce, 11. A., in Mus. Cuming) ; Moluccas (BunTcer). 

R( eve and Dunkcr appear to have been unaware that this species 
was both figured and described by Gray. Apparently, as a rule, it 
is longer than either of the specimens figured in the ' Conch. Icon.' or 



MOLLUSCA. 113 

' Conch.-Cab.' That collected by Dr. Coppinger has the auriclo pre- 
cisely like that of Dunker's specimen, this form of it being, judging 
from the series before me, more usual than that figured by Peeve. 

64. Avicula rufa. 
Dunker, Conch.-Cab. p. 58, pi. l'J. figs. 7, 8. 

Hab. Java (Danker) ; West Island, Prince of Wales Channel, 
Torres Straits, 7 tins., sandy bottom (Goppinger). 

All throe specimens from the latter locality exhibit several white 
radiating lines on both valves, as indicated in the figure 8 referred 
to. The presence of these rays appears to have been rather excep- 
tional in the Javan specimens examined by Dunker. 

(j5. Avicula sniaragdina. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 4o. 

Hab. ^Moluccas'? (Reeve) ; N.E. Queensland (Coppinger). 

The young stage of this species has not the very prolonged oblique 
form of the adult. The figure in Ileeve's work is much too vividly 
coloured, nor does it indicate any rays of spots of a darker tint 
which generally adorn both valves. The ear of the left valve is 
coarsely concentrically wrinkled and extends a little within the 
valve. This species may be the Mytilus meleagridis of Chemuitz 
(Conch.-Cab. viii. p. 143, fig. 72Q). ' 

66. Avicula zebra. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 36; Dunker, Conch.-Cab. p. 60, pi. 21. fig. 3. 

Hab. ^Joreton Bay (Reeve) ; Port Denison, Queensland, 3-4 fms. 
(Coppinger). 

The two specimens obtained at the latter locality were attached 
to a species of Polyzoa, and in a similar position to the types as 
figured in the ' Conchologia Iconiea,' namely with the umbones 
directed downwards. 

67. Melina cumingii. 
Perna cumingii, Reeve, Conch. Icon. xi. tig. 3. 

Hab. Australia (Reeve) ; Port Curtis (Coppinger). 
The specimen figured by Peeve is higher than long, but another 
in the Cumingian collection has these proportions reversed. 

68. Crenatula nigrina. 
Lamarck; Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. la. 

Hab. Eed Sea (Reeve) ; Albany Island, west coast of Australia 
(Coppinger). 

This species, also C. bicostalis and C. mytiloides, as determined 
by Reeve, are probably slight variations of one and the same form. 

i 



114 COLLECTIONS FROM. MELANESIA. 

G9. Spondylus multisetosus. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 11. 

Hub. Philippine Islands {Cuming) ; Warrior Beef, Torres Straits 
(Coppinger). 

The principal ridges which support the largest spines are about 
twelve in number on the upper valve, pale or yellowish between the 
spines, at the base of which they are stained with a dark san- 
guineous colour. The interior of the valves is margined with pur- 
plish brown, and the straight hinge-line is finely striated within 
transversely ; the flat hinge-area of the lower valve is also finely 
striated across. 

70. Spondylus victoriae. 

Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1859, p. 428, pi. 49. fig. 8. 
Var. = Spondylus wrightianus, Crosse, Journ. de Conch.187'2, vol. xx. 
p. 360, vol. xxi. p. 253, pi. 9. figs. 1, la. 

Hub. !New Caledonia (Mus. Cuming) ; Flinders and Clairmont, 
Islands N".E. Australia, 11 fms., sand and mud bottom, and Port 
Molle, 10 fms. (Coppinger); Nichol Bay, Australia (Crosse fide 
Wright). 

The description of this species given by Sowerby is very insuffi- 
cient, and his locality, " Gulf of California," incorrect. He describes 
the number of largecostaa as four ; but as a rule there are five, which 
even appear in his own figure. 

In the lower or attached valve the number of large spine-bearing 
ridges in the three specimens before me is seven ; these spines are 
generally straighter than those on the upper valve, and channelled 
on the upperside. Sowerby's figure exaggerates the wavy character 
and breadth of the upper spines. 

The surface of the valves and the hinge- area agree with Crosse's 
description of the variety wrightianus, which has the spines on the 
upper valve straighter, and less spreading at the extremities. The 
single specimen dredged by Dr. Coppinger has the spines of a pinkish- 
buff colour, whilst those in the type are pure white. 

71. Pecten lsopardus. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 145. 

Var. = Pecten kuhnholtzi, Bernardi, Journ. de Conch. 1863, vol. viii. 

p. 378, pi. 13. fig. 1. 
Var. = Pecten Solaris, Sowerby (non Bom), Thes. Conch, pi. 12. fig. 22 ; 

Dunher in Philippis Abbild. vol. i. pi. 2. fig. 2; Reeve, Conch. Icon. 

fig. 92. 

Hub. Moreton Bay, Queensland (Reeve); Arafura Sea, Dundas 
Strait (Coppinger) ; New Caledonia (Bernardi) ; Amboina (Dunk; r, 
for var. Solaris). 

It is not surprising that M. Bernardi did not recognize his shell 
in P. leopardus, considering how inadequate a description is given 
by Peeve. I have carefully compared red-rayed specimens from 



MOLLUSCA. 115 

New Caledonia with the type from Moreton ]iay, and am convinced 
that they constitute but a single species. The sculpturo is the same 
in both, and the blood-red stain within the valves of a crescent fiinn, 
leaving the centre and margin white, is present in adult specimens 
of each, but not always in the yoimg. The only distinction appears 
to be a little variation of colouring on the upper valve, which in the 
typical form is white, with the ridges stained and blotched with 
" fulvous rust," whilst the variety has the costao more uniformly 
tinted with " red " or pinkish brown, some of them being much paler 
than others ; but I do not ever find them alternately white and red. 
The darker ones are usually in pairs, but just on the right of the 
centre three dark rays come together. In other words, the shell 
m ly l>e described as having four rays, three of them tinting two ad- 
jacent costae each, the fourth covering three. This same distribution 
of pale and darker rays holds good in the typical form and is faintly 
indicated in lleeve's figure ; and in the handsomer variety, P. Solaris, 
the same peculiarity is met with and is well portrayed in Philippi's 
work. This charming form has the interior similarly stained with 
blood-red as in the two other varieties. This cannot, I consider, be 
the species described by Born as Ostrea Solaris, which differs greatly 
in form, especially with regard to the auricles. The only shell 
having similar small ones, as far as I can discover, is P. superbus, 
Sowerby; this is not, however, " orange "-coloured, has unequal 
dorsal slopes, narrower costa?, and deeper grooves. Bern's figure, 
however, is unreliable, for it represents a shell 40 millim. in length 
from the hinge-line to the opposite margin, and nearly 42 millim. 
across, whilst his measurements, given in the text, are — length 
39 millim., width 30^ millim. 



2. Pecten singaporinus. 



Sowerby, Thes. Conch, vol. i. p. 74, pi. 13. fig. 55, pi. 14. fig. 71 , 

Reeve, Co/ich. Icon. fig. 74. 
Pecten pica, Reeve, Conch. Icon. figs. 115 a, b. 
Pecten cumingii, Reeve, I. c. figs. 110 a, b. 

Hob. Singapore (Soivb.) ; New Zealand [Reeve, for pica) ; Port 
Curtis (Coppinger) ; Moreton Bay (Reeve, for cumingii). 

I cannot discover any distinction between P. pica and this species. 
The anterior auricle of the right valve is destitute of colour, and the 
serrated margin beneath it is also white. P. cumingii is a fine 
growth of the same, having the peculiarities above mentioned, but 
with the costae slightly stouter. 

73. Pecten dringi. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. figs. 152 a, b. 

Hub. Port Molle, Queensland, 14 fms. (Coppinger) ; Bathurst 
Island, X.W. Australia {Reeve) ; Cape Capricorn, E. Australia 
(Brit. Mus.). 

Purplish and brownish-purple forms of this species appear to 

i2 






] 16 COLLECTIONS FKOM MELANESIA.. 

be more common than the variety figured by Reeve (fig. 152 a), which 
does not represent the full dimensions of the species. The largest 
specimen in the Museum is 45 millim. high and 40 millim. in width. 

74. Pecten funebris. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 85. 

Hab. Bathurst, Australia {Reeve) ; Swan River and Port Essing- 
ton (Brit. Mas.) ; Port Curtis, Queensland (Goppinger). 

The sculpture of this species resembles that of the young of P. 
asperrimus, consisting of numerous fine costae bordered on each 
side by a much finer and less elevated one, and all bearing prickly 
scales. The interior is pale olive, with paler radiating grooves and 
a purplish border all round. 

75. Ainussium pleuronectes. 

Hab. flinders and Clairmont Islands, N.E. Australia (Coppinger) ; 
China. 

76. Lima (Mantellum) fragilis. 

Chemnitz ; Soiverby, Thes. Conch, vol. i. p. 86, pi. 22. figs. 34-36 ; id. 
Conch. Icon. figs. 18 a, b. 

Hab. Port Molle, Queensland (Coppingei ) ; Mauritius (Martens) ; 
Torres Straits (Juices) ; Philippine Islands ( Cuming) ; Port Essing- 
ton, Oomaga Reef, Fiji Islands (Brit. Mas.). 

77. Placuna lobata, var. 

Soiverby, Conch. Icon. pi. iv. fig. 4a, pi. v. fig. 46, var. 
Placenta planicostata, Bunker, Journ. de Conch. 1879, vol. xxvii. 
p. 214, pi. 9. fig. 2. 

Hab. Port Essington (Brit. Mas.); Torres Straits (Coppinger). 

The colouring of Sowerby's figure is ridiculous, the yellow ground- 
colour being purely imaginary. The type is whitish towards the 
umbones, but light purplish red elsewhere, rayed with a much 
darker tint, the rays being narrower than as depicted in the 
figure. 

The single specimen from Torres Straits has the ground-colour 
light purplish red like the type, but the slightly elevated rays are 
white instead of being darker. 



17 



ECHINODEEMATA. 

BY 

F. JEFFKEY BELL. 



The chief points of interest attached to the « Alert ' collection of 
Echinoderms may be indicated as follows : — 

Though there are no new Echinoidea, there are some very pre- 
cious series of some species, Maretia planulata being notably well 
represented. Similarly the series of some of the Asterids has given 
us evidence of a variability that would be almost incredible but for 
the careful registration of the localities of the species. Eare and 
new forms of Ophiurids and Asterids will, on inspection of the suc- 
ceeding systematic list, be found to be well represented : OpMoikrix 
has a large number of forms, the exact delimitation and definition of 
which has been to me a matter of just as much anxiety and doult 
as it has been to my predecessors ; but a study of the collection has 
led me to a somewhat important conclusion, in that I have been 
compelled by the evidence to attach much less weight than some 
have done to the characters of the coloration *. 

The question of coloration of forms has taken on almost a new 
aspect since the publication by Mr. Seebohm of his views as to the 
value of the pattern of colour in the Turdinse (Cat. Birds B.M. v. 
p. viii) ; while, on the other hand, the recent statements of such ex- 
perienced entomologists as Butler, who thinks that in time it will 
be impossible to decide, without rearing from the egg, whether any 
form is a species, a hybrid, or a variety (Trans. Ent. Soc. 1880, 
p. 200), and Elwes, in whose opinion (I. c. p. 134) climate, food, and 
conditions of life will more than account for the change in tint of 
certain representative species, seem to indicate that in the group of 
the Lepidoptera, where coloration has been so much attended to, 
those who are among the most experienced are learning to doubt its 
value, and to recognize, as the professed students of ichthyology 
(see Giinther's ' Study of Fishes,' pp. 176-182) would seem to have 
done, that in coloration there is great variation. It would be a 
matter for regret if, when the views of others are advancing, the 
describer and systematist of Echinoderms should make a backward 

* Liitken, "Le systenie general de coloration constitue un caractere impor- 
tant qu'il ne faut pas negliger dans la distinction des Ophiothrix" (Yid. Selsk 
Skr. (5) Bd. 8, ii. p. 104) ; and compare the descriptions of all writers on the 
genus. 



118 COLLECTIONS FEOM MELANESIA. 

step. Coloration can only be safely used when the hypothesis that 
the genus or group is of so late an origin as not to have yet deve- 
loped definite structural characters by which its species may be 
discriminated is not controverted by any one species ; where it is, 
the character must be less freely used, probably to disappear more 
and more, not so much with the increased evolution of the genus as 
with our increased knowledge of it. 

The succeeding pages contain an account of, or tbe names of, 
124 species, very fairly divided among the 5 orders. Of these there 
are 30 new species, 15 of which belong to the Crinoids and the 
other 15 to the remaining orders. There is no new Echinid ; but 
I have had to suggest a new name for the form which by some has 
been regarded as Salmacis globator. 



ECHINOIDEA. 

1. Phyllacanthus annulifera. 
A. Agassiz, Rev. Ech. p. 387 *. 

A most valuable and important series for exhibiting the variation 
of this species. 

Thursday Island ; Port Molle (14 fms.) ; Port Curtis ; Prince of 
Wales Channel ; Albany Island ; Port Darwin. 

2. Diadema setosum. 
A. Agassiz, Rev. Ech. p. 274. 

Port Molle ; coral-reef. 

3. Salrnacis bicolor. 
A. Agassiz, Rev. Ech. p. 471. 

A good series, with spines well preserved on most from Port 
Molle. 

4. Salmacis sulcata. 
A. Agassiz, Rev. Ech. p. 476. 

Port Dcnison (4 fms.) ; Port Molle (14 fms.). 

5. Salmacis alexandri. 

Salmacis globator, Alex. Agassiz {not L. Agassiz), Rev. Ech. p. 473 ; 
'Challenger' Reports, iii. p. 113. 

Salmacis globator, form a, Bell, P. Z. S. 1880, p. 433, pi. xli. fig. 1. 

In the third part of my " Observations on the Characters of the 

* As a rule, I shall give only one bibliographical reference, and that to the 
4 Revision of the Echini ' of Prof. Alex. Agassiz. 



ECHINODERMATA. 1 1 9 

Echinoidea," I directed attention to the marked discrepancies which 
obtained between the descriptions given by Louis and Alexander 
Agassiz respectively of the species known as S. gldbator. I then 
figured and gave careful descriptions of the tests of two forms 
which I distinguished as form a and form (3. I adopted that course 
in the hope that Prof. Alexander Agassiz Avould explain the reasons 
which had led him to omit any notice of the species referred to by 
his father. In the 'Challenger' Report the species is merely 
recorded, and reference made to the ' Catal. Itaisonne' of Agassiz and 
Desor ; fortunately the specimens are now in the British Museum 
collection, and an inspection of them is, of course, sufficient to show 
the characters of the form which Mr. Alex. Agassiz looks upon as 
being S. globator. I find them to be examples of what I have 
called form a, or, in other words, they are not representatives of 
L. Agassiz's species globator. 

As the species reappears in the ' Alert ' collection, it has been 
necessary to direct attention to the various points and to propose 
a name for the species. No appellation will, I think, be more suit- 
able than that of ah. raw I 'ri ; and, at the time of giving a definite 
name, one is also able to have the pleasure of adding a definite 
locality. 

West Island, Prince of Wales Channel. 

6. Temnopleurus toreumaticus. 
A. Agassiz, Rev. Ech. p. 463. 

One of the specimens (diameter 18 # 5 millim.) has all the spines 
which are preserved on it perfectly white, without any bands what- 
ever. Smaller specimens in the British Museum collection have a 
number of, but not one has all, its spines thus totally white. 

Port Denison (4 fms.) ; Prince of Wales Channel. 

7. Temnopleurus granulosus. 

Toreumatica granulosa, Gray, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 39. 
Temnopleurus granulosus, Bell, P. Z. S. 1880, p. 425. 

A good series, with the general colour of the spines dark, and 
not light, ringed with red as in the specimens from the Japanese 
seas. 

Port Denison. 

8. Temnopleurus bothryoides. 
Pleurechinus bothryoides, A. Agassiz, ' Challenger ' Rep. iii. p. 108. 

This is one of the most important of Dr. Coppinger's finds, for 
with the exception of a single, though perfect, test in the collection 
of the British Museum, which was obtained by Sir E. Belcher off 
Borneo, and presented by the Admiralty in 1844, no complete 
example had ever been examined till the return of the ' Challenger.' 
The largest specimen taken by Dr. Coppinger is a little larger than 



1.20 COLT.T.CTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

any one of the three collected by the officials of that great circum- 
navigating expedition. 

Though the term Pleurechinus is due to L. Agassiz, and the specific 
name bothryoides to his incomplete comprehension of the Cidaris 
bothryoides of Klein and Leske, I have confined my "synonymy" 
to Alexander Agassiz's Report on the ' Challenger ' specimens, as 
it is there only that any such definite information is given as would 
enable a zoologist to recognize examples of the species. The result 
to which my own study of the specimens and of the definitions has 
led me has, I think, been essentially confirmed by the investigation 
into the structure of the test which, at my suggestion, Prof. Martin 
Duncan was allowed to make *. 

Looking, first of all, at the general form of the test, the observer 
is struck by its greater proportional height ; thus we find speci- 
mens with an absolute diameter of 20, 18, or 17 millim. respec- 
tively having a proportional height of 58 - 5, 66' 6, and 60. In 
no known examples of any other species of Temnopleurus is the 
proportional height more than 03*63 millim. f, ;md this is a rare 
case, which obtains with a specimen only 11 millim. wide. The 
examination of the dental apparatus did not shov. r any real point of 
difference between this species and T. Tiardwickii. As in other 
species of this genus, the abactinal area is much more prominent 
in younger than in older specimens, while the characters of the 
furrows between the plates is only intermediate between the ex- 
treme condition presented by T. toreumaticus and that which is 
seen in the species just mentioned. 

As to the minute construction of the test, Dr. Duncan finds that 
" there is a generic relation between Temnopleurus and Pleurechinus, 
and the only important distinction is the absence of crenulation in 
the last-named type." To this crenulation or its absence Dr. Duncan 
attaches more importance than do many naturalists who have devoted 
themselves to this group, and he finds in consequence that " the 
classificatory position assigned by A. Agassiz to Pleurechinus in the 
' Revision ' must be conceded, and it is a subgenus or section of 
Temnopleurus T Notwithstanding the weight of the authority of 
Agassiz and Duncan, I am bound to say that I feel still the im- 
portance of the objections long ago urged by D'Archiac and HaimeJ, 
" Quant aux crenelures des tubercules, on sait que cette particularite 
n'a e'galement qu'une valeur tres-secondaire, puisqu'on la voit deja 
disparaitre dans une certaine portion du genre Cidaris, sans qu'on 
puisse decouvrir chez les especes a tubercules lisses aucune autre 
difference concomitante; " and that being so, I can find no reason 
which will justify the retention of a genus never very accurately 
defined. 

The large t specimen in the ' Alert ' collection has a diameter 

"* Journ. Linn. Soc. (Zool.) xvi. p. 447. 
t P. Z. S. 1880, p. 424. 

I Anim. foss. de PInde, p. 202 (18. r »3). The student should be reminded 
that Prof. Martin (Notes Leyd. Mus. ii. p. 75) accepts the genus Pleurechinus. 



ECDIXODERMATA. 121 

of 20-T) millim. and is 12 millim. high : the abactinal area is 4-5 and 
the anal area is 2 millim. in diameter. The short primary spines, 
which, as in the other specimens, have two or three short bands of 
bright red on their white surface, have the neighbouring suckers of 
a purplish-slate colour, and these give a deeper and richer appear- 
ance than ordinary to the test. The abactinal area is not so con- 
spicuous as in the smaller specimens, and only one of the genital 
plates has more than three tubercles. 

Thursday Island ; Prince of Wales Channel. 



9. Echinus angulosus. 
A. Agassiz, Rev. Ech. p. 489. 

"With a little hesitation I refer to this species three specimens from 
Thursday Island, and one from Prince of Wales Channel. The 
species is a wide-ranging one, and apparently preseuts a good deal 
of variation. 

10. Echinus darnleyensis. 

J. E. Tenison- Woods, Proc. Linn. Soc. K. S. W. ii. p. 165. 

In accepting this species, I should like to do so only provisionally, 
as a systematic revision of the exceedingly troublesome genus to 
which it belongs may show it to be only part of one of the very 
variable species which are associated under the emended genus 
Echinus. 

Thursday Island (4 fms.) and Prince of Wales Channel. 

11. Tripneustes angulosus. 

Hipponoe variegata, A. Agassiz, Rev. Ech. p. 501. 
Tripneustes angulosus, Bell, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 657. 

The coloration of this specimen is more marked than any I have 
yet had tho opportunity of examining ; the short white spines are 
found either on white areas, the middle of which is occupied by a 
black patch, or on broad black bands, rather more than half as wide 
as the white areas at the ambitus. 

The single small specimen collected was found at Levuka, Fiji. 

12. Strongylocentrotus erythrogramnius, Vol. 
Strongylocentrotus eurythrogrammus, A. Agassiz, Rev. Ech. p. 441. 

It may perhaps be pointed out that the spelling of the specific 
name as here adopted is not only that which is etymologically 
correct, but is the very same as that which was proposed by Valen- 
ciennes (' Voy. Yenus,' Zoophyt. pi. vii. fig. 1), and adopted by 
Liitken and Verrill : it is true that in the ' Catal. Paisonne ' of L. 
Agassiz and Desor (1846) we find the spelling eurythrogrammus, 



122 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

and that the last-named naturalists were followed by Dujardin and 
Hupe. I am led to make these remarks from the fact that through- 
out the ' Eevision of the Echini ' the mode of spelling which is both 
etymologically and historically incorrect is not only adopted, but is 
ascribed to Valenciennes, to Liitken, and to Verrill, and is, curiously 
enough, carried on into the lately published Report on the Echi- 
noidea collected by the ' Challenger ' Expedition. 
Port Jackson. 

13. Echinometra luciinter. 
A. Affassiz, Rev. JEch. p. 431. 

Port Molle (beach) ; Levuka, Fiji. 

14. Fibularia volva. 
A. Affassiz, Rev. JEch. p. 509. 
Prince of Wales Channel. 

15. Clypeaster humilis. 
A. Affassiz, Rev. Ech. p. 510. 

Port Molle (4 fms.). 

16. Lagarmm depressum. 
A. Affassiz, Rev. Ech. p. 518. 

Torres Straits ; Prince of "Wales Channel. 

The British Museum contains specimens collected by H.M.S. 
' Challenger ' in the Arafura Sea. 

17. Laganum decagonale. 

Peronella decagonalis, A. Affassiz, Rev. Ech. p. 520. 
Laganum decagonale, Bell, Ann. cy Mag. N. H. (5) xi. p. 130. 

The investigations which I have been able to make into the value 
of the generic and specific characters of the Laganidas (Ann. & Mag. 
Nat. Hist. (5) xi. p. 130) have led me to the conclusion that no 
valid grounds exist for the generic or subgeneric separation of 
" Peronella " from Laganum. 

Prince of Wales Channel ; Thursday Island. 

This appears to be one of those species around which misappre- 
hensions have collected ; the earlier and not ungraceful method of 
registration which induced De Blainville* to associate with this 
species the name of the naturalist to whom he owed his specimen 
has, no doubt in haste, been regarded by Professor Alexander 
Agassizf as indicating Lesson to be the author of the species. 

* Diet. Sci. Nat. vol. xlviii. p. 229; Man. d'Act. p. 215. 
t Rev. Ecii. p. 47, and much less accurately on p. 148. 



EOniXODERMATA. L23 

Strangely enough, De Blainville himself is not free from error in 
the matter, for after Lesson's name he places the words " Voyage 
de rUranie," a voyage with which Lesson had not the close relation 
that he had with "that of the ' Coquille,' and in the account of which 
no Echinoderms are described or figured. 

18. Echinoneus cyclostomus. 
A. Agassiz, Rev. Ech, p. 550. 
A very small specimen from Prince of Wales Channel. 

19. Maretia planulata. 

A. Agassiz, Rev. Ech. p. 570. 

A very fine series in spirit from Flinders, Clairmont, and dried 
specimens from Clairmont Island. 

20. Lovenia elongata. 
Agassiz, Rev. Ech. p. 575. 

Thursday Island ; Torres Straits. 

21. Breynia austraiasias. 

A. Agassiz, Rev. Ech. p. 578. 

An excellent series from Port Denison, Thursday Island, and 
Prince of Wales Channel. 

22. Echinocardium australe. 
A. Agassiz, Rev. Ech. p. 580. 

Port Jackson; Flinders, Clairmont; Port Darwin (12 fms., mud 
and sand). 



ASTEROIDEA. 

1. Asterias calamaria. 
Perrier, p. 43*. 

Port Jackson. The two specimens are veiy different in appear- 
ance : one has eleven arms, of which none are remarkably smaller 
than the rest ; the other, which has five arms left, and appears to 
have had six, has one arm much longer than the others, and has 
three small subequal arms. 

* For the majority of the Asteroiclea I shall give only one reference, and 
that to Perrier's 'Kevision des Stellerides' (Paris, 1875), following its pagination 
as a separate work. 



124 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

2. Asterias polyplax. 
Perrier, p. 63. 

A small specimen with two long, two short and stout, and four 
shorter and more delicate ai'ms. 
Port Jackson, March 1881. 



3. Echinaster purpureus. 

Othilia purpurea, Gray, Ann, $ Mag. N. H. (1) vi. p. 282. 
Echinaster fallax, Mull, 8f Trosch. Syst. Asterid. p. 23 ; Perrier, p. 106. 

While some have six and another five arms, not markedly differing 
in length, another has one very long arm, with a madreporite on 
either side of its base, and four shorter arms, of which one is very 
much shorter than the rest ; it bears, however, indications of injury 
and subsequent repair. 

Port Molle ; Port Denison ; Thursday Island, 4-6 fms. 



4. Metrodira subulata. 
Gray, Ann, $ Mag. N. II. (1) vi. p. 282. 

Flinders, Clairmont ; Alert Island, 7 fms. 

5. Linckia laevigata. 
Perrier, p. 137. 

A dried specimen still retains very well its blue coloration. 
Clairmont Island. 



6. Linckia nodosa. 



Perrier, p. 153. 



There is not, I think, any doubt that the four specimens from the 
Arafura Sea (32-36 fms.) and Prince of AY ales Channel (7 fms.) 
are representatives of this species, of which Prof. Perrier has given 
an admirable description ; the specimens, however, on which that 
description is based bore no indication of any locality. 

The specimens are very much finer than those measured by 
M. Perrier, B, being equal to 213, 118, and 104 millim., with r 23, 
18, and 13. The disk with 18 millim. radius has apparently 
received some injury ; but it may be that, in this species, there 
is a difference in the sexes, and that the specimen in question is 
in a different condition of generative maturity to the others ; it is 
impossible, however, to settle the question, as the example has been 
dried. 



E0H3 NODE RM ATA. 125 

7. Linckia marmorata. 

Ophidiaster marmoratus, Michelin, Mag. Zool. 1845, Zooph. p. 21, pi. 10. 

Linckia marmorata, Perrier, p. 13o. 

If I am correct in referring to this species a serios of specimens 
from Port Molle and Fitzroy Island, it will be easy to understand 
how it is that M. Michelin's species was never again recognized till 
the Paris Museum came into the possession of his type ; that would 
appear to be the only oxample that they possess, and, as M. Perrier 
points out, the " typo " is obviously young. The specimens before 
me are clearly enough all representatives of the same species ; but 
were any one of them described it is quite possible that from the 
description alone of that single specimen it would be easy to regard 
some others of the series as belonging to another form. 

In the first place, though all the specimens are provided with the 
intermediate plate that connects into a pentagon the terminal one of 
the " rangee de plaques qui occupe la ligne median© dorsale de 
chaque bras," the extent to which this is evident varies a good deal 
and one would hardly think it worthy of especial note in the largest 
example were not attention directed to it by the better-marked 
characters of some of the smaller. Secondly, the smallest specimen 
has the dorsal plates covered with coarse granulations ; of some of 
these, at any rate, it would be appropriate to say (again quoting 
Perrier) " les granules voisins de leur centre sont un peu plus gros 
que les autres ;" on the other hand, one, two, or more Granules 
near the centre acquire, in the larger specimens, a much greater 
predominance, and give a somewhat different appearance to the 
creature ; in the largest specimen these again have disappeared, and 
the whole surface of the plates is more uniformly granular. Thirdly 
the dorsal plates may lose the regularity of outline which is so well 
marked (if not exaggerated?) in Michelin's figure, and which is 
expressed by M. Perrier in the words " sensiblement carre'e," and 
become narrower at the angles at which the pores are placed ; this 
is perhaps due to the greater development in the number of pores 
of which as many as seven may in some cases be found within the 
limits of one area. Lastly, it is only in the smallest specimens that 
we find a double row of tubercles fringing the adambulacral spines ; 
in all the larger specimens the row is single, or, in other words one 
row of tubercles ceases to grow proportionately, and becomes ob- 
scured in the general granulation of the actinal surface. 

The only considerable point of difference between these specimens 
and that figured by Michelin lies in the remarkable coloration of 
his specimen ; if, however, M. Desjardin's example from the island 
of Mauritius was immediately dried, it might have retained its colour s 
while Dr. Coppinger's specimens, which were placed in spirit, mio-ht 
very possibly have had part of their colouring-matter dissolved out. 
The largest example has R equal to 50 millim. 

Prince of Wales Channel, 7 fms. 



126 COLLECTIONS FKOM MELANESIA. 

8. Linckia panciforis. 
Martens, Arch./. Nat. xxxii. (I860), p. 69. 

In only one example is one of the arms otherwise than perfect ; 
but this does not seem to have been budded out in place of one cast 
off, but to have been bitten or broken off not far from its tip. 

Three dry specimens from Bird Island, jN t .E. Australia; coral- 
reef. 

9. Linckia megaloplax. 

Arms five. E=67, r=9, or li=7'5 r about. Adambulacral 
spines flattened, one for each plate, with blunted end; externally 
to and alternating with these are somewhat shorter papilliform 
spines ; the general granulation of the actinal surface of the disk 
extends between these latter; externally to them there is a row of 
larger spines, the distribution of which is extremely irregular, for 
while at some points they are almost as closely packed as those of 
the more internal row, they are at others separated from one 
another by the distance of three or four of the inner spines. The 
rest of the abactinal surface is closely covered with subequal gra- 
nules of some size. The abactinal surface is traversed very regu- 
larly by six rows of poriferous spaces, which are comparatively 
large and markedly rectangular ; the smallest spaces are found in 
the lowest row on either side ; a short distance from the tip of each 
arm the spaces completely disappear, and the granulation becomes 
a little more prominent, and there is here, as in some allied species, 
a large specially modified plate with one or more large tubercles 
upon it. The disk itself is covered with large pore-areas, and the 
only noticeable character is the large and distinct, though not pro- 
jecting, raadreporic plate. The pore-areas are about 2 millim. wide, 
and the length of the madreporic plate, around which the granules 
are very distinct, may be 4 millim. The colour of the abactinal sur- 
face is deep brown or black, whilst that of the actinal surface is 
lighter. 

In a specimen smaller than that which has formed the chief basis 
of this description the two surfaces are, towards the free end of the 
arm, distinguished from one another by the development of some 
short marginal spines. In another, dried, specimen, intermediate 
in size between these two, the spines at the upper and lower mar- 
gins of the sides of the arm, though insignificant, are both larger 
and more numerous. 

The idea that the younger forms would have a larger supply of 
spines is opposed by the fact that in a still smaller specimen these 
spines are altogether absent*, while the skeletal plates are stouter 
than in the specimens which bear the spines. The question now 
arises as to whether there are three stages — («) one in which the 
ossicles are so stout that no defensive spines are needed in addition ; 
(b) one in which growth has proceeded so rapidly that the bars of 

* Cf. Ann. & Mag. N. H. (5) viii. p. 441. 



KClII.VnliKKllATA. 127 

the ossicles have diminished in proportional thickness while in- 
creasing in length, and so having lost their earlier stoutness, now 
require external aid; and (o) a final condition, in which equilibrium 
is again established, the ossicles themselves being again stouter, — or 
whether we have to do with two sets of variations from a common 
stock, due to some slight differences in the environment. But this 
is a complex and difficult question, which can only be satisfactorily 
answered by one who has at hand the living wealth of the Aus- 
tralian seas. 

Port Curtis ; Fitzroy Island ; Albany Island ; Port Denison, 
8-12 fms. 

10. Linckia, sp. 

A very small specimen, from West Island, Torres Strait, presents 
that interesting peculiarity of three smaller and three larger arms, 
hinting thereby at a division of the disk instead of gemmation from 
a single arm ; it is the smallest heteractinic Linckia I have seen, the 
longest arm measuring only 6 millim. 

11. Anthenea flavescens. 
Perrier, p. 276. 

Port Jackson, 0-5 fms. 

The Museum collection contains also specimens of this species 
from Fremantle, W. Australia. 

12. Oreaster gracilis. 

Pentaceros gracilis, Perrier, p. 246. 

Oreaster gracilis, Liitken, Vid. Med. 1871, pp. 260, 261. 

A selected series of five specimens, all from Port Denison (4 fms.), 
exhibit remarkably well the great change which occurs in this 
species, even after a considerable size has been attained. The 
smallest, which has B equal to 93-5 millim., has five tubercles, 
about 10 millim. high, one at the central end of each median row 
of tubercles: in another, with B equal to 108 millim., the 
tubercles, though a little stronger, are no higher and are here only 
to be found on three of the angles of the disk ; this specimen, like 
another which is a little larger, has the lateral and marginal spines 
very well developed : two specimens, with B equal to 118 and 
140 millim. respectively, have these spines less well developed, and 
the diminution is the more marked in the larger specimen ; the 
smaller has one large central tubercle, and the larger has each of 
the whole set of five reduced to growths which are hardly larger 
than the other spines on the disk. 

A specimen with six arms, one of which has been injured and 
has commenced to grow again, was collected at Port IfoUe. 



128 



COLLECTIONS FKOM MELANESIA. 



13. Oreaster nodosns. 



Asterias nodosa, Linnmus, Si/st. Nat. ed. xii. p. 1100. 
Pentaceros turritus, Perrier, p. 240. 

Fine specimens from 4 fms., Port Denison. 

14. Oreaster, sp. 

A single dried specimen of a very interesting and, apparently, 
new form was also collected at Port Denison. Unfortunately, in 
the process of drying the disk has so fallen in as to completely alter 
what must have been a very different height in the living specimen, 
and, as may be supposed, the lophial line has also suffered. 

15. Stellaster belcheri. 
Gray, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 76. 

Port Curtis. 

16. Stellaster incei. 
Gray, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 76. 

A fine series of dried specimens was collected, and a^s there are 
some in which R was no more than 30 millim., while in others it 
was equal to 95 millim., we are able to see the great variability in 
the number and presence of the spinous tubercles, which may be 
very feebly or exceedingly well developed. 

This is not one of those species in which we find that the smaller 
or younger specimens are the more richly provided with tubercles ; 
but with this we have to correlate (1) the solidity of the skeleton, 
and (2) the small size and consequent slight defensive power of 
these tubercles, even when they are well developed. 

One specimen, which, unfortunately, is very much injured, has a 
" greater radius " of as much as 120 millim. 

Port Molle ; Port Curtis (5-11 fms.) ; Port Denison (6 fms.) ; 
Albany Island (6 fms.) ; Thursday Island ; and Arafura Sea. 

17. Pentagonaster coppingeri. 

This species belongs to the Astrogonium section of the genus as 
arranged by Prof. Perrier, for the two rows of marginal plates are 
richly provided with granules, and with one or two larger granules 
which can hardly be called spines. 

Arms five. 11 = 91, r=46. Arms 24 millim. wide at base, nar- 
rowing rather rapidly ; marginal plates exceedingly well developed; 
pedicellaria? reduced. 

The central region of the disk is a little elevated, the thickness 
there being about double that of the margin of the disk ; the whole 
abactinal surface consists of a close arrangement of ossicles, the 
surfaces of which arc coarsely granulated ; the granules are a little 



ECHINODEltMATA. 129 

longer in the median line of each ray, where they form a remarkably 
regular series, continued on to the disk, but they become moro or 
less ill-defined on the raised portion ; the granules on the rest of 
the plates present no peculiarities, saving that thoy are a little 
longer on the sides of the raised portion of the disk. The respira- 
tory pores on this surface are rather large, scattered, and simple. 
The supero-marginal plates are as much as 7 millim. high in the 
widely opeu angle of the arms ; they are narrow, wider above than 
below; as these plates pass outwards they decrease in length and 
increase in breadth ; they next decrease in size generally, and 
finally they are again, though much smaller, of the same general 
form as those of the angles of the arm ; the terminal three or four 
touch in the middle line: of these plates there are about 23 on 
the side of each ray ; the condition of their armature is, perhaps, 
best described by saying that some of the granules elongate to form 
small spinous tubercles. The madreporic plate is situated about 
one third of the radius from the centre of the disk ; it is prominent, 
5-5 millim. long, and has the form of an irregular elongated oval. 
The infero-marginal plates are likewise about 23 in number, and 
their form in different regions presents very much the same varia- 
tions as those of the supero-marginal series ; the granules, however, 
do not present the same tendency to become spinous, though they 
are all rather longer and not quite so closely packed. The adaru- 
bulacral spines form a fringe of four flattened subequal spines, in 
addition to which two smaller outer ones may be attached to the 
same ossicle ; beyond these there are two or three much stouter 
spines, and beyond these again there may be two or three spines, 
the tips of which may be pointed. The granulation of the inter- 
mediate plates presents very much the same characters as that of 
the infero-marginal plates. 

This species may be distinguished from P. singularis or P. miliaris 
by the length of its arms, and the shape and closer packing of the 
plates of the abactinal surface ; from the former it is also distinguished 
by having the adambulacral spines shorter and blunter, though they 
are by no means as blunt as in P. miliaris, where the adambulacral 
groove is so wide. 

Colour : the specimen whose admeasurements have been given in 
the above description is dark slate; another, in which R = 82 and 
r = 26, is light stone-coloured ; in it the disk is not elevated. 

Port Curtis, 5-11 fms. ; Prince of Wales Channel, 3-5 fms. 

18. Pentagonaster validus. 

This is a second new species which belongs to the Astrogonium 
division of the genus. The arms are distinct, rounded, and stout, 
the anus central and sometimes very distinct ; the granulation of 
the ossicles is rather coarse, and only a few larger granules are 
found scattered over the abactinal surface ; there are three rows of 
adambulacral spines. 

As five specimens of this form were collected we are able to 



130 COLLECTIONS FROM. MELANESIA. 

determine to some extent its range of variation : this, as we might 
have expected, is most markedly presented by the characters of the 
spinous protuberances formed by the hypertrophy of some of the 
granules on the abactinal surface ; the smallest specimen is without 
any special spines. Of three larger and subequal specimens, that 
which is a little the smallest has a more prominent granule deve- 
loped here and there along the middle lines of the rays, and some 
six, stdl more prominent, at the centre of the disk; the other two 
have much more prominent spinous granules at what may be called 
the base of the rays, and some smaller protuberances around the 
centre of the disk ; these latter are, in the largest specimen of all, 
quite inconspicuous, li is about equal to 2 r ; 11=72, 58'; r=34, 27. 

Arms 29 or 26 millim. wide at the base, narrowing hardly at all 
till quite near their end ; marginal plates very well developed, equal 
in either series, and 13 or 14 in number ; pedicellarisB scarce. 

The central region of the disk is not distinctly elevated ; with 
increase in size the ossicles of the abactinal surface become less 
closely packed than in the smaller forms ; and three rows of ossicles 
can be quite distinctly made out; the investing granulation is not 
especially coarse ; the intervening pores may be set singly or dis- 
posed in groups of three or four. With increase in size, likewise, 
the boundary lino between the two sets of marginal plates becomes 
more distinct ; from the angle of the arm outwards the supero- 
marginals increase in breadth till the last two or three, but they are 
always at least twice as long as they are broad ; the terminal two 
or three touch in the middle line. The iniero-marginals are a little 
stouter, but have otherwise much the same proportions as the upper 
series. 

The intermediate plates are distinct from one another and are 
covered by large distinct granules. The innermost row of adainbu- 
lacral spines are 6 or 7 in number, and are more delicate than the two 
stouter ones which are placed outside them ; those of the outermost 
row are smaller and more irregular, and are not easily distinguished 
from the granules of the ventral plates. 

Madreporic plate rather large, distinct, 4 to \ r distant from the 
centre ; the anus often distinguished by its periphery of eight or 
ten small plates. 

The dried specimens are yellowish or light slate-coloured ; but 
there is no information as to what is their colour when alive or 
fresh. 

The species is very distinct from P. dilatatus of Perrier, which 
species has perhaps been founded on forms which were only varieties 
of the Astrogonium miliare of Gray. 

Thursday Island, Torres Straits, 3-5 fms. ; sand. 

1!». Dorigona longimana. 
Pentagonaster longinianus, Perrier, p. 228. 
Percy Island, Queensland ; Prince of Wales Channel, Aug. 1881, 
7 fms. 



ECHINODERJIATA. 131 

20. Asterina belcheri. 



Perrier, p. 320. 



With four madreporites. 

Port Jackson, 0-4 fins. 

This is the first locality that has been given for this species. 



Perrier, p. 296. 
Port Jackson. 



21. Asterina calcar. 



22. Asterina cepheus. 

Asperiscus cepheus, M. ty Tr. Si/st. Ast. p. 41. 
Asterina cephea, Perrier, p. 315. 

I follow Prof. Perrier in using Miiller and Troschel's specific name, 
on the ground that, though Gray's name burtoni has the precedence 
by two years, the " type " is not to be found, and the description is 
useless for any purposes of identification. As cepheus is obviously a 
proper name, I prefer to use it without making any alterations in 
its termination. 

Thursday Island. 

23. Asterina gnnnii. 
Perrier, p. 298. 

A small specimen from Port Molle. 

24. Asterina regularis. 

Verrill, Trans. Connecticut Acad. i. p. 250. 

A small specimen : Port Molle. 
A good series in spirit : Port Jackson. 

"What seems to be a young specimen of this species was also taken 
at Port Jackson. 

25. Asterina (Nepanthia) brevis. (Plate VIII. figs. A, A'.) 
Perrier, p. 321. 

As Prof. Perrier's description would appear to be based on a single 
small dried specimen in the British Museum, I give the measure- 
ments of two specimens preserved in spirit : — 

R = 32, 44; r=9, 12; or R=2'7 or 2*8 r, 
and a figure of the largest specimen. 

Albany Island (8 fms., sand and mud) ; Thursday Island (4 fms., 
coral). 

26. Patiria crassa, Gray. 
Perrier, p. 326. 

Port Curtis. 

e2 



132 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 



27. Luidia, sp. 

A single dried specimen of a species of this genus was taken at 
Port Darwin. Though it is not in a condition to be described, it is 
right to direct attention to it, as no species of Luidia is mentioned 
either by Prof. Perrier or by Air. Tenison- Woods in their lists of 
Starfishes of the Australian seas. The example in question was 
greatly injured during life, and the arms, of which there are only 
five, differ considerably in form and length. It cannot be regarded 
as belonging to Gray's species L. hardwickii on account of the 
greater stoutness of the ventral plates and of the spines found on 
them ; the tufts on the paxillae are likewise made up of stouter 
spinules, and the characters of the adambulacral spines will, it is 
almost certain, be found to be very different when a more satis- 
factory specimen is obtained. 



28. Astropecten coppingeri. 

Dr. Coppinger has forwarded examples of a species already repre- 
sented in the Museum, but of which I have never been able to find a 
description. The species, however, is not, I should imagine, a rare 
one, and it is certainly one that has not yet been recorded as from 
the Australian seas. 

It is distinguished by the fact that it has only four spines on each 
series of supero-marginal plates, and these are confined to the two 
plates on either side of the apes of the interradial angle. 

B, = 305, r= 8. Breadth of arm at base 7*5 millim. Arms 
taper gradually and regularly ; about twenty-five supero-marginal 
plates, which are higher than broad and very high in the angle of 
the arm, where they are narrower at their ventral ends ; the plates 
that do not bear spines are regularly covered with a somewhat 
coarse granulation, which may almost become spinous ; the two 
terminal plates are large, prominent, and smooth ; the space be- 
tween the arms and on the disk is regularly filled with not large 
paxilla?, provided generally with a central tubercle and a circlet of 
from eight to ten tubercles around their head. The spines of the 
infero-marginal plates are prominent and lie on the sides of the 
arms, so that they are visible from the abactinal surface. Inter- 
nally to these long stoutish spines, three smaller ones are to be found 
on the actinal surface in the same transverse line ; the intermediate 
space is filled up by a coarse granulation or by spinous process is. 
The spines bordering the ambulacral groove are closely packed ; there 
are three or, more rarely, two on the side of each plate ; these are 
elongated and rather delicate : beyond this internal row there is a 
row of stouter shorter spines, and beyond these are others which 
become more or less confounded with the covering of the ventral 
plates. 

Madrcporic plate not detected. The characters of the paxUlae 
already described do not hold for the region of the disk, where 



eciiin'ii.i:i:m \ta. L33 

there is a closer and more regular granulation. The coloration, 
which becomes blotched in the dried specimens, is found in an ex- 
ample seut by Dr. Coppinger to consist of an irregular darkish patch 
at each angle of the disk, and an irregular patch, extending onto the 
marginal plates, occurs twice on the length of each arm. 

In a much smaller specimen (in which R=9) the spines are only 
developed on one plate on either side of the apex of the angle of 
the arm, and only two distinct spines are to be seen on the ventral 
plates. In a specimen in which R=16 the second spine is fairly 
developed on some, small on other:'., and absent from the rest of the 
plates nearest but one to the apex : on all of the ventral plates a 
third, and on some the fourth, spine is now to be made out. 

Of several specimens collected at Alert Island one has at some of 
its angles three spine-bearing plates. 

In addition to the specimens from Thursday Island, Alert Island, 
and Prince of Wales Channel (7 fms.), the British Museum con- 
tains three specimens which were collected in " Australia " by 
Macgillivray in 1862. 

29. Astropecten polyacanthus. 

M. % Tr. p. 69. 

A fine series of ten specimens were taken in 0-5 fms., at Port 
Jackson. In the case of two examples there are three spineless 
ossicles succeeding the plate at the angle of the arm ; in all the 
other cases the more ordinary condition of two such ossicles only is 
found to obtain. The smallest specimen has R equal to 15 millim., 
and the largest R equal to 3f> millim. Some variability is to be 
noted in the tenuity of the arms. 

30. Ar chaster typicus. 
M. £ Tr. p. 65. 
Three dried specimens from Port Denison, 4 fms. 



RETASTER. 
Perrier, Nouv. Arch, du Mus. (2) i. p. 55*. 

31. Retaster insignis. 

Sladen, J. Linn. Soc, Zool. xvi. p. 200. 

On receiving these specimens I recognized that they were repre- 
sentatives of a species then undescribed ; since that time, however, 
an account of the species has been published by Mr. Sladen in his 
Preliminary Notice of the ' Challenger ' Collection. The follow - 

* I am "indebted to Mr. W. Perrv Sinilen for this reference. 



134 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

ing notes will add a little to our knowledge of this form. Not one 
of the three specimens collected by Dr. Coppinger (there were two 
in the 'Challenger' collection) distinctly presents that cruciform 
arrangement of fibres in the dorsal area? which was so striking in the 
specimens seen by Air. Sladen ; in some of the area? it is indistinctly 
marked, and in not rare cases the arese are divided into two ; the 
number of pores hardly exceeds fifty ; the areac may be square as 
well as rhomboidal, or maybe triangular or have the angles rounded. 
There is not that difference in hue between the tissue covering the 
area? and that covering the spinclets which Mr. Sladen observed ; 
but there may be great differences in colour, specimens being ashy 
grey or deep brown. The minor radial axis is respectively 60, 
48-U, and 447 millim. 

Port Molle, and Thursday Island (4 fms., coral ). 



OPHIUROIDEA. 

1. Pectinura gorgonia. 
Lyman, PreL List, p. 3*. 

This is one of the species that extends as far 'west as Mauritius, 
in a dried specimen from which island all the transverse bands on the 
arms have disappeared, and the number of arm-spines is as many as 
twelve. 

Port Jackson, 0-5 fms. 

2. Pectinura infemalis. (Plate YIII. fig. B.) 

Ophiarackna infemalis, JI. Tr. p. 105. 

Pectinura infemalis, Lyman, Lull. 31. C. Z. iii. p. 222 ; aud PreL 
List, p. 3. 

The three naked plates between the radial shields, which are so 
markedly referred to in the original description, and are so well 
seen in Mr. Lyman's figure, are not always so distinctly developed, 
as may be seen by the figure which is now given. 

Port Molle ; Thursday Island ; Prince of "Wales Channel ; a young 
specimen from Port Darwin. 

3. Pectinura megaloplax. 

Very large naked radial shields ; disk elsewhere covered with a 
coarse granulation, beneath which are largish plates, somewhat 
puffed ; the arms wide at their insertion, slightly carinated. Large 
accessory mouth-shields present in all the interradii : pores between 
first and second ventral arm-plates only ; about seven rather delicate 
lateral arm-spines : upper arm-plates not broken. 

* The bibliographical references are here chiefly confined to Mr. Lyman's 
Preliminary List ' (Cambridge, U. S. A., 1880). 



ECHINODERMATA. 135 

Diameter of disk 1!) millim., length of arm about 83 millim. from 
the edge of the disk, width of arm at disk 6 millim., height of same 
5 millim. Fourteen mouth-papillee of fair size, the outermost the 
largest; four stout teeth; mouth-plates with six sides, the aboraJ 

the longest and the adoral the shortest, longest hardly longer than 
broadest axis; accessory mouth-plates large, longer than broad, 
straight within, convex without; side mouth-shields distinct, in- 
clined to be triangular, broader within than without ; granulated 
space between mouth-papillae and mouth-shield very small. 

Lower arm-plates at first wider than long, but varying a good 
deal in shape ; proceeding outwards the adoral edge becomes shorter 
and shorter as the side arm-plates encroach more and more upon the 
ventral middle line. The upper arm-plates at the base of the arms 
are very wide, about four times as wide as they are long, further 
out they become narrower, and towards the tip of the arm are very 
much encroached upon by the side plates ; as a rule there are seven 
spines on the plates. Tentacle-scales two. 

This fine form stands nearest to P. marmorata, from which it 
may be distinguished by (i.) the much larger radial shields, (ii.) the 
wider arm-bases, (iii.) smaller number of arm-spines, (iv.) larger 
accessory mouth-shield, and (v.) proportionately shorter arms. 

Port Molle (14 fms.). 



OPHIOPINAX, g. n. 

It appears to be necessary to establish a new genus for the re- 
ception of the form hitherto known as Pectinura stellata, owing to 
the remarkable and regular arrangement of the large plates on its 
disk ; this, which is only obscurely seen in smaller specimens, he- 
comes very prominent in such larger examples as were obtained 
during the voyage of the ' Alert.' 

The genus may be defined as follows: — Two elongated genital clefts; 
mouth-papillae, teeth. Accessory oral shields ; arm-spines delicate, 
attached to the outer edge of the side arm-plates. Eadial shields 
large, separated by several radial or interradial plates from one 
another. All the disk, except the radial shields, is covered by 
granules, but there are no spines or spinous processes. Teeth (in 
four rows) stout, blunt. Side arm-plates extend on to both actinal 
and abactinal surfaces ; side mouth-shields naked. 

The extraordinary development of the plates between the radial 
shields, both of the same and of the neighbouring sets, appears to 
have escaped the notice of Ljungman and Grube ; nor can it, I 
imagine, have been noticed by Mr. Lyman, as he retains 0. stellata 
of Ljungman in the emended genus Pectinura. 

At this time it appears convenient to redescribe and figure the 
species. 



136 COLLECTIONS FKOM MELANESIA. 

4. OpMopinax stellatus. (Plate VIII. fig. C.) 
Pectinuva stellata, Lyman, Prel. List, p. 3. 

Disk somewhat pentagonal, not puffed, with a central rosette of 
plates varying a good deal in the extent to which it. is well defined, 
and occupying about half the upper surface ; in some cases a central 
plate and two not very regular circlets of variously sized plates of 
irregular form can he made out. The interradial series of plates, 
which extend from the rosette to the edge of the disk, are stouter 
and more prominent than the radial series; tiny are composed of 
three or four plates varying in size and form, and sometimes paired 
at the margin of the disk ; the larger median have smaller plates on 
either side. The radial series may, for its undivided portion, be 
formed by a single plate, but, as a more general rule, there are 
three ; there are no smaller marginal plates. The bifurcated band 
which embraces the base of the arm has usually three pieces on 
either half. Just below the margin of the disk there is a prominent 
plate, which is placed interradially ; in shape this is irregularly 
cordiform ; above, on either side, it is bounded by a compressed or 
diamond-shaped plate ; between it and the mouth-plate there is a 
pair of smaller plates and several still smaller plates intervening ; 
on the side there is an elongated plate, with two smaller ones, lying 
along the edge of the genital slit. The radial shields are large and 
triangular, and fill up all the space on the disk between the radial 
and interradial plates which is not occupied by the rosette. 

The inner mouth-shields have a straight outer edge, the sides are 
at first straight, and then bending inwards meet one another at a 
more or less acute angle ; they are longer than broad ; the space 
between them and the edges of the mouth is rather loosely granular ; 
the outer mouth-shields are about as broad as long, and have a 
slightly convex outer edge ; the umbo is well marked, and that 
shield is not divided ; the side mouth- shields are well developed, 
and are separated from the genital slits by a small granulated patch. 
Seven mouth-papilla;, the three innermost small, the innermost 
smallest ; the next three large, increasing in size from within out- 
wards ; the outermost again small. 

The arms begin to narrow immediately after leaving the disk, 
and become very delicate at their free ends : in a well-developed 
specimen, in which the disk measures 17 miliim. in diameter, they 
are 70 miliim. long, 5 miliim. wide, and 4-5 miliim. high at their 
insertion into the disk. Upper surface carinated ; upper arm-plates 
about three times as wide as they are long, but, owing to the invasion 
of the side arm-plates, the aboral is longer than the adoral edge ; 
both these edges arc straight. 

There is a pair of pores between the first and second lower arm- 
plates ; the lower, like the upper, arm-plates have their aboral longer 
than their adoral edges, and this, as on the upper surface, is clue to 
the encroachments of the side arm-plates, and is more strongly 
marked near to, than far from, the disk. None of the edges of these 



ECHTNODERMATA. I : ''7 

plates are curved ; the plates themselves are at first broader than 
long', but during their gradual diminution in size they have a! one 
time their aboral edge equal to their longitudinal axis ; still further 
out they are longer than broad. About six, short, poorly developed 
spines are found on each of the side arm-plates near the disk, of 
which the largest are median in position ; they diminish in number 
and size as they approach the free end of the arm. Two small ten- 
tacle-scales. 

Upper surface (in alcohol) dark yellow, with spots or patches of 
brown : the whole of the actinal surface pale flesh-colour. Although, 
as a rule, three consecutive segments arc coloured by a darker trans- 
verse patch, there may be only two, or there may be four so orna- 
mented, and, as irregularities, one or more than four ; but the colo- 
ration always extends on to the sides of the arm, though it never 
passes on to the lower surface. Or the whole may be very many 
shades darker, and then the darkest parts arc not especially remark- 
able ; this last mode of coloration appears to be by far the most 
common. 

Port Molle, Queensland, 14 fms., rock ; and Port Denison, 
3-4 fms. 

In some examples, which are very much smaller, from Torres Straits 
the radial shields are oviform, the upper arm-plates are not nearly 
so wide nor so distinctly carinated : the central rosette may be only 
barely indicated, though the central plate is very distinct ; the plates 
of the interradial series have no small marginal secondary plates. 
The side arm-plates at the base of the arm are proportionately much 
larger, and in consequence diminish the breadth of the lower as well 
as of the upper arm-plates. Striking as is the difference in effect 
produced by these differences in character, they are, I think, only 
to be ascribed to age. 



"& v 



5. Ophiopeza conjungens. 

This species seems to strengthen the opinion, more than once ex- 
pressed by Mr. Lyman, that the genera Ojphiqpeza and Pectin ura are 
barely to be distinguished. Without a divided mouth-shield, it has 
the arms not rounded, as in 0. fallax, but keeled above, as is so often 
the case in Pectinura. 

Most closely allied to 0. fallax, it may be distinguished by the 
somewhat coarser granulation of its disk, the smaller number of 
mouth-papillae, and the broadened upper arm-plates. 

Disk pentagonal, flattened, 17*5 millim. diam. in one example, 
completely covered by a delicate and regular granulation (of about 
twenty granules to 1 millim.), the underlying scales not large ; the 
radial shields, in perfect specimens, only indicated by depressions. 
Mouth-shields not divided, wider than long, with a wide convex 
adoral edge, straighter sides, and a barely convex aboral margin. 
Side mouth-shields small ; the space between the mouth-shield and 
the edge of the jaws is marked by a granulation, much coarser than 
that which obtains elsewhere on the disk. Mouth-papillae seven, 



1 .'>■■■! COLLECTIONS FEOW -MELANESIA. 

si out, the penultimate one about twice as wide as those on either 
side of it. 

The arms, which are not more than four times the diameter of 
the disk, are very delicate at their tip, strongly carinated superiorly 
on the proximal portion ; the upper arm-plates have pretty straight 
oral and aboraJ edges, about twice and a half as wide as they 
are long; the lower arm-plates are encroached upon by the side 
plates, which extend far towards the middle line; near the disk 
t he v arc wider than long and hexagonal inform; further out the 
two lateral angles widen out, the sides gradually become straighter, 
and a quadrangular replaces the hexagonal form ; towards the distal 
end of the arm the ventral plates are longer than broad. Arm- 
spines, near the disk, eight, the median longer than those above or 
below them ; quite close to the disk they may be long enough to 
extend to the edge of the next plate ; rapidly, however, they become 
shorter, though they do not diminish either rapidly or notably in 
number. Tentacle-scales two on the most proximal joints, one 
beyond. A pore between the first and second arm-plates. 

Colour, in alcohol, brownish, with some blackish spots on the 
disk ; these are also found on the arms ; three or four successive 
plates often much darker than those in front of or behind them. 

Port Molle (14 tins., rock) ; Port Curtis ; Port Denison ; Thursday 
Island. 

Specimens of this species, bearing as locality " Indian Ocean/' 
have long been in the Museum. 

Specimens of what may be the young of this species were taken 
in the Prince of Wales Channel. 



G. Ophiolepis annulosa. 
Lyman, p. 4. 

Clairmont Island ; Port Darwin. 



Lyman, p. 4. 
Port Darwin. 



7. Ophioplocus imbricatus. 



8. Ophiactis savignii. 



Lyman, p. 14. 
Port Jackson, 0-5 fms. ■ 

9. Ophionereis dubia. 

Lyman, p. 26. 

Thursday Island ; Albany Island ; Prince of "Wales Channel : 
Torres Straits. 



i-:ciiin<ijii:i:m \ i\. 



L39 



10. Opliiocoma brevipes. 
Peters, Archie filr Natur. 1852, p. 85 ; see Lyman, p. 27. 

Mr. Lyman (Prel. List, p. 27) gives as synonyms of this, his own 
O. insvlaria (about which there will, I suppose, be no dispute), the 
0. ternispina of Martens, an unnamed Bpecimen of which, from 
the island of Mauritius, has been for many years in the collection of 
the British Museum and has for a long time been a source of much 
disquiet to myself (I am now persuaded thai this is a specimen to 
which Dr. von Martens woidd have given the name ternispina), 
Opliiocoma variegata and 0. brevispinosa of E. A. Smith, from the 
island of Rodriguez. I do not know that a more western locality 
than the island just named has ever been recorded by a zoologist ; 
at any rate. Dr. llaaeke did not detect the species among the Ophi- 
urids collected by Prof. Mobius in the island of Mauritius*, unless 
he has been, as is possible, misled by the definition of 0. squamata 
given by M idler and Troschel ; the three or four lateral spines, the 
two tentacle-scales, and the square markings on the upper arm- 
plates might deceive a hasty nomenclator, but they could not, I 
think, mislead any one who refers to the second edition of Lamarck 
(vol. iii. 1840), p. 225, where he will find references to the plates 
of Link andO. F. M tiller. Although the species there figured ic 
regarded by the editors as distinct from 0. squamata, the resemblanco 
between such an Ophiurid as this Opliiocoma and the Qphioihrix 
pentaphyllum figured by the two just-mentioned naturalists, is so 
very slight that we are forbidden from supposing that the Opliiura 
squamata, Lamk. ( Opliiocoma squamata, M. & Tr.), is a near ally of 
an Ophiothrix or Ojihiotliri.c-like form. 

The variations exhibited by this very widely distributed species 
are indeed remarkable. It seemed for a time that the larger number 
and smaller size of the mouth-papillae at the inner angles of 0. varie- 
gata and of 0. brevispinosa would indicate a certain difference ; but 
a difference of quite equal extent can be detected in the mouth- 
organs of a single specimen. The hollow square marking on the 
upper arm-plates, which, when well developed, seems to give such a 
characteristic appearance to the arms of this species, may be replaced 
by a black patch, or there may be a transverse bar, or there may be 
only the two lines left which run parallel to the long axis of the 
arm ; again, there may be spots, or the coloration may be fairly 
uniform. The colour of the disk may be pale, spotted, or reticu- 
lated; the mouth-shields spotted or uniform in colour. 

Levuka, Fiji. 

* Mobius, ' Beitrage zur Meeresfaima der Insel Mauritius ' &c. (Berlin, 1880). 
In what follows I may seem to speak somewhat harshly of Dr. Haacke's services ; 
but I am bound to point out that the list of Ophiunds given on p. 50 of this 
work has no scientific value whatever. 0. dentata has been for many years 
regarded, first by Lyman (1865) and since by others, as " only a middling-sized 
0. echinata;" the type of 0. squamata has been lost, " and nobody can tell 
what it was, though it might have been 0. brevipes." Dr. Haacke makes no 
reference to either of these judgments. 



140 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

11. Opliiocorna scolopendrina. 
Lyman, p. 26. 
Port Molle. 

12. Ophiartlirum elegans. 

Peters, Wiegmanri's Arch. 1S-j2, p. 82. 

Though the British Museum possesses several specimens of this 
species, the present is especially useful, as it is the first which has 
come to hand in which even one of the " sehr zerhrechlieh " arms 
has been preserved entire. As the disk measures 18 millim., and 
this complete arm rather more than 120 millim., we find that the 
object now in hand presents very much the same proportions as the 
specimen described by Dr. Peters. In an example from Torres 
Straits, which has been some years in the possession of the Trustees, 
there is an arm which is in a sense complete, but it was obviously 
broken during life ; and though the disk is of very much the same dia- 
meter as that just added to the collection, this arm only measures 
60 millim. 

Dr. Coppinger's specimen was collected at Levuka, Fiji. 

0PHI0THRIX. 

In addition to the series hereafter mentioned and described, there 
were indications cf other species, not sufficiently good to justify de- 
scription, but quite well enough marked to point to the great wealth 
of O^hiuthrix- forms in the seas where these dredgings were made. 

13. Ophiothrix fumaria. 
Lyman, p. 34. 

As this is a very rare species, the following notes may be of 
interest : — 

Radial shields naked, large, with a curve along their basal edge, 
each separated from its fellow by a low ridge on which granules are 
generally developed. Each pair of radial shields is separated by some 
seven rows of prominent granules ; these granules occupy all but the 
very central portion of the disk, and form a spinous patch on the 
lower surface. Mouth-shields irregularly oval, pretty sharply angu- 
lated proximally and very narrow dis tally, so that the bridge be- 
t w i in the genital slits is very narrow. Only the median portion of 
the interbrachial space is spinous. 

Upper arm-plates a good deal encroached upon by the side arm- 
plat us. so that, for the greater part of the arm, they are wider along 
their distal than their proximal edge ; spine-ridge of side arm-plates 
not specially well developed ; lower arm-plates rectangular, a little 



ECHINODBEMATAj 141 

broader than long. Six arm-spines, the uppermost the longest, as 
long as two or three arm-plates, swollen at thoir tip, only faintly 
thorny. One tentacle-scale. 

Disk with a large number of bine patches and dots ; arm-platos 
above faint reddish pink, with clots of blue at the sides, and broad 
transverse bands of blue at regular intervals. Colour-markihgs 
below less pronounced. 

Port Jackson, 0-5 fins. 



14. Ophiothrix caespitosa. 
Lyman, Chall. Rep. p. 218. 

Though the ' Challenger ' found but few representatives of this 
species, it is apparently one of the most common in the neighbour- 
hood of Sydney. 

Port Jackson, March 1881. 



15. Ophiothrix martensi. 



Lyman, p. 86. 



If I am right in ascribing to this species examples from Thursday 
Island and Port Darwin, it is one which must be regarded as exhi- 
biting very remarkable variations in coloration. The original spe- 
cimens, collected by Prof. Semper in the Philippines, were described 
by Mr. Lyman as being in colour, " above, bright indigo, with a 
darker line along the arm, bounded by a lighter one on either side ; 
below, paler indigo, with a white line along the arm." In a smaller 
specimen, " the blue lines along the arms were continued to the 
centre of the disk, but wore not margined by lighter lines." In the 
two specimens collected on "Aug. 7, 1874" (in the neighbourhood 
of the Fiji Islands), by the ' Challenger,' and determined by Mr. 
Lyman, I observe that there is a faint indication of a white line on 
either side of the blue lines on the disk, and that the white line 
on the ventral surface is, at places, broken across by a patch of 
indigo. 

On either side of these " typical specimens " there would appear 
to be a light and a dark variet}-. In the latter the whole creature 
may be deep purple, the two white lines on the arms being at regu- 
lar distances invaded by purple patches of such a size as to leave only 
spaces of white equal to themselves ; and as these patches are sym- 
metrical on either side of the middle line, the original white lines 
come to be represented by nothing more than paired patches of white ; 
similarly the white line below disappears, or rather is forced out to 
the sides, and appears only as a thin marginal line. The light 
variety is no less interesting ; with the exception of the radiating 
lines, the disk above is altogether white, and even these lines may 



142 COLLECTION'S FROM MELANESIA. 

become less conspicuous and much reduced; the white lines along 
the arm are broken into by blue patches, much less extensively de- 
veloped than in the dark form ; on the lower surface of the arm 
the blue lines may be present as continuous tracts, or they may here 
and there be interrupted by white. 

Port Curtis ; Thursday Island ; Port Darwin. 

16. Ophiothrix striolata. 
Lyman, p. 36. 

Thursday Island. 

17. Ophiothrix galateae. 
Lyman, p. 36. 

Port Darwin. 

18. Ophiothrix ciliaris. 
Lyman, p. 35. 

Port Jackson, 0-5 fins. ; Port Molle. 

19. Ophiothrix rotata. 
Martens, Arch.f. Nat. 1870, p. 258. 

A single specimen, without doubt referred to this species, differs 
in one or two points from that described by Dr. von Martens. In 
the Berlin-Museum specimen the diameter of the disk is 7 millim., 
and the length of the arms 35 millim. In our specimen the arms 
must have been nearly 150 millim. long, while the diameter of the 
disk is 12 millim. The upper spines are not more than twice the 
width of the arm, instead of four times. The original describcr 
makes two statements with regard to the colour of the oral shields : 
— " Unterseite der Scheibe mit den Mundschildern und die Arm- 
stacheln blass " ; and " Das der Madreporenplatte zugehorige Hund- 
schild ist merklich grosser, an den tSeiten nicht eingebuchtet und 
weiss, nicht wie die andern violett." In the specimen- now under 
examination there is some violet marking on each one of the mouth- 
shields. 

Thursday Island, 3-4 fms. 

So far as the present collection allows me to form any ideas with 
regard to the range of variation within the limits of a " species,'' and 
the value of the colour-markings on which previous investigators have 
laid, and, as it seemed, justifiably, very considerable stress, I am in- 
clined to the view that the variation is very much greater than was 
supposed, and that, after all, colour-marking, though an important 
aid in the discrimination of the species, can hardly be said to have 
the value which has been attached to it. The doubts first raised 
by a study of 0. martensi (vide supra) are not a little strengthened 
by the three specimens now lying before me, which, I have little 



BCHINODBEM VTA. 143 

doubt, will be seen, when a large series is to hand, to be nothing 
more than varieties of 0. rotata. As none of the arms are complete, 
the measurements I could give might oidy be deceptive ; in them the 
upper arm-spines are proportionately larger than in tho specimen 
already spoken of; the bands separating the plates, the character of 
which has given rise to tho specific name, may vary in breadth on one 
and tho same disk; and the granules may be in narrow or broad bands, 
and may be so greatly eloDgated that they may more correctly be 
spoken of as spines ; tho marking would by some bo spoken of as 
exceedingly characteristic, for there extend from the disk on to the 
arms two lines of dots of blue ; at every fourth plate, when regular, 
the two dots of either side fuse, and tho spot enlarges into a blue 
patch ; an exactly similar marking is to be seen on the lower sur- 
face. In the specimen unhesitatingly placed with 0. rotata there is 
not this definite arrangement of the dots. 

I have thought it right to direct attention to these peculiarities, 
but a full and satisfactory discussion of the subject must be based 
on a much larger series of specimens. 

These examples were also from Thursday Island. 



20. Ophiothrix punctolinibata. 

Martens, Arch.f. Nat. 1870, p. 257. 

Port Curtis ; Port Molle ; Thursday Island, 3-4 fms. ; Prince of 
Wales Channel ; Warrior Reef. 

The specimen from Port Curtis, which is smaller than the others, 
has the lateral spines proportionately longer, more echinulated, and 
much more glossy. 

21. Ophiothrix longipeda. 
Lyman, p. 3o. 

Port Curtis ; Port Molle. 

22. Ophiothrix microplax. 

Disk large, covered with short spines, less thick on the radial 
shields ; ends of the not-thorny arm-spines faintly clavate. Pro- 
portion of arms to disk about 6 to 1. 

The disk is rather large (20 millim. in diameter) and is covered 
with very short spines, which may almost be described as spinous 
granules ; these are not so closely packed on the radial shields or on 
the actinal surface as on the rest of the disk. The radial shields 
are small, elongated, triangular, the straight base of the one faces 
that of the other ; the plates of each pair are separated by several 
elongated scales, which carry a few longer spines. There is some 
imbrication of the scales on the actinal surface of the disk. 



144 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

Arms at least six times the diameter of the disk, not diminished 
in width for some distance out. Just beyond the disk there are three 
large upper and four much shorter spines : the lowest, which is the 
smallest, is very small ; gradually this disappears, and then the 
following one gets smaller and smaller till it disappears. The upper 
spines are faintly echinulated near their tip ; the uppermost but 
one is generally rather the longest, but is never more than equal to 
about the Length of two of the upper arm-plates. 

The edge of the genital slit is fringed by some elongated plates ; 
the bridge is pretty wide ; the mouth-shields are large and stout, 
rather longer than broad, and have a notch in the middle of their 
inner edge. 

The lower arm-plates have pretty even sides and are of about the 
same length as breadth ; the tentacle-scale is only distinct at the 
proximal end of the arm. The upper arm-plates are twice as broad 
as long, broader along their distal than their proximal edge. 

General colour of disk yellowish grey, the radial shields violet, the 
upper arm-plates washed with slate-grey and having a faint white 
line along their middle ; the spines light-coloured, but darker 
towards their tip ; the actinal surface lighter ; the mouth-shields 
prominent by their whiteness. 

Port Darwin. 

23. Ophiothrix darwini. 

Disk somewhat pentagonal, with delicate spines on its upper sur- 
face, but the radial shields naked. Colour light pink, green, or 
lemon in places, with a few dark spots. 

Length of arms perhaps not more than six or seven times the 
diameter of the disk. 

The large radial shields form right-angled triangles, the perpen- 
dicular side being separated from that of its fellow by a very narrow 
line and by only a single row of rare spines ; a slight notch sepa- 
rates the plates at the periphery of the disk. The interradial spaces 
are about as broad as the base of the radial shields, and are richly 
covered with delicate spinules, these extend on to the actinal surface, 
but leave a bare band bordering the genital slits ; the bridge between 
the slits is narrow : mouth-shields broader than long, somewhat irre- 
gularlv lozenge-shaped in form. The lower arm-plates are very regu- 
larlv arranged, and are only slightly oblong, many being almost 
completely square. The upper arm-plates are broader than long, the 
aboral edge three-sided, the adoral sides long, and the consequent 
form that of a not very regular hexagon. Four or five arm-spines, 
the lowest not peculiarly short, and the uppermost equal to five 
upper arm-plates in length, echinulated at their free end. There 
appear to be two very small tentacle-scales. 

The larger of the two specimens presents the following markings : 
• — There are three black dots on each of the mouth-shields ; some of 
the lower arm-plates are light green, the adoral edges of others are 
marked by a black spot, and this is rendered the more conspicuous 



ErJIINODEKM.VTA. 145 

by the fact that two successive plates are so marked, and that then 
there is an interval of two or more not so distinguished. Three or 
four blackish dots are to be found on the radial shields, along the 
line of the vertical side ; by pairs or threes the upper arm-plates are 
faint pink or light green, and the pink ones are distinguished by 
each havincr a black dot. 

I have taken advantage of the locality of this well-marked and 
really beautiful species to associate with it a name honoured by 
us all. 

Port Darwin, 7-12 fms., mud and sand. 



24. Ophiothrix melanogramma. 

Disk pentagonal in appearance, completely covered with fine 
spinules, which are a good deal longer and rarer on the actinal sur- 
face. Arms 4-5 times the diameter of the disk, tapering very deli- 
cately ; the upper surface marked by a black line, which extends a 
good way on to, but does not reach, the centre of the disk. 

The radial shields are almost completely obscured by the spinu- 
lation, which is very delicate ; mouth-shields broader than long, the 
inner sides meeting at an acute angle, the outer edge rather evenly 
rounded, the bridge between the genital slits very narrow ; seven or 
eight arm-spines, the two lowest very small, the upper one as long 
as five or six upper arm-plates, but the uppermost of all is not the 
longest ; the upper spines are richly and delicately echinulated, and, 
owing to the great encroachment of the side arm-plates on the upper 
surface of the arm, the spines of either side come to lie very close to 
one another, and soon obscure the arm itself. One small tentacle- 
scale. The lower arm-plates have a concave notch on their adoral 
edge, have a short side passing into the short lateral edge, and are 
three-sided on their aboral face, so that they form an irregular 
hexagon which is broader than long. Owing to the size of the side 
arm-plates, the upper arm-plates are lozenge-shaped. 

This species has a most elegant appearance, the black band already 
spoken of relieving the whiteness of all the other parts, while a kind 
of feathery appearance is given to the arms by the delicate plates 
and long glassy spines. 
Prince of Wales Channel. 



25. Ophiomaza cacaotica. 



Lyman, p. 3< 



The coloration of these specimens is very far from the chocolate 
of Mr. Lyman's type : but three specimens collected in one locality 
(Gulf of Suez) are — one chocolate-coloured, one quite light, and one 
intermediate. A discussion, however, of the characters of the 
variations of this species will be more profitable when our series is 
larger. 

Port Molle ; Prince of Wales Channel. 

L 



146 COLLECTIONS FltOM MELANESIA. 

26. Euryale aspera, Lamlc. 
Lyman, p. 43. 

(a) One specimen, Port Molle, 12 fms. ; bottom, rock and sand : 
of a dark black colour. 

(b) Several specimens, Port Curtis : all lighter in colour. 



HOLOTHUHOIDEA. 

A considerable number of specimens belonging to less than twenty 
species were collected, Colochirus tuberculosus being extremely well 
represented ; in tbe case of rarer or less well-known species, un- 
fortunately, a single representative was often all that was obtained, 
so that in some cases conclusions have been arrived at which cannot 
be regarded as any thing more than provisional. Where a number 
of specimens were collected, or where the species was already repre- 
sented in the British Museum, evidence was frequently obtained as 
to the wide extent of variation within the limits of apparent spe- 
cies ; and this has especially made the work of discrimination an 
anxious and difficult one. Other difficulties were presented by the 
extreme density of the integument of some of the species and our 
slight knowledge of the characters of the group. On the other 
hand, the work of bibliographical research has been but slight, the 
three moro important workers at the group (Professors Semper, 
Selenka, and Ludwig*), having published works of remarkable ex- 
actness and care. 

The arrangement followed is that of Prof. Semper. 

1. Synapta grisea. 

Semper, IIol. p. 11. 

The condition of the single specimen did pot admit of an anato- 
mical investigation, so that the characters of the calcareous ring 
were not discovered ; the form of the anchoring-plates is, however, 
exactly that of the species described by Semper under this name. 
That the species has a wide distribution would seem to be shown 
by its presence in this collection, and by its being represented by a 
specimen from the Indian Ocean in the Leyden Museum f. 

Fitzroy Island, Queensland. 

2. Cucumaria maculata. 
Semper, Hoi. p. 47. 

Prom the external characters of the single specimen one would 
hardly be led to associate it with this species ; but in the case of 

* Dr. Thecl's worfc does not seem to touch the present collection. 
t See Ludwig, Notes Levd. Mus. iv. p. 128. 



ECHINODEIWATA. 147 

Holothurians it is especially Decessary to remember the word- o\ 
Fabricius, " Tn Bpiritu vini mire deformatur, it a ut non pro eadem 
habeatur ,: *. The remarkable Bpicules are. however, an exact copj 
of those figured by Si mper ; and there set ms to be 110 good reason for 
erecting on it a new species. 
Port Jackson, 0-5 fms. 



3. Cucurnaria semperi. (Plate IX. fig. A.) 

Body elongated, 5-sidcd ; suckers regularly arranged in two rows, 
except at the two ends of tbe body ; the suckers darker than the 
other parts, being almost black ; the rest of the body of a mulatto 
tint (in spirit), or slate-grey, or whitish. Body widest in the middle. 
Length 36, 25 niillim. : greatest breadth 10, 8'5 millim. 

Retractors inserted at a little more than one third of the whole 
length from the anterior end: Polian vesicle large; calcareous ring 
long, and composed of a number of pieces, as in C. conjungens or 
C. citrea. Genital tubes delicate, about millim. long, attached to 
the mesentery at about the middle of the body. 

The supporting-rods in the suckers are not unlike folding eye- 
glasses in form, and are somewhat similar to those of Ocnus pygma us ; 
the plates in the integument are spherical, the framework very deli- 
cate and consisting, as seen in a surface view, of a central bar con- 
nected at either end with the peripheral encircling piece by two 
bars making an acute angle with one another. They are present 
in great numbers. 

Port Denison ; Torres Straits. 



4. Ocnus, sp. 

A single specimen of what is apparently an un described species 
is in the collection ; but its form is so characteristic that I have not 
thought it right to injure it in any way. It is distinguished exter- 
nally by the soft interspaces in the integument, the greyish-white 
colour, and the elongated narrow form of the body. 

Port Darwin, 12 fms. 



5. Colochirus tuberculosa. (Plate IX. fig. B.) 
Colochirus aneeps, Semper, Hoi. pp. 57, 2o9, ibique citata. 

There is a very large series of this species, and the specimens 
differ very considerably among themselves, not only in appearance 
but in the extent to which the colouring-matter has been dissolved 
out ; only one retains any indication of the red pigment. The 
variations exhibited by the specimens as they have come to the 
Museum (some being quite white, others slate- grey, and others 

* Fauna Grcenl. p. 354. 

L2 



148 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

almost black), the differences in the extent to which the papilla? are 
developed, and the comparatively much greater firmness of the 
integument of the younger specimens help us to understand how it 
is that several different names have been given to this widely dis- 
tributed species. On the other hand, it is well to still bear in mind 
that our knowledge of Holothurian organization is not yet so com- 
plete as to justify us in definitely asserting that fresh differential 
marks do not yet remain to be discovered ; if there are such, the 
series now regarded as single may be shown to contain represen- 
fcatives of more than one form. 

As the only illustration of the spicules appears to be that which 
has been given by Prof. Semper, I have had views made of them 
from the side to show the characters of the free projecting processes, 
and from below showing the inside of the hemisphere. 

Port Mollc : Port Denison ; Torres Straits ; Alert Island (Torres 
Straits), 17 fms., sand. 

6. Colochirus australis. 
Ludwig, Sempef's Arbeiten, ii. p. 88. 

This species, which is represented by only one specimen from Port 
Molle (14 fms.), was more richly so in a collection forwarded some 
three years ago from Port Jackson by Mr. J. Brazier. I do not, 
however, find that the suckers are in them brown in colour, while 
the tentacles are rather black and white than brown and yellow. 
Neither of these are, however, points of any real importance. I 
find, from Mr. Eamsay's collections, that this species is very abundant 
in Port Jackson. 

7. Actinocucumis difficilis. (Plate IX. fig. C.) 

I have had the greatest difficulty in assuring myself of the specific 
distinctness of this form from the A. typica of Ludwig, the varia- 
tions exhibited in the present collection impressing one with the 
necessity of the greatest care in the delimitation of species. 

The species may perhaps be most conveniently described by 
pointing out the several characters by which it is to be distinguished 
from A. typica. The ambulacral papillas on the dorsal surface are 
rare, and the suckers are not in more than four rows for each ray ; 
the differences in the form of the spicules will be best seen by com- 
paring the figures now given with those drawn by Professor Ludwig. 
The retractors are inserted rather further back, being found at 24 
millim. from the anterior end in a specimen 65 millim. long, and 
at 22 millim. in one 70 millim. long ; the genital tubes are shorter 
than in A. typicd, being not more than 15 millim. long in any speci- 
men examined. The Polian vesicle would also appear to be shorter, 
being only 7'5 millim. long in a specimen of 65 millim. length. It 
may be added that the loop of the intestine is exceedingly short ; 
that the tentacles, which are not always 20, sometimes seem to 



ECniNOM'MrATA. 149 

belong to an outer, and ;d others to an inner circle on the disk ; and 
that the colour which in some cases is light brown, in others is 
purplish grey. 

Albany Island ; Torres Straits. 

Quite recontly an example of this species has been received from 
Kurrachee. 

8. Thyone mirabilis (?). 
Thyone mirabilis, Ludwig, Semper's Arbeitea, ii. p. 93. 

The form of the spicules would perhaps allow us to place the 
single specimen hero with doubt referred to this species either with 
it or with Holothuria dietrichii of Ludwig, the supporting-rods in 
the suckers of the latter not being figured. Though our specimen 
has much more the form and colour, so far as one may judge from 
the description, of the Holothurian, the eight large arborescent and 
two small tentacles, the scattered sucker-feet, and the unarmed 
anal orific exactly determine its generic affinities. 

Port Denison. 

9. Thyone sacellus *. 

Stolus sacellus, Selenka, Zeit. f. wins. Zool. xvii. p. 366. 

Thyone rigida, Semper, Holothurien, p. 66. 

Thyone sacella, von MarenzeUer, Verh. z.-bot. Ges. Wien, 1881, p. 134. 

Torres Straits. 

10. Thyone okeni. (Plate IX. fig. D.) 

The two specimens of this species are in remarkably good condi- 
tion for examination, as one died with its tentacles fully expanded 
and the other was laid open by the collector. 

With the exception of the terminal plate in the suckers I have 
not been able to detect any calcareous bodies either in the suckers 
or the integument ; and if any such are present they must be ex- 
ceedingly small and very rare. This characteristic brings this 
species into proximity to the T. viUosa of Semper, where, as in this, 
the suckers are very closely packed. 

Elongated in form, very dark brown in colour (in spirit), tentacles 
of about the same shade ; suckers closely packed and distributed over 
the whole body, their radial arrangement in the region of the anus 
very obscurely indicated. Anus without teeth. Eetractors inserted 
very nearly as far back as the middle of the body. Calcareous ring 
of ten pieces, the radial similar to the interradial, elongated, and 
wider below than above (fig. D). Calcareous plating extends some 
way along the enteric tract (fig. D). Genital tubes numerous, very 
slender and long, inserted behind the middle point of the length of 

* Prof. Selenka has been kind enough to inform me that sacellus, as used 
by him, is a diminutive form of saccus, not of sacer. 



loO COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

tho body. Polian vesicle ? Length 85, 62 millim. ; greatest breadth 
17*5, 17*5 millim. 

Port Jackson. 

Save in the complete absence of spicules this species would not 
appear to have any resemblance to the T. iriermis of Heller, the 
Shorter body of which, attenuated at both ends, is said to have a 
very thin integument and to be of a yellowish-grey colour. 

11. Thyonidiuin schmeltzii. 
Ludvrig, Semper s Arbeiten, ii. p. ( J4. 

As there is only one specimen of this species, I have been obliged 
to content myself with an examination of tho integuments, where 
the " morgensterniihnliche Gebilde " were found in abundance in 
the outer layer. 

Warrior Reef, Torres Straits. 

12. Orcula cucumiformis. 
Semper, Hoi. p. 244. 

Port Molle. 

13. Phyllophorus proteus. (Plate IX. figs. F, F.) 

Body varying greatly in form, being saccular, swollen, or elon- 
gated ; in the last case it is narrower behind than in front, and 
pretty regularly convex above. The integument, which is rather 
thick, may be black, and the colour rendered more marked by the 
lightness of the suckers, as there may be merely dark longitudinal 
bands, or the whole body may be greyish, and the only black spots 
ihc tips of the suckers. The suckers themselves always have a 
wrinkled appearance, but no definite statement can be made as to 
their arrangement on the body. 

The retractors are triangular in form and considerably enlarged 
at their origin ; the buccal ring is well developed, the radial pieces 
being very large, and the interradial dagger-shaped ; both are rather 
deeply excavated above (fig. F'). The spicules in the suckers present 
an appearance not unlike that seen in the zooglcea-stage of Bac- 
terium termo ; the spicules of the integument are more or less four- 
sided, four-chambered bodies, made up of somewhat delicate bars, 
forming a trellis-work. 

Port Molle ; Clairmont and Thursday Islands ; Alert Island (7 fms., 
sand). 

14. Stereoderma validum. (Plate IX. figs. E, «-/.) 

Body elongated, tapering more at its posterior than at its anterior 
end ; the ventral surface a little convex, the dorsal concave. A 



ECHINODERMA.TA. 151 

specimen measuring 46 milKm. in length lias a greatest -width of 
"2<> and a greatest depth of 15 millim. The dorsal surface slopes 
gradually to the two sides, which are marked off from the vcnl ral 
surface by the development along the lateral line of from three to six 
short, conical, sliarp denticle-like processes. From the median dorsal 
line to this line the scattered suckers increase in number ; they are, 
however, much more numerous on the ventral surface, and more re- 
gularity of distribution is to be observed along the ventral median line 
than in any other part. The suckers are provided with stout plates, 
but no special terminal plate was detected. The calcareous plates in 
the skin are on the general plan of those in S. unisemita ; but the bars 
do not appear to be so stout, and there may be at least seven pores. 
The ten pieces of the calcareous ring are all equal, and the retractor 
muscles are not especially strongly developed. As in S. unisemita 
there is, comparatively, a feeble development of the digestive and 
respiratory organs; but these characters, as well as the stiffness of 
the tentacles, are rather points of generic importance. 

A more complete generic diagnosis will be made when the two 
species have been carefully compared. 

Two young specimens have the integument much thinner. 

Port Jackson, 0-5 fins., where it is, as other collections show, 
exceedingly common. Also from North Dunbar Island, China seas, 
and from between Ball's Head and Goat Island (coll. Brazier) ; and 
two dried specimens, purchased in 1848 of Mr. Cuming, from Bris- 
bane Water, N. S. W. 

In the definition of the genus given by Prof. Selenka there occur 
the words " Kiirper mit einfachen Fiisscken bedeckt, die in der 
rechten (oder linken) Flanke in einer Doppelreihe stehen ; " and 
the presence of this more distinct set of suckers is implied in the 
specific term of the American species, unisemita. In the present 
species, of which there is a good supply of specimens, I observe that 
the double row occupies the middle of the trivium, but that it 
varies considerably in the extent to which it is distinctly developed. 
Some modification of the generic diagnosis must therefore be made, 
and the suckers be spoken of as scattered over the body, but having 
a tendency to form a regular double row in some part of the 
trivium *. 

15. Stichopus variegatus. 
Semper, Hoi. p. 73. 
A single, rather small specimen from Port Molle. 

* Since working out this species I have had the opportunity of examining 
another member of the genus from Kurrachee ; for S. murrayi see Proc. Zool. 
Soc. 1883, p. 61. 

Mr. Ramsay tells me that the naturalists of Sydney have been in the habit of 
regarding S. validum as the Holothuria spinosa of Quoy and Gaimard : this 
determination cannot, I think, be accepted. 



152 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

16. Holothuria lineata. 
Ludwig, Semper' s Arbeiten, ii. p. 103. 
One specimen from Thursday Island ; skin very thick. 

17. Holothuria peregrina. 

Ludwig, Semper s Arbeiten, ii. p. 105. 

"With considerable doubt I refer to this species a single specimen 
from Thursday Island. 

18. Holothuria modesta(?). 
Holothuria modesta, Semper's Arbeiten, ii. p. 106. 

Professor Ludwig described his species from a single specimen, 
and, curiously enough, there is only one specimen in the ' Alert ' 
collection. The characters of the supporting rods in the suckers 
leads me to believe that the two are forms of the same species ; but 
a full examination is not possible with a single representative. 

Torres Straits. 

19. Holothuria macleari. (Plate IX. fig. G.) 

As will be seen by the figures, the spicules of this species present 
a considerable resemblance to those of H. tigris, with which, as it 
would seem, it must be closely allied. 

As there is but a single specimen, presenting well-marked external 
characters, I think it right to limit myself to an account of these. 
Body elongated, trivium flat, bivium convex, anus round, unarmed, 
without (perhaps having lost) any distinct indications of pentame- 
rous marking ; ambulacral papillae on the convex back, three rows 
of not very regularly arranged suckers on the trivium. An appear- 
ance of ringing both above and below is produced by the white 
colours and transverse setting of the papillae and suckers respec- 
tively ; as the former are less numerous than the latter, there are 
only about thirty bivial rings, while on the trivium two or three 
rings are here and there confluent and present a kind of longitudinal 
marking. 

The single specimen is 49 millirn. long and 10 millim. wide. 

" Clairmont and Bird Islands," N.E. Australia. 

A specimen from the island of Rodriguez, in the possession of the 
British Museum, apparently belongs to this species. 



EOHINODERMATA. 153 



CRINOIDEA. 



In the preparation of this portion of my Report I have had the 
very considerable advantage of the kindness of Mr. P. Herbert Car- 
penter, whose work on this group is so well known to, and so highly 
appreciated by, his fellow-workers. .Mr. Carpenter has not only 
been good enough to favour me with his opinion on many of the 
species and specimens in the present collection, but, at what must 
have been considerable trouble to himself, he copied out for me 
the notes that he had been able to make at various times and 
places on the " type specimens " of the species named by the illus- 
trious founder of the system of this group ; thanks to this act of 
kindness, I have probably escaped from some of the numerous pitfalls 
which, with the advance of our knowledge, now surround the student 
who applies himself to Johannes Midler's descriptions of the differ- 
ent species. As Mr. Carpenter will, in the progress of time, publish 
his studies on these Miillerian types, I have thought it proper on 
this occasion to do little more than merely note the presence of such 
forms in this collection. 

The proportion of undescribed to described species is no doubt 
appalling ; but on making a careful estimate I do not find it to be 
practically greater than in the case of my predecessors. In a Note 
which I communicated to the Zoological Society in May 1882 I gave 
a list of all the described species, which was very nearly complete : 
therein were enumerated 37 Antedons and 21 Actinometrce. Of 
these, 7 Antedons aud 4 Actinometrce were first described in 1881, 
from the collection of the Leyden Museum, by Mr. Carpenter. In 
that paper the percentages of new to all the known species were 
respectively 23 and 23 ; the percentages to new species in the col- 
lection respectively 70 and 40. 

As there are here described 12 new species of Antedon, my per- 
centage to the 37 described forms is 32*5, to all the species men- 
tioned in this Report it is 75 ; on the other hand, there are some 5 
new species of Actinometra, giving a percentage of 23 - 5 to all the 
described forms, and of 38 to those enumerated in the accompanying 
list. 

Against this higher proportion we must, however, set off the fact 
that five of the earlier species had been described by Midler from 
the specimens in the Leyden Museum. 

. But the whole story has not yet been told : without, of course, 
wanting in any way to tie Mr. Carpenter down to details, I may add 
that his examination of the 'Alert' collection was made after he had 
examined the collection of Crinoids brought together by the officers 
of H.M.S. 'Challenger,' and entrusted to him for description. Only 
a single form among the " new species " in the present collection 
has been detected by Mr. Carpenter to be one of the treasures which 
he has described, but whose description he has not yet published ; 



154 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

the interesting A. jukesi, of which Mr. Carpenter has already indi- 
cated the more essential characters, is indeed represented in this 
collection, as it is probably in any fair collection of the marine fauna 
of the Australian coast. 

Set, again, in a paper which will be shortly published in the 
' Journal of the Linnean Society ' *, Mr. Carpenter describes eight 
out of the nine specimens of Antedon from the Hamburg Museum 
as new, and he speaks in the introduction as estimating the species 
of Comatulids at something like 400. 

Further, it is of great significance to observe that many of the 
species here enumerated or described were collected at one station 
only. 

Lastly, we note that the number of Antedonsis larger than might 
have been expected ; for in the Moluccas "Antedon seems to be com- 
paratively rare "f , while of the 29 species here enumerated, 16 belong 
to that genus. From such material as has passed through my 
hands, I am inclined to think that on the northern and eastern 
coasts of Australia we shall find Antedon to be rather more abun- 
dantly represented in species than Actinometra ; the time, however, 
for any generalization is still far off. 

In entering into the detailed enumeration of the proportion of new 
to old species, I had not in view the purpose of apologizing for the 
presence of so many new forms in this collection, but rather the 
desire of directing attention to facts which can only be within the 
knowledge of a limited number of special students ; those who 
know how few species of Comatulce have been described, and how 
rich in novelties not only new collections but old museums are, will 
not think that there is any suspicious wealth of new species in the 
very valuable and important collection by which Dr. Coppinger has 
more than doubled the number of specimens and species in the 
possession of the British Museum j. 

So large a number of new species should be presented in some 
kind of arrangement, either in the form of a phylogenetic table or 
of a " key." The former being an impossibility at present, on 
account of our unsatisfactory knowledge of the ancestry of the 
Comatulidce, and keys being, of all things, the most unscientific, 
I propose to give formulas for all the species of Comatulids here 
described, basing those formulas on the method I proposed to the Zoo- 
logical Socicty§, as improved by the suggestions of Mr. Carpenter ||. 



* Journ. Linn. Soc. xvi. p, 487. 

t Notes Leyd. Mus. iii. p. 191. 

J [The above is allowed to stand, though written some eighteen months 
ago, as it puts more forcibly than a briefer and colder statement could, the 
present tenuity of our knowledge of Orinoid species and the wide area that is 
opening up to us. — Dec. 4, 1883.] 

§ P.Z. S. L882, p. 530. 

| P. Z. S. 1882, p. 731. I retain A' as the sign for Ac/inomrfra, as a ia used 
in (ho formula; of the cirri ; and T propose to use br for 1 ho brachials, as h is 
Likewise used in the formulae of the cirri. Similarly I omit the 10, as A 10 
followed by A 3 (in such a list as the following) is very apt to mislead. 



ECHINODERMATA. 



1 55 



adeon.T A. ,'• 

b 

inilberti A. ,'• 

b 

pimiiformis A. j- 

carponteri ....• A. -■ 

pumila A. — 

bidens A. — 

a 

loveni A. — 

x 

I 
decipiens A. (.">), 



Antedon. 



roginic A. 2.(2)- 



articulata . 



A. 2.2- 



irregularia A. 3.(2)g- 

1 A Q ( 2 ) b 

Blegans A. 3. (Ti) - 



-Y-.-S 



A. 2.2. 



briareus* A. '3.2.(2) - . 

v 'a 

microdiscus A. 3.3.(3)-. 



AciINOMETRA. 



6olaris 



2 a 



intermedia A'R- •-• 

2 a 

robusta A'R— . r- 

2 D 

cuunngi A-- 

coppingeri 

jukesi 



A*. 

a 



parvieirra A'3.3. 



., -pd.br 
(ab) 



alternans A'3.2.3.2.^- 

. . , /T) d.br a 

paucicirra Alt— •- 

multifida A'3.2.2.- 



'A'3.2.-- 

a 

■variabilis < A'3.3.-- 



.A'3.(2).(2) 



From the table of Antedon formulae some facts become at once 
apparent : — 

(a) Tbere are six examples among the more than ten-rayed forms 
in which the arms are not a regular multiple of ten — that is, not 20, 
40, or 80 ; this is clear from the sign for the palmar or post-palmar 
being in these cases placed within brackets. 

(/3) In all cases cirri are developed, and these are rarely very 
numerous or very long. 

(y) In no case is the radial axillary a syzygy. 

A moment's inspection of the table of formula? for the Actino- 
metrcp will reveal to the student a number of interesting facts : — 

(a) Three species have the same structural characters, and only 



* A study of this species is sufficient to show the advantage of Mr. Carpenter's 
proposal to register the number of joints in each division over my proposal to 
register rather the syzygies first of all, as A. briareus has no syzygies on the 
palmare or succeeding joints where the arms divide again. 



156 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

differ in comparatively unimportant details, of a kind which are 
probably adaptive. 

(/3) There is a marked tendency to the development of a small 
number of short cirri *. 

(y) And ten species have lost the cirri altogether. 

(?) Of the eleven species the formula of no two is exactly the 
same. 



1. Antedon adeonae. 

Comatula adeonre, J. Millie?; Gattung Comatula, p. 15+. 

A white line, which extends along the middle of the radials, the 
rest of which is of a reddish purple, is continued for a short though 
varying distance along each of the arms. 

There is a curious error in connexion with this species which 
does not seem to have been noticed. Lamarck described it as 
" C. radiis pinnatis denis &c. ;" de Blainville, while quoting Lamarck, 
refers also to his own figures in his 'Atlas' (pi. xxvi.) ; in this 
reference he is followed by J. Miiller and by the editors of the 
second edition of Lamarck. The figures, however, when referred to 
are seen to be those of a species with twenty arms and with cirri 
nearer thirty than twenty. It is not perhaps necessary at this 
distance of time to waste time in inquiring what species it is that 
de Blainville has there figured. 

Port Curtis and Port Denison. 

2. Antedon milberti. 
Comatula (Alecto) milberti, J. Midler, p. 19. 

The rich supply of this species in the present collection % amply 
justifies the doubts which Mr. Carpenter has expressed to me as to 
the exactness of the locality (North America) ascribed by Miiller to 
this species. 

Port Molle; Port Denison; Prince of Wales Channel; Torres 
Straits. 

3. Antedon pinniformis. 
P. H. Carpenter, Notes Leyd. Mus. iii. p. 180. 

Dundas Strait, N.W. Australia. 

* So far as we know at present, c rarely appears i i the formula of an Actino- 
mctra ; in words, the cirri are rarely very numerous (more than 30) or very long 
(witli more than 40 joints). 

t The essay on Comatula, the pagination of which is here quoted from its 
separate copy, was published in 1849 in the ' Abhandl.' of the Academy of 
Berlin for 1847, where it occupies pp. 237-265. 

{ Tt is also well represented in a collection of Mr. E. P. Ramsay's, of the 
Australian Museum, Sydney. 



ECHIJf ODEKMATA . 157 

4. Antedon carpenteri. (Plate X. figs. A, a-c.) 

Centrodorsal a flattened disk ; about 12 marginal cirri, of almost 
20 short joints, of which the lowest are almost twice as broad as 
they are long ; it is not till we reach the penultimato one that we 
see a distinct spine, though the dorsal surface of most of them is 
produced into a minute protuberance. 

First radials not visible; the second do not or do only slightly 
touch, united to the third by ligament. Ten arms. First brachials 
touch, they are nearly oblong and more than twice as wide as long ; 
the second arc a little wider on their outer than their inner side ; 
the third with a syzygy ; fourth to sixth oblong, seventh wider on 
inner than outer side, eighth wider on their outer than inner, and 
so on alternately ; twelfth and thirteenth serrated at their distal 
edge ; the fourteenth syzygial. Thence from four to seven joints 
between each syzygy. 130-180 joints in the arm. 

The second pinnules on the fourth brachial are very stout, with 
extraordinarily wide joints, which are armed on either side by 
spinous projections : the first pinnule is a little longer than the 
third. 

Colour white, with purple bands or patches, not always developed 
at the syzygies. The middle line of the arm often white. 

Arm about 40 millim. long, disk G millim. in diameter, cirri less 
than 9 millim. long. 

This species has some considerable resemblances to A. serripinna, 
from which, however, the pinnules alone would, as Mr. Carpenter 
assures me, be sufficient to distinguish it. 

Port Curtis. 

5. Antedon pumila. (Plate X. figs. B, a-b.) 

Centrodorsal rather wide, rounded : with about 25 cirri, in three 
rows, very delicate, of about 12 joints, which, from the fourth onward, 
are a good deal longer than broad, hourglass-shaped, but a little wider 
at their distal than at their proximal ends ; some are also produced 
into a small spinous ventral process ; no dorsal spine developed till 
the penultimate, and that is small. 

First radials just visible, second not in contact ; axillaries tri- 
angular in shape, sloping backwards in the middle line. Ten arms. 
First brachial longer without than within, the second within than 
without and projecting backwards in the middle line ; the third 
a syzygy wider within than without. The succeeding joints 
may be incised, so as to leave a lozenge-shaped space between 
every two ; when this disappears, the joints which have projected 
strongly forwards on either side alternately become more evenly 
oblong. 

Syzygies 3, 8, 12, 15 ; then a little rarer. 

Pinnules delicate, the second longer than the first, with elongated 
joints which are a little wider at their distal than at their proximal 
end and are produced into a minute spine. 



15S COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

Arm about 30 millim. long, cirri 7 millim., diameter of disk 
3*5 millim. 

Colour creamy white, in spirit. 

Port Jackson, 0-5 fms. 

The above description was originally drawn up from the single 
specimen received from the ' Alert,' which in spirit had a creamy- 
white colour and appeared to be hardly mature. Since its arrival 
the Museum has acquired specimens from Prison's Bay, which are 
no larger and are a little darker or grey in colour ; these specimens, 
of which I have been able to examine a number, bear witness to their 
maturity by the presence of a large number of ova attached to the 
pinnules. 

6. Antedon bidens. (Plate XI. figs. A, a-c.) 

Centrodorsal prominent ; about 20 cirri, with about 20 joints, a 
number of which have two minute processes on their dorsal side ; 
the penultimate spine is small ; none of the joints are distinctly 
longer than broad, but a number of them have a shallow lateral ex- 
cavation along their distal edge. 

First radials just visible; second very wide, in contact; third almost 
triangular, not quite twice as long as the second, and forming a 
convex protuberance with it. Ten arms. First brachials in contact, 
a little wider on their outer than their inner side, as are also the 
second brachials, which form with the first a convex protuberance ; 
the third brachials, which are syzygies, have a sharp distal edge, as 
have the succeeding joints ; these soon become wedge-shaped, and 
form a strong overlap on either side alternately ; after some time 
this diminishes, and the more terminal joints of the arm form rather 
bead-like swellings on either side. 

Syzvgies 3, 9, 14 ; 4-6 joints between the succeeding syzygies. 

The first pinnule is very stiff and long, with the most proximal 
joint the longest ; it is placed on the second brachial, has some 12 
joints, of which the more basal are much longer than broad, and 
which are also stouter than those on the sixth brachial, which, 
again, are a little stouter than those on the fourth. The pinnules 
then gradually diminish in size, and then again increase further 
out. 

The arms are stiff, and somewhat compressed from side to side : 
they are about 45 millim. long ; diameter of disk 5 millim., of centro- 
dorsal 3-3 ; length of cirri about 8 millim. 

The original colour was probably purple. 

Torres Straits. 

7. Antedon loveni. (Plate X. figs. A, a-e.) 

Centrodorsal large, as large as the disk, excavated in the centre, 
with about 20 cirrus-sockets (cirri lost). 

First radials just visible, second oblong with a convex median 
protuberance along their distal edge ; axillary pentagonal, not a 



ECIIIXODKKMATA. 159 

syzygy-. Ton arms. First brachials wider without than within, in 
contact, with a convex median protuberance along their distal edge; 
the second with sides a little more regular ; the third almost square, 
a syzygy. The fourth to seventh joints a little wider than long; 
eighth or ninth a Byzygy. The succeeding joints wedge-shaped, 
with their free margins a little overlapping and slightly toothed. 
About 5-8 joints between the succeeding syzypes. 

The earlier pinnules are extraordinarily stiff; the first, which is 
on the second brachial, is much shorter than the second or third, 
which are of about the same length and made up of rather less than 
20 joints, most of which are longer than wide, and have their distal 
edge enlarged and slightly denticulated. There are 10 or 12 stiff 
pinnules : the succeeding ones are shorter, and then again longer. 

Arms more than 120 milliin. long : disk not more than 7 millim. 
in diameter. The radials and the earlier brachials have their 
infero-lateral edge produced into a kind of ledge. The more 
proximal joints have the appearance of being tuberculated, and 
there is a faint median dorsal rid^e ; at the sides they arc com- 
pressed. 

Colour dark slate. 

The stiff pinnules, the long arms, and the small disk are very 
striking characters in this species. 

Port Denison. 

The large Myzostomum found on it has been named 31. coriaceum 
by Dr. Graff. 

8. Antedon decipiens. (Plate XI. figs. B, a.) 

Centrodorsal small ; cirri on three levels, about 20 in number, 
with 25 joints, of which the fourth to tenth are longer than wide ; 
•the rest, which gradually become shorter, are provided with a well- 
marked spine : these decrease towards the end, but the penultimate 
one is larger again. 

First radials quite distinct ; the second oblong, three times as 
long as wide, partly in contact ; the third almost triangular. The 
arms may or may not divide, so that there are from about 14 to 18. 
The first brachials or first distichals are always wide, and touch ; 
where the arms divide thero are three distichals, and the axillary 
may be a syzygy.. The first brachials, which have sharp overlapping 
distal edges, are pretty regularly oblong ; at about the seventh they 
become alternately wider on either side, to again become more 
regular later on. 

Syzygies 3, 12-15, 22-25; then from 10-12 joints between each 

syzygy- 

First pinnule on second distichal (when present), that and the 
one on the third brachial short ; those on fifth to ninth much longer, 
the basal joints very stout, the free ends very delicate, and their 
outer side produced into a well-marked conical process. The suc- 
ceeding pinnules are shorter, and these again increase in length ; 
they are not composed of a large number of joints. 



160 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

Disk small. Arms about 70 millim. long, cirri about 16 millim. 

Colour white ; pinnules sometimes banded with darker. 

This species presents some resemblances to A. jainniformis of 
Carpenter. 

Arafura Sea (32-36 fms.) ; Dundas Strait ; Prince of Wales 
Channel. 

I provisionally associate with this, as a variety, two specimens 
from St. 144, in which the cirri are rather more numerous and more 
jointed, in which the whole animal appears to be more slender and 
delicate, and the colour ashy grey. 



9. Antedon. reginae. (Plate XII. fig. A, a.) 

Centrodorsal hidden by the cirri ; cirri about 30, with 30 stout 
and laterally compressed joints, about 20 of which are provided with 
a well-marked spine. 

First radials not visible, second broader than long, in contact ; 
third short, with a very slight backward projection in the middle 
line. Two broad distichals. Thirty-five arms ; if the arms divide 
a second time there are two palmars, and the third brachial is a 
syzygy ; if the arm does not divide a second time, the fifth brachial 
is a syzygy. At first the joints are fairly regular, though much 
shorter than wide ; later on they become more or less, though never 
very strikingly, wedge-shaped. 

Syzygies on the ninth joint ; then from 9-14 between each. 

The first pinnule is shorter than the second, which is of some 
length, and the third than the fourth ; most of the pinnules are 
very short. 

Length of arms about 70 millim., cirri about 24 millim. Disk 
deeply incised, 10 millim. in diameter. 

Colour, flesh-coloured. 

Port Molle. 

10. Antedon articulata. 
Comatula (Alecto) articulata, Mill/. Gat. Comat. p. 27. 
Port Molle. 

11. Antedon gyges. (Plate XII. figs. B, a, h.) 

Centrodorsal flattened, rounded, with cirri in three rows, rather 
more than 40, with rather more than 30 joints, the fifth to the tenth 
longer than broad, the succeeding joints shorter, and provided, first 
of all, with a convex dorsal edge ; this narrows into a wide spinous 
protuberance, which becomes more and more spiny till the fairly 
well-marked penultimate spine is reached. 

The single specimen has 41 arms. 

First radials completely, second largely obscured : the third tri- 
angular, not a syzygy ; a slight median conical protuberance in the 



ECHI2TODERMATA. 161 

line of junction of the second and third. Distichals 2 ; palmars 2 : 
in neither case is the axillary a syzygy, and in both cases there is a 
slight conical protuberance where the two joints meet, and in both 
cases also the more proximal of the two joints is in close lateral 
contact with its fellow. First brachials a little wider along their 
outer than their inner side ; along the latter they are again in close 
contact with their fellow ; as the second brachial is also wider 
without than within, there is a feebly-marked diamond-space 
interval. The third brachial is nearly oblong, and, being syzygial, 
has somewhat the appearance of a dice-box. For the next three 
or four joints there is no wedge-shaped arrangement ; at first 
feebly indicated, it rapidly becomes more marked ; further out it 
diminishes, and the terminal joints are nearly oblong. As in 
A. flaijellata (see Carpenter, Notes Leyd. Mus. iii. p. 183), the 
earlier brachials are flattened on their outer side. 

The first syzygy is on the third brachial, the next about the 
fifteenth, and there are then intervals of 9-10 joints between the 
syzygies. 

The species is at once to be distinguished from A. flagellata by 
the fact that the third is shorter than the first pinnule ; of the first 
three the second is the longest. The first is on the second brachial, 
and is but little shorter than the second ; the first three pinnules 
all have broad basal and elongated distal joints, but though longer 
than the next succeeding they are by no means remarkable in their 
length. 

Colour : brownish flesh-coloured arms ; the peristome very much 
darker ; the cirri much darker on their ventral than their dorsal 
aspect. 

Disk incised, with a diameter of 7'5 millim. ; arms about 
80 millim. long ; cirri 21 millim. long. 

Thursday Island. 



12. Antedon irregularis. (Plate XIII. figs. A, a-c.) 

Centrodorsal flattened, small ; cirri marginal, in two rows, about 
25 in number (but there may be not more than 15), with 30-35 
joints, the lowermost short, fourth to ninth longer than wide, then 
again shortening ; no spine, except on the penultimate joint, and 
that exceedingly small. 

First radials not (or barely) visible ; second wide, in contact, 
with a median convex protuberance ; the third almost perfectly tri- 
angular. 

Arms 11-22. Three joints in the first division, the axillaries 
syzygies ; when there is a second division there are two joints, the 
axillaries not syzygies. The earlier joints of the arm have a well- 
rounded convex dorsal surface and are broader than long ; soon, 
however, they become very markedly wedge-shaped and form a 
prominent projection alternately on either side. Towards the end 
of the arms these disappear. 

M 



162 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

Syzygies 3 : 10 : 19, or 3 : 11 : 21, or 3 : 13 : 21, or 3: 14: 21, or 

3 : 15 : 22 ; then from 6-10 joints between each. 

First pinnules very short ; third and fourth the stoutest and 
longest, quite stiff, with well-developed broad lower joints, each of 
which has a marked protuberance on either side ; the succeeding 
ones shorter, and then again longer. 

Arms about 85 millim. long, the longest cirri 21 millim. ; dia- 
meter of disk 6 millim. 

Colour : pale flesh, occasionally with a dark band here and there, 
especially at the syzygies ; sometimes there is a good deal of brown. 
The cirri are typically banded purple and white. 

Prince of Wales Channel; Torres Straits. 

This species has some resemblance to A. decipiens ; but it may be 
distinguished from it by (a) the absence of spines from the joints of 
the cirri, (/3) the broader lower pinnules, and (y) the greater length 
of the more distal pinnules. 



13. Antedon elegans. (Plate XIII. fig. B, «.) 

Centrodorsal small and flattened; cirri marginal, in two rows, 
25-30, with 40 joints, the fifth to tenth rather longer than broad ; 
the succeeding ones with a short conical spine, which diminishes in 
the more distal ones, but enlarges again somewhat as a penultimate 
spine. 

First radials just visible ; second wide, barely in contact ; the 
third comparatively short. Thirty arms. The three distichals 
pretty long ; the axillary a syzygy. If the arms divide again there 
are generally two joints, when the axillary is not a syzygy ; but 
there may be three joints, and then the axillary is a syzygy. 
The earlier brachials have even sides ; they then become wedge- 
shaped, but do not overlap. Still further out, they become shorter 
and project a little at the sides ; towards the free end of the arm 
the upper face of each joint is sharply convex. 

Syzygies 3 : 11 : 22 ; then 9-13 joints between each. 

The first two pinnules are stiff and long, longer and stouter than 
the third and fourth ; none of the following are long, but the rather 
more distal are the longer. 

The disk is deeply incised, and the margins of the rays provided 
with a well-developed and characteristic calcareous plating. 

Arms delicate, 95 millim. long, cirri 30 millim. ; disk (owing to 
the incisions) only 8 millim. in diameter. 

Arms pinkish flesh-colour above, much darker below ; the cirri 
ringed purplish and white. In a younger specimen there are 
purplish spots on the arms above. 

Port Xlolle. 

A disk from Thursday Island probably belongs to this species. 



ECHIN'ODEKMATA. 163 

14. Antedoii briareus. (Plate XIV.) 

Centrodorsal flattened ; 15-20 marginal delicate cirri, formed of 
a few short joints. 

Arms more than 70. 

First radials obscured ; second in contact, at least three times as 
long as they are broad ; third widely triangular. Three distichals, 
the axillary a syzygy; two palmars. If there is another division 
there are again two joints : no syzygy. The first five or six brachials 
have nearly even edges ; the succeeding ones are markedly wedge- 
shaped. A syzygy on the third brachial ; succeeding syzygies rare. 

Second pinnules longer than first, very delicate, made up of a 
number of small joints ; the succeeding pinnules stouter and more 
fleshy. 

This is one of the species in which there is a very considerable 
difference in the length of the arms ; here some of the arms may be 
as much as 110 millim. long, while others are only 75 millim. 
There is an interradial plating, extending as far as the distichal 
axillary. 

The colour (in spirit) is dark brown. 

Port Denison. 

15. Antedon microdiscus. (Plate XT.) 

Centrodorsal rather large and prominent ; the cirri marginal, in 
two or three rows, from 30-50 in number, with from 50-70 joints, 
none of which are markedly longer than broad ; as a ride, the' distal 
two thirds have an inconspicuous dorsal spine, and in the larger 
specimen the penultimate spine is hardly more conspicuous. 

The first radials visible ; all very short and wide, the second not 
in contact. Three distichals, the axillary a syzygy. Three palmars, 
the axillary normally a syzygy. The arms may divide again, and of 
the three joints the axillary may or may not be a syzygy. Probably 
as many as 90 arms in an adult. The earlier brachials have fairly 
even edges, are well rounded above and flattened at their sides ; the 
next succeeding are faintly wedge-shaped, the distal edge of each 
projecting alternately on either side into a slight protuberance; 
further out, the wedge-form disappears. The arms generally, though 
slender, are very firm and stiff and are set very close to one another. 

Syzygies 3, 22-25, 40-41 ; then from 10-12 joints between 
each. 

The earlier pinnules exceedingly long in the adult, with very 
stout slightly keeled basal joints ; the second, which is a good deal 
longer than the first, has as many as 50 joints and is qiiite fine at 
its free end ; the more distal joints are provided with a spine or tuft 
of spines. 

The stiff straight arms are ahout 150 millim. long ; the cirri 
measure nearly 50 millim. ; the disk, with rounded incisions, has a 
diameter of about 12 millim. 

The disk and the arms, as far as their last division, are largely 

m 2 



164 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

washed with purple ; the middle line of the arms is lighter, hut 
patches or spots of purple are to be found at the sides ; the lower 
surface is a little lighter on the disk than on the arms, where it is 
almost black. 

Port Mollo, 12 fms. 

Three smaller specimens already in the collection of the British 
Museum, from Kicol Bay, N.W. Australia, must, I think, be 
referred to this species. The smallest of these has not more than 
30 cirri, nor have they more than 40 joints ; their spines, and espe- 
cially the penultimate one, are better developed. There are only 
about 50 arms, and in some cases there are only two palmars (when 
the axillary is not a syzygy). The ground-colour is purplish, marked 
with yellow bands. 

16. Actinometra Solaris. 

P. II. Carpenter, Notes Leyd. Mus. iii. p. 192 ; Journ. Linn, Soc, Zool. 
xvi. p. 514. 

Two specimens of different sizes do, I think, undoubtedly belong to 
this species, to which specimens have not unfrequently been assigned 
that are to be distinguished by what are apparently good specific 
characters. 

Prince of Wales Channel. 

The greatest difficulties attend the exact delimitation of the specific 
characters of this species ; and the question whether they vary within 
wide limits or are, rather, sharply defined cannot yet be answered. 
For the purposes of exact knowledge it seems to be at present the 
better course to try and recognize points of difference between 
allied forms ; we must by experiment and experience discover which 
of the characters of a Comatulid afford trustworthy criteria in the 
discrimination of species ; so few forms have, as yet, been described, 
and so little criticism has been brought to bear on what work has 
been done, that our knowledge of how species are to be defined and 
delimited is as yet in a very elementary condition. 

The only consolation is to be found in the reflection that what 
may seem, with wider knowledge, to be a " bad species " is justifiably 
regarded now as a " good one," and that wary specific discrimina- 
tion is often a considerable aid to the exact and accurate knowledge 
of the characters of complex and elaborate forms. 

The two specimens here ascribed to A. Solaris present the fol- 
lowing characters : — 

There are 12 cirri, and there may be only 18 joints in a 
cirrus ; the more proximal joints of the arms of the smaller spe- 
cimen are more " knobby " than the correspondingly placed joints 
in the larger. In both cases the arms are at their widest a little 
distance from the disk ; the keels on the basal joints of the second 
pinnule are well marked in the smaller specimen ; but in neither 
case are there any very prominent keels on the basal joints of the 
third pinnules. 



ECHINODERMATA. If',.") 

Arm of the larger specimen about 120, of the smaller about 
85 millim. long ; in the former the first pinnule is about 20 and tho 
cirri 10 millim. long. 

lioth of the specimens are white and without any dorsal median 
line ; dark spots or marks prominently developed on the pinnules. 

For the present, at least, I associate with A. Solaris a specimen 
from Warrior Reef, in which the characteristic keel to the pinnule 
is developed and in which the cirri do not seem to have been moro 
than twelve in number, but in which the number of cirrus-joints 
would appear to be less than fifteen. 

There are also specimens from Port Curtis and Torres Straits 
which, thougli still small, hardly promise to ever have the stout arms 
which are so characteristic of the adult : further experience will, 
I think, show them to be " dwarfs." 

From the Arafura Sea we have received a comparatively small 
specimen, which is chiefly remarkable for the smaller number of its 
cirrus-joints. 

In Dundas Strait there were dredged some small specimens which 
approach in character A. pectinata and A. purpurea, but give us, 
with our present scanty information, but little aid in determining 
the character or limits of these species. 

From Thursday Island we obtained a somewhat injured and large 
specimen belonging to the " type " of A. Solaris, but which com- 
pletely eludes my attempts to understand it. 

Under the name of A. alhonotata I was inclined to separate a spe- 
cimen from Albany Island, which is to be distinguished from the form 
to which the name A. Solaris is ordinarily restricted by the larger 
number (20-25) of cirri, and the less prominent keels on the basal 
joints of the second pinnules. The general facies, however, of the 
specimen is distinctly that of A. Solaris, with the exception of the 
rather remarkable coloration, which has led to the proposal of a 
distinctive name. When, however, wo make a careful comparison 
between the pattern of this coloration and that of the two speci- 
mens first described and unhesitatingly referred to A. Solaris, we 
see that there is really a striking resemblance between the two, and 
we are again led to the reflection that great circumspection is to be 
exercised whensoever we are tempted to make use of difference in 
colour as a distinguishing mark. I have already stated that there 
are black patches or spots on the pinnules of the first-described pair of 
specimens ; what we find in the one now under consideration is that 
these spots having greatly increased in number, and become more ex- 
tensive than the white, have caused the white ground to assume the 
appearance of spots on a dark ground. The extreme limit of the 
species seems, however, to be reached by this form ; and as the cirri 
are more numerous than usual, and the basal joints of the second 
pinnule less strongly keeled, I propose to speak of it as A. Solaris, 
var. alhonotata. 

We must not be tempted by the difficulties of specific discrimina- 
tion to make use of mere coloration : there are in the collection two 
specimens of A. Solaris from Thursday Island, one of which is uni- 



166 COLLECTIONS FKOM MELANESIA, 

fornily purple, while the other has the purple relieved by a white 
median dorsal line and by some white pinnules. 

I trust that with an increase in our knowledge and with a larger 
series of specimens the preceding discussion will he found, long as it 
must have seemed, to he of some aid in the determination of the 
characters and limits of the species; wilh such scanty information 
as we possess at present it would be to the last degree rash to 
venture on any kind of prophesy. "Were I to make one, however, 
I should say that many of the variations, which at present there is 
a tendency to regard as of specific importance, will be found to 
present less constancy of arrangement when large series are brought 
together for examination. In the work of enlarging our knowledge 
of the species of Crinoids the British Museum may well look to 
those English colonists who live on such sea-boards as that of the 
Australian coasts, and who have opportunity to do some dredging 
in their waters. 

The student will believe that it was not without much study that 
I instituted the species now succeeding ; since I did so I have had 
the opportunity, thanks to the kindness of Mr. E. P. Eamsay, of 
examining a collection of Australian Echinoderms : and it was with 
a certain amount of satisfaction that I obtained from it specimens 
which exhibited a close resemblance to A. intermedia, and led me 
to think that I was justified in regarding its differential characters 
as constant and definite. 

Standing midway between A. Solaris and A. rohusta it may be 
distinguished as 

17. Actinometra intermedia. 

As Mr. Carpenter has pointed out, it appears to be possible, in 
part at any rate, to distinguish A. Solaris from A. robusta by the 
character of the keels, which, in the former, are so strikingly de- 
veloped on the basal joints of the second pinnule. Basing myself on 
the theory that the keel is constantly present on the basal joints of 
the second pinnule of A. Solaris (Plate XVI. fig. A, a), and that it is 
never found on those of A. robvsta (fig. A, b), I venture to think that, 
in the case of A. intermedia, we have to do with a form in which 
constantly the keels are never as well developed as in A. Solaris, 
and never so slightly as in A. robusta, while at the same time there 
are considerable differences in the extent of the development of the 
keel, not only within the limits of the species but even of the indi- 
vidual (cf. figs. A, c, d). 

The following appear to be the more characteristic marks of the 
species : — A general resemblance to A. Solaris; but there are about 
18 cirri, with from 18-20 joints ; first pinnules not specially long, 
of rather more than 40 joints ; basal joints of second pinnules 
with a not conspicuous keel, and with one which varies in the 
extent to which it is developed. Arms widest a slight distance 
from the disk. 



ECHIX0DEK1IATA. 1 G7 

A specimen with an arm 120 millim. long has the cirri 15-5 
millim. long, the first pinnule 20 millim. long, and the arms 3 millim. 
at their widest ; in other words, these measurements are very much 
the same as those of the speci incus of A. Solaris lately referred to. 
The faint white line which is so often seen along the middle of the 
dorsal surface of the arms is to he seen in some specimens ; and in 
some cases we may observe the black spots on the pinnules, to 
which attention has already been directed. 

It will be clear enough to the student that the specimens now under 
discussion present several pointsof considerable difficult y ; hut, though 
they have the general facies of A. Solaris and on the other hand a 
larger number of cirri and a feebler keel, thereby approaching 
A. robusta, they, at the same time, present sufficient constancy in 
the retention of their differential characters to prevent our believing 
that the differences that we observe have not passed within the in- 
fluence of the laws of heredity. 

Albany Island. 

18. Actinometra robusta. 

Actinometra robusta (Liitkcn, MSS.), P. II. Carpenter, Joum. Linn. 
Soc, Zool. xvi. p. 517. 

In specimens of this comparatively well-marked form from " St. 
144," * which were somewhat smaller than those described by 
Mr. Carpenter, I noted that the basal joints of the arm were not so 
distinctly knobbed, and that there was a faint carination to the basal 
joints of the second pinnule. On the other hand, in a larger speci- 
men from Port Curtis, which appeared to be particularly well deve- 
loped, the knobs were very prominent. 

"With regard to the specimens from St. 144, Dr. Coppinger notes 
that they were " originally of a purple colour." 



19. Actinometra strota. 

Among the present collection of Crinoids Mr. Carpenter recog- 
nized a single specimen of a species which he has distinguished as 
A. strota, n. sp., and of which he will give a full account in his 
forthcoming Report on the Comatulse of the ' Challenger ' Ex- 
pedition. 

Port Molle. 

20. Actinometra cumirigii. 

Comatula cumingii, J. Midler, p. 19. 

A delicate specimen with 10 cirri, the cirri having about 12 
joints and no penultimate spine, and most of the joints being a 

* Probably Thursday Island. 



168 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

little longer than broad, is referred to this species. Two of the 
arms which have undergone injury are now giving rise to four and 
three arras respectively. 
Port Molle. 



21. Actinometra coppingeri. (Plate XYI. fig. B.) 

Centrodorsal small: 17-20 cirri in two rows, with from 17-20 
joints, the fourth to sixth longer than broad, the rest shorter ; the 
spines, including the penultimate one, obscure. 
• First radials hardly visible, the second three times as wide as 
long, partly in contact ; the axillary almost triangular, not a syzygy. 
The specimen under examination has 12 arms, but the normal 
number is probably 10. First and second brachials wider on their 
outer than their inner side, the first in contact, the third a syzygy ; 
it and the next two oblong ; the succeeding ones wedge-shaped and 
the distal edges slightly dentated; further out the joints more 
regularly oblong. 

Syzygies on the third and tenth, and then at about every fifth 
joint. 

First pinnules on the third brachials longer than the second, and 
the second a little longer than the third ; the fourth again rather 
longer. The succeeding ones of a fair length. 

Length of arms about 70 millim., of cirri 7'5 millim. ; diameter of 
disk 4/5 millim. 

Colour creamy white. 

Flinders, Clairmont. 



22. Actinometra jukesi. 
P. H. Carpenter, P. P. S. 1879, p. 390. 

A technical description of this species will be given by Mr. P. 
Herbert Carpenter in his Eeport on the Comatulidae of the ' Chal- 
lenger' Collection. It is evidently a common form. 

Albany Island ; Prince of Wales Channel. 

23. Actinometra parvicirra. 

Actinometra parvicirra (Muller), P. II Carpenter, Notes Leyd. Mtu. 
hi. p. 204, ibique citata. 

A small specimen, from Warrior Reef, was determined for me by 
Mr. Carpenter ; another from Port Molle has less than 20 arms, as 
in some of the specimens in the Paris Museum. It is of interest to 
note that this appears to be, like A. carinata, a species of exceedingly 
wide range, for Mr. Carpenter found two specimens of it from Peru 
in the collection of the Hamburg Museum. 



ECH1X0DERMATA. 109 

24. Actinoinetra alternans. 
R H. Carpenter, Notes Lej/d. Mux. iii. p. 208. 

An example of this interesting species was determined for me by 
Mr. P. H. Carpenter; the stumps of two cirri arc still present. 
Port Molle. 

25. Actinoinetra paucicirra. (Plate XVII. fig. A, a.) 

Centrodorsal small, low, rounded, with 5 or 6 marginal cirri of 
15-18 joints, a number of which are longer than broad ; the penul- 
timate spine exceedingly small. 

First radials visible, second radials very wide, not in contact, 
united with the third by a syzygy. Twenty arms ; two joints in the 
distichals united by a syzygy, the more prominent joints in contact. 
First and second brachials united by a syzygy ; third and fourth 
pretty regularly oblong ; the fifth faintly wedge-shaped; after this 
the wedge-shaped form becomes more marked, but the edges do not 
overlap. 

Syzygies on the eighth and twelfth, then from 3-5 joints between 
each. First pinnules longer than the second, and the third than the 
fourth; the first alone of any considerable size: its joints produced 
into very prominent edges. The succeeding pinnules small; later 
out they enlarge somewhat, but are never at all long. 

Arms about 70 millim. long, cirri 8 millim., disk 7 millim. in 
diameter. A slight development of calcareous deposit between the 
bases of the arms. 

Colour creamy white above, rather darker below. 

Prince of Wales Channel; Thursday Island. 

26. Actinoinetra multifida. 
Comatula multifida, J. Mull. p. 26. 

Percy Island, Queensland; Albany Island; Prince of Wales 
Channel. 



27. Actinoinetra variabilis. (Plate XVII. fig. B, a.) 

Centrodorsal of moderate size, concave in the middle, with 10 
marginal cirri, of about 15 joints ; very faint indications of spines 
on the most distal only. 

First radials visible, second exceedingly wide in proportion to 
their length, in contact ; the third almost perfectly triangular, not 
a syzygy ; there are normally three distichals, and the axillary is a 
syzygy ; there are two palmars and no .syzygy, or three palmars and 
a syzygy. If there is another division there are two joints, and the 
axillary is not a syzygy. Arms from 60-90. 



170 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

The first four or five brachials have the sides pretty even, the 
succeeding are very distinctly wedge-shaped, and the distal edge 
becomes faintly denticulated. Further out the wedge becomes wider, 
and the denticulation disappears. 

Syzygies 3, 10, 14 ; then about three joints between each. The 
pinnules generally are delicate and short, the first rather the 
longest. 

Arms not very long, thin ; cirri about 10 mm. long; disk as much 
as 30 mm. in diameter, owing to the extensive development of the 
intcrradial plating which extends to the distichal axillaries. 

Colour yellowish green with darker spots, patches, or lines ; the 
ends of the arms and the lower surface darker, or the upper surface 
may be of a pale flesh-colour. 

Thursday Island. 

28. Actinometra, sp. juv. 

It is very possible that a young specimen from Dundas Strait be- 
longs to a species, A. purpurea, of which a single example is alone 
known ; and that, as Mr. Carpenter informs me, is in rather bad 
condition. It is to be hoped that further exploration will result 
in the discovery of more representatives of this incompletely known 
form. 



General Remarks on Distribution. 

After concluding the survey of the Echinoderms collected in the 
Australian seas by Dr. Coppinger, I arrived at certain results, which 
it is unnecessary now to state ; for my views have since been pro- 
foundly modified by what I have since learnt from a closer study of 
the marine fauna of Port Jackson than was possible with the com- 
paratively scanty material that was in my hands two years ago, when 
the body of this Report was being framed. 

I have learnt since, thanks to the opportunities afforded me by 
arrangements made with Mr.. E. P. Ramsay, the Curator of the 
Australian Museum, Sydney, what are the characters of the Port- 
Jackson fauna, and what is the extent of its resemblance to that 
of Port Molle and Torres Straits. 

I have, in the first place, learnt that no view can be more erroneous 
than one which speaks of an Australian (marine) fauna without 
some sort of qualification ; Cape York and Port Molle are as much 
part of Australia as Port Jackson, but between the two faunae the 
resemblance is as slight as is in the nature of things possible. 

This statement is abundantly proved by the first two tables of 
distribution which I now give, and which are based on the 27 Echi- 
nids and 1G Ophiurids from the collection of the Sydney Museum. 



ECIIIXODERMATA. 171 

Table I. — Echinoidca of Australian Museum, Sydney. 



1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 
10. 
11. 
1-2. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 



Phyllacantlius parvispinus. 

GFoniocidaris tubaria 

— geranoidcs 



Diadema setosum 

Oentrostephanua rodgersi 

Echinothrix calamaria 

Sahuaeis alexaudri 

bicolor 

sulcata 

dussumieri , 

Aniblypneustes ovum .... 
sp. 



South of 

the 
tropics. 



Strongylocenfcrotus erythrogrammus 
tuberculat us 



Sphserechinus australise 

Echinostrephus molare 

Echinometra lucunter 

Heterocentrotus manimillatus 
Echinanthus testudinarius .... 

Laganura decagonale 

peronii , 



Arachnoides placenta — 

Maretia planulata 

Lovenia elongata , 

Breynia australasise 

Echinocardium australe , 
Hemiaster apicatus 



* 

o 

* 2 

o 
o 



Inter- 

t n i] ica 1 
species. 



o 



A 

* 



A 



A 



# 
A 
A 
A 
A 



Table II. — Ophiuroidea of Australian Museum, Sydney. 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 



Pectinura stellata 

• gorgonia 

Ophioploeus imbricatus .. 
Ophioglypha multispina .. 

Ophiactis resiliens 

Aniphiura constricta 

Opbionereis schayeri 

Ophiocoma scolopeudrina 

erinaceus 

Opliiarthrum elegans 

Ophiothrix lougipeda 

csespitosa 

— — fumaria 

sp 

8 P 

Eur y ale aspera 



* 
* 



* 

ft 



* 
A 

* 



* 
* 



means that the species is, in this collection, known only from Lord Howe's 
Island ; A, that the ' Alert ' found the species within the tropics. 

1 Eeported by Agassiz from New Caledonia ; 2 from the Mauritius ; 3 from 
the Philippines. 



172 



COLLECTIONS FKOM MELANESIA. 



It will be seen, then, that of the Echinicls 19 were found south of 
the tropical line, and 11, or 57*5 per cent., were not found either 
by the 'Alert' or ' Australian Museum' collectors within the tropics. 
Of the Ophiurids 9 were found south of the line, and only one also 
within it, so that of this class 88*8 per cent, were found only to the 
south of the tropics. 

"When we turn to the lists of the ' Alert ' collections in the ' Aus- 
tralian ' seas and in the western part of the Indian Ocean, we find a 
very different story. 

Echinids. — Of the 28 species collected within the tropical seas of 
Australia, four only, or 14-2 per cent., were found also at Port 
Jackson, while no less than 23, or 72 per cent., were found also in 
the tropical parts of the western Indian Ocean. 

Table III. — List of Echinoidea collected by the ' Alert ' (to which 
is added a statement of such as are found also north of the 
equator, but within the tropics). 



1. 
2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 

17. 
18. 
1'.). 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 



Cidaris nietularia 

Phyllacanthus amiulifera 

baculosa 

Diadema setosum 

Astropyga radiata 

Salmacis alexandri 

bicolor 

sulcata 



Temncpleurus toreumaticus 

granulosus 

bothryoides 

Echinus angulosus 

danileyensis. 



Toxopneustes pileolus 

Tripneustes angulosus , 

Strongylocentrotus erythro- 

grammus 

Echinometra lucunter 

Fibularia vol va 

Clypeaster huinilis 

scutifbrmis 

Laganum depressum 

decagonale 



EcliinoneiiB cyelostonius 

Maretia planulata 

Lovenia elemgata 

Breynia australasia? 

Echinocardium australe . 

Brissus unicolor 

Met alia stcrnalis , 



S -u o 



Jus 

£ S a 



* 

* 
* 

* 
# 

* 



1-3 



* 

* 
* 



* 
* 






* 

* 

* 
# 
# 
* 
* 
* 



ECniXODi:itMATA. 



173 



The Astcrids tell a not dissimilar story: of the 26 species found 
in the intertropical Australian seas, 3 only, or 11 ■'> per cent., were 
found also at Port Jackson, while 8, or 30 per cent., were found also 
in the western seas. 

Ophiuroidea. — Twenty-nine species were found in the intertropical 
Australian seas ; and of these 3, or 10 per cent., were found also at 
Port Jackson, while 16, or more than 50 per cent., were found in 
the western parts of the Indian Ocean. 

It is useless, in the present condition of our knowledge, to appeal 
to the Holothuroidea or the Crinoidea. 



Table IV. — List of Asteroidca collected by the ' Alert.' 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
U. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23! 
24. 
2.3. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 



Asterias calamaria 
polyplax 



Echinaster purpureas 
Metrodira subulata ... 

Linckia laevigata 

nodosa 



marmorata 

multiforis... 

pauciforis... 

diplax 

megaloplax 



o 



en 






* 



Scytaster variolatus . 
Anthenea flavescens . 
Oreaster gracilis .... 

nodosus 

lincki 

Stellaster belcheri 



mcei , 



Pentagonaster coppingeri 
validus 



Dorigona longimana ... 
Culcita schmideliana ... 
Gymnasterias carinifera 

Asterina belcheri 

calcar 

cepheus 

gunnii 

regularis 

brevis 

Patiria crassa 

Astropecten coppingeri 

polyacanthus 

Archaster typicus 

Retaster insignis 



a. ^ S 3 
I— I fc s 



* 
* 

* 
* 
* 
* 



.- M 



<D 



m 



3 ca 



# 
* 



«■> s S 



174 



COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 



Table V. — List of Ophiuroidea collected by the 'Alert.' 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 



Pectin ura gorgonia 

infernalia 

megaloplax ... 

stellata 



Ophiopeza conjungens,... 
Ophiolepis annulosa ... 
Ophioplocus imbricatus 

Ophiactis savignii 

Ophionereis dubia 

Ophiocoma brevipes .. 

scolopendrina 

criiiaceus 



pica 



Ophiarthrum elegans ... 

Ophiarachna incrassata 

Ophiothrix trilineata .. 

■ propinqua , 

longipeda 

csespitoaa 

martensi 

striolata 

galatese 

ciliaris 

rotata 

f uraaria 

■ punctolimbata 

microplax 

darwini 

melanogramma .. 

Ophiomaza cacao tica .. 
Euryale aspera 



O <n 

— o •« 
tf — o 

c fc 

in ** 



k 8 -a 






•r. 



5 5 £ 
-L ?'- 

1-3 



* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

* 
* 
* 

* 

* 

* 
* 

* 

* 
* 

* 



* 

* (var.) 



E d _; 
3.2 § 

<u - a 



* 
* 
N 

* 

* 
# 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 



The collections of the 'Alert' afford us, then, another justification for 
the view of the existence in the Indo-Pacific of a widely distributed 
common fauna. 

It must, however, be carefully borne in mind that the greater part 
of this common fauna is restricted to the inter-tropical zone; what 
little we know of the fauna of the Southern Japanese seas leads us 
to think that the common forms are to be found there also. 

The majority of extra-Australian naturalists have as yet failed a 
little in recognizing the lesson which these collections bring so 
prominently forward — a lesson already being learnt by those who 
have the best opportunities of examining the characters of the 
Australian fauna ; the term Australian, without definition or 
limitation, affords no exact information"!". It is greatly to be 
regretted that in his tables of the distribution of the species collected 

t As is well known, Dr. GHinther has long since recognized this as regards 
Fishes, and has instituted a South-Australian District (Introd. Study of 
Pishes, p. 283). 



ECniXODEK.MATA. 175 

by the ' Challenger,' Mr. Alexander Agassiz should have devoted ono 
to the species of "West, Smith, and Norih-East Australia — New 
Zealand ; " nor can we wonder when we find one who, ten years 
ago (llev. Ech. p. 2:?0), spoke of the Australian as the " most 
typical of all the districts," saying in 1881 that the " whole of the 
Australian field seems to be cut out of the Indo-Pacilic realm." It 
is clear that these statements oppose each other, and that a more 
accurate representation of the facts would be made in terms like 
the following: — The species found on the northern and north- 
eastern shores of Australia have a wide range eastward and west- 
ward, but gradually disappear as we pass southwards. 

In fine, an Australian Echinoderrn-fauna, as conterminous with 
the Australian shores, does not exist. 

It may be convenient for the student if I sum up the points in 
which Dr. Coppinger's collections have most advanced our knowledge. 
Asteroidea. — Two faunal lists of the Australian Asteroidea have 
been published during the last few years; one by our great authority 
on this subject, Professor Perrier*, of the Jardin des Plantes, the 
other, which, as I imagine, was partly based on it, by the Rev. 
J. E. Tenison- Woods f. It has been difficult so to marshal the 
facts contained in these essays as to be able to render easily 
intelligible the advances now made in our knoAvledge ; this is 
chiefly due to the fact that while M. Perrier (justified, no doubt, by 
the evidence in his hands) distinguished between the fauna of the- 
northern and of the other coasts of Australia, Mr. Woods was pre- 
paring a list which should be of use to the Australian student 
generally. Further than this, the present collection is from the 
northern and the eastern coasts of Australia. 

It is not necessary to give all the steps by which I have worked 
out the question of how far our knowledge of the distribution of 
the Asteroidea is increased by the present collection. Put shortly, 
we find that while Mr. Woods's compilation was of value as giving 
us certain information as to the localities of Tosia ornata, which was 
described by Miiller and Troschel from an unknown habitat, and of 
the Patiria ocelli/era of Gray, the locality of which could only be 
guessed at from the fact of its having been described in the Appendix 
to the Voyage of the ' Fly," Mr. Coppinger's collection enables us 
to fix one locality at least for Anihenea Jlavescens and NepantMa 
belcheri, extends the range of Linckia marmorata from Mauritius to 
Australia, gives more southern stations for Archaster typicus and 
StJlaster belcheri, extends St. incei westward from Cape York to the 
Arafura Sea, and puts in Port Denison as intermediate between 
Cape York and South Australia. 

It may be, perhaps, useful if I point out that definite information 
is still wanting as to the exact habitats of Asterias fungif, ra, 
Authenea acuta, Nectria ocelli/era, Oreaster austrdlis, 0. franklini, 
0. nodulosusX, Tosia astrologorum, and T. aurata. It is hardlv 

* Nouv. Arch, du Mus. (2) i. 
+ Philos. Soc. Adelaide, 1878-9, p. 89. 

\ Since this was written the Trustees have purchased two specimens of 0. 
nodulosus from NAY. Australia. 



176 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

sufficient to say " Mers australes," New Holland, or Australia in 
dealing with a continent which extends over 30 degrees of latitude 
and 40 of longitude, howsoever wide the distribution of the dwellers 
on its shores may he ; nor could it be permitted by one who would 
study a collection of Port-Jackson specimens, and then take up the 
corresponding forms from Port Molle or Torres Straits (cf. Tables 
I.— V. of Distribution). 

Ophiuroidea. — Ophiopinax stellatus, described from Singapore, and 
found by the ' Challenger ' at lat. 11° 37' N., long. 123° 32' E., has 
now been found at Port Molle, Port Denison, and Torres Straits. If 
Oplriothrix fumaria has been correctly identified, this is apparently 
the first time that a definite locality has been ascribed to it ; 0. 
martensi has been shown to be very common in the Australian 
seas ; 0. galatece (from the Nicobars) and 0. punctolimbata (Java) 
have their distribution extended eastwards ; 0. rotata has been ex- 
tended from Mindanao to Thursday Island ; and 0. ciliaris, known 
from the "Indian Ocean," has been seen to appear at Port Jackson. 

If we might with justice attempt any generalization from such 
facts as tbese, we should be led to a belief in the significance of the 
free-swimming larva as affecting the extent of the distribution of 
not-stalked Echinoderms. 

AYith regard generally to the Echinoidea, it may be said that in 
seven cases we have the area of distribution increased : Diadema 
setosum, Scdmacis bicolor, Tcmnopleurus toreumaticus*, T. gramdosus 
have never yet been found on the eastern coast of Australia ; 
Cli/peaster hvmilis and Maretia plamdata have been reported from 
New Caledonia, but not from such a locality as Port Molle or Clair- 
montf. Temnoph wrus bothryoides, found by the 'Challenger' in the 
Arafura Sea and Kobi, Japan, is now known from an interme- 
diate locality. The members of this class bear ample witness to the 
now well-known fact that Indian-Ocean and Pacific specimens in- 
vade largely the Australian seas. 

A question which presented itself to me, but on which I can throw 
but little light by way of answer, might perhaps be formulated thus: 
"What differences are there between the forms of the eastern and 
northern and the western coasts of Australia ? 1 

To the south of the East-Indian islands there lies an area of deep 
sea almost free from islands, and having sweeping across it, in obedi- 
ence to the laws of motion, a current with a south-westerly direction 
from the equator ; this current sweeps, as we know, round the Cape 
of Good Hope, and there comes into contact with the southern con- 

* Mr. Tenison-Woocls reports it from " all the coasts of Australia, but rare 
outside the tropics." 

t But M. plamdata was taken at Port Jackson by tbe ' Challenger ; ' the 
presence of this species in the Australian seas is additionally interesting from 
the fact that a form allied thereto. M. anomala, has been described by Prof. 
Martin Duncan (Q. J. Geol. Soc. xxxiii. p. 52). 

J For Echinoderms, as for Fishes (see Giinther, ' Introd. Study of Fishes,' 
p. 284), the western half of the south coast of Australia is still almost a terra 
incognita. It is earnestly to be hoped that the investigation of this area may 
be soon undertaken. 



ECniNODERMATA. 177 

necting or southern Australian currents, which form probahly the 
northern boundary of the Antarctic circle, and along the lines of 
which some species are now satisfactorily known to be extensively 
distributed*. This south-westerly current leaves on its east the 
western shores of Australia, and it seemed to be interesting to make 
a definite examination of this question : Have the species in extend- 
ing westward along the northern shores of Australia, and thence 
southward, become specially modified in their journey ? 

Interesting as such a discovery would have been, it must be said 
that the view that there might be a fauna special and peculiar to the 
western coast of Australia cannot be in any way sustained either by a 
consideration of the Echiuoidea of the present collection or by a 
general review of the distribution of the Order. 

The voyage of the J Gazelle ' resulted in the discovery at Naturalist 
Channel, or Mermaid Straits, of four of the species noted in our list 
— Salmacis sulcata, Echinometra lucunter, Lovenia elongata, and 
Breynia australasicB ; Salmacis alexandri (globator) is known from 
the west coast ; and all the following species would appear to be 
found on the westerly as well as the easterly coasts of the continent : 
— Goniocidaris geranoides, G. tubaria, Gentrost&phanus rodgersi, 
Amlh/pneustes griseus, A. pallidus, Microcyphus zigzag, Sph&r- 
echinus australasiee, and Echinocardium australe ; or about 25 per 
cent, of the Echinoidea found on other parts of the Australian coast 
have already been found on the western shores, and no species are 
known to be peculiar to them. 

It is, no doubt, reasonable to suppose that the species which are 
widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific will be found on the western 
coast of Australia, and that the more southerly forms will be repre- 
sented by the species of ' Amhhjpneustt -s, Microcyphus, or ffolojmeastes, 
which we are in the habit of regarding as truly " Australian." 
A somewhat similar story is told by the Ophiuroids. 
Till lately fourteen species of Asteroids were known only from 
"Western or South-western Australia ; but Mr. "Woods reports Cidcita 
pentangularis from X.E. Australia, Pentagonaster dubeni from S. 
Australia, and Tosia australis from S. Australia and Tasmania; 
while the present collection enlarges the range of Patiria crassa. 

Although there appeared at one time to be good reason for dis- 
agreeing with Martinf, the present amount and weight of evidence 
in our hands goes to point to the existence of a tropical oceanic 
fauna ; to-day, as in those Tertiary times when a wider sea separated 
the Australian from the Asiatic continent, there are forms whose 
breadth of range is coincident rather with isothermal lines than 
topographical boundaries. 

For the elucidation of the details of this tropical fauna, we may 
look with almost more than confidence to the information afforded 
by the species of Crinoids : here, however, the cabinet naturalist can 
as yet only appeal to the collector. 

* Evidence as to this was given by the earlier collections of the ' Alert ' in 
the Straits of Magellan (see P. Z. S. 1881, pp. 1-141). 
t Notes Leyd. Mus. ii. p. 73 et seq, 

N 



178 



CRUSTACEA. 



BY 



E. J. MIERS. 



The Crustacea collected by Dr. R. Coppinger on the north-western, 
northern, and north-eastern coasts of Australia are very numerous; 
and are interesting not only on account of the large number of new 
or rare species obtained, but also on account of the careful manner 
in which in nearly every instance the nature of the sea-bottom and 
depth of water &c. was recorded. 

Until the publication of Mr. W. A. Has well's comprehensive work 
on the Podophthalmious and Edriophthalmious Crustacea of Aus- 
tralia*, but few systematists had dealt specially with this depart- 
ment of the fauna of this district. 

To the Australian species enumerated by Milne-Edwards in his 
great workf, numerous additions were, however, made by Prof. J. 
D. Dana in the Report on the Crustacea collected by the United 
States Exploring Expedition under Commodore Wilkes £, these 
being, with few exceptions, from the coast of New South Wales. 

In 1856 Dr. J. P. Kinahan § published an account of a small 
collection of marine Decapoda collected by himself at Port Phillip, 
Victoria ; and in 1865 Dr. Hess || gave a systematic account of the 
then known species of Decapoda of Eastern Australia, based upon 
the work of previous authors and a collection from Sydney in the 
Museum of Gottingen. 

In the same year appeared the Report by Prof. Camil Heller on 
the Crustacea collected by the Austrian frigate ' Nbvara'H, whereir 
twenty-four species are enumerated, also from Sydney. Reference 
may also here be made to an account of the Astaeidse of Aus 
tralia (" Ueberblick der neuholliindischen Flusskrebse ") by Dr. von 
Martens **. 

Mr. Haswell's recently published and very useful Catalogue 
which was not received until this Report was considerably advanced 

* ' Catalogue of the Australian Stalk- and Sessile-eyed Crustacea.' Svdnei 
1882. 

t ' His.oire Naturelle de= OrustaceV (1834-40). 
J United States Exploring Expedition, vols. xiii. & xiv., Crustacea (1852-53 
§ Journal of the Royal Dublin Society, vol. i. pt. 3, p. Ill (1856). 
|| Arehiv f. IS'aturgeschichte, xxxi. p. 127 (l80. r >). 
*j ' Reise der osterreichischen Fregatte NoYara,' Crustaceen (1805). 
** Monatsbericht der Akad. Wissensch. Berlin, p. 615 (1868). 



CRUST AC I :\. 179 

contains not only the results of his own previous researches on the 
Australian Stalk- and Sessile-eyed Crustacea (which are to be found 
in a series of papers coniuiunicated to the Linnean Society of New 
South Wales *, wherein a very considerable number of species new 
to science are described and illustrated), but also gathers into a form 
convenient for reference nearly all the work of earlier authors — not 
merely what is contained in the special memoirs referred to above, 
but also the numerous Australian species described and incidentally 
noticed in the publications of A. White, Spence Bate, A. Milne- 
Edwards, and others, or in my own papers. 

In this Catalogue no fewer than 54(3 species of Podophthalmious 
and Edriophthalmious Crustacea are described ; but, large as this 
number may appear, it is necessarily very far from being a complete 
enumeration of the Stalk- and Sessile-eyed Crustacea of this groat 
continent, which presents in its different regions such diverse con- 
ditions of temperature and climate. This will appear from the 
large number of species described in the following pages, which are 
either new to science or not included in the ' Catalogue ' ; and I 
may add that, had time and opportunity allowed, it would have 
been possible to largely add to the list of unrecorded Australian 
species from the rich material accumulated in the National Collection 
alone. 

In the present memoir 203 species and well-marked varieties of 
Crustacea and Pycnogonida are enumerated from the Australian 
seas, besides several which are described or incidentally referred to, 
but which do not belong to the Australian fauna. Eorty-five new 
or undescribed species and ten varieties are described for the first 
time ; while of the total number (193 in all) of species and varieties 
of Australian Podophthalmia and Edriophthalmia noticed in the 
following pages, ninety-six are not included in Mr. Haswell's cata- 
logue. Among the species described as new are several to which 
White applied specific names but never characterized ; these names 
have been, of course, adopted. Besides the new species, several 
hitherto very imperfectly known from the existing descriptions (and 
therefore only to be identified with some uncertainty) have been 
redescribed and illustrated. 

Geographical Distribution. — As regards the geographical range of 
the species, I have not thought it necessary (nor, indeed, would it 
be possible within the limits of this Beport) to give all the hitherto- 
recorded localities, many of them being common and widely-ranging 
Oriental forms which occur (or may occur) on every coast-line 
within the wide Indo-Pacific or Oriental region. Full particulars, 
however, are given of the Australian localities, and many are now 
for the first time recorded on the authority of specimens in the 
British-Museum collection obtained by the naturalists of H.M.SS. 
'Rattlesnake' and 'Herald,' and by the late Messrs. Dring, J. B. 
Jukes, and other gentlemen, by whose zeal and discrimination 
our National Collection has so greatly benefited. In the case 

* Journal of the LiDnean Society of N. S. Wale3, iii.-vi. (1879-82). 



180 



COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 



of the more widely ranging species, I have given (where I have not 
previously done so) the localities whence the British Museum possess 
specimens, which will serve to indicate generally with sufficient 
accuracy the distribution of the species, or, in some cases, the 
lacuncB which yet remain in the series preserved in the National 
Collection. 

"With few exceptions, the species were dredged in comparatively 
shallow water, on which account it is the more remarkable that so 
many novelties were obtained. Of the species already described, a 
largo proportion (more than one third) are widely distributed 
throughout the Oriental or Indo-Pacific regions, from the Mascarene 
Islands (or African coast) on the east, to the Fiji, Samoa, or Sandwich 
islands on the west, while many others are at present known only 
from the Indo-Malayan section of this area, ranging probably from 
the Sea of Bengal to the coasts of China and Japan. 

While the littoral and shallow-water Crustacea which are dis- 
tributed throughout the great Indo-Pacific region are not, as a 
general rule, found beyond the limits of tbis vast area of distribu- 
tion, yet there are a certain number which have a far wider range : 
thus, in the present memoir, Alpheus edwardsii, Alpheus minus, 
Penceus velutiaus, Gonodactylus chiragra, and Caprelhi cequilibra 
are instances of species which are more or less widely distributed 
throughout the Atlantic region, and it is probable that future 
research will largely add to the number of such forms. In regard 
to the Ampbipoda the affinity of the Aus-tralian with the European 
fauna is very remarkable; and among the few species included in 
the present Report mstances(Leucothoespinicarpa,C'aprelln cequilibra) 
occur where I have identified Australian examples with well-known 
European types, while in several other instances the distinctions are 
so slight as to be scarcely of specific importance : hence I must 
qualify the opinion I formerly expressed as to the improbability of 
the species of such widely distant regions ever being actually 
identical *. 

Appended is a list of the principal localities where the specimens 
were dredged, with Dr. Coppinger's notes on the depth of water 
«md nature of the sea-bottom ; the numbers are those attached to 
the several bottles containing the dredgings, and are referred to 
throughout the Pteport. 

List of the Localities. 

Port Jackson. 0—5 fms., February and March 1881 (No. 90) ; 5-7 fms., 

rock and mud, April 1881 (No. 104). 
Port Curtis. 7-11 fms., sand and shells, April 1881 (Nos. 85, 87, 88, 

92) ; beach, April 1881 (No. 96). 
Jr'ercy Island. 0-5 fms., sand and coral (No. 91). 
Port Molle. Beach, sand (No. 95); beach and coral-reef (No. 98); 

beach between tide-marks (No. 103) : 5-12 fms., coral (No. 118) : 

14 fms., rock (No. 93): all in May 1881. 

* Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. b, v. p. 125 (1880), and P.Z. S. p. 62 (1881). 






CRUSTACEA. 181 

Port Denison. 4 fms., rock and sand, May 1881 (Nos. Ill, 122). 

Fitzroy Island. 10 fms., mud and shells, 26th May, L88] (No. 113). 

Flinders, ( 'lairmont. 1] fms., sand and mud, May 1881 (No. 108). 

Off Clairmont. Coral-reef (No. L51). 

Torres Straits. 10 fins., sand ( No. L58). 

Thursday Island, Torres Straits. Mangrove-swamps, June 1881 (No. 

124); land-crabs from holes in the hills, July 1881 (No. I25j ; 

beach, June 1881 (No. 167); .3-4 fms., sand, August 1881 (Nos. 

145,175, 177); 4-5 fms., sand, July 1881 (No. 165) ; 4-6 fms., 

rock and sand, June 1881 (No. 130). 
Friday Island, Torres Straits. Beach, September 1881 (No. 154) ; 10 

fms.. sand, October 1881 (No. 153). 
"Warrior Reef, Torres Straits. Crabs from the interior of pearl-shells, 

August 1881 (No. 137). 
Prince of Wales Channel. 7 fms., sand, September 1881 (Nos. 142, 

169) ; 9 fms., sand, September 1881 (No. 157). 
West Island, Prince of Wales Channel. Beach, coral, September 1881 

(No. 149). 
Arafura Sea, N.W. Australia. 32-36 fms., mud, sand, and shells, 

October 1881 (No. 160). 
Dundas Straits, N. Australia. 17 fms., mud, October 1881 (No. 161). 
Port Darwin, N. Australia. Beach, mud and sand, October 1881 (No. 

176); 7-12 fms., sand and mud, October 1881 (No. 173). 

As "will be seen from the foregoing list, the localities where the 
most abundant opportunities offered for collecting, and where, con- 
sequently, the largest number of species were obtained, are Thursday 
Island in Torres Straits and Ports Curtis and Molle on the Queens- 
land coast ; but the dredgings of most scientific interest are 
unquestionably those made off the north coast in the Arafura Sea, 
and at Port Darwin and in Dundas Straits, not only on account 
of the new and rare species therein obtained, but, also because these 
localities had not previously been explored for Crustacea. The 
dredging in the Arafura Sea was also the only one made in any 
considerable depth of water (32-36 fms.), the next in point of depth 
being that at Dundas Straits, 17 fms. (No. 161). The collection 
was received in two distinct consignments, which are referred to as 
the " first " and " second " collection. 

List of the Species, showing their Geographical Range. 

[N.B. The species and varieties of Podophthalrnia and Edriophthalmia which 
are distinguished by an asterisk are those not included in Mr. Haswell's Cata- 
logue. The species placed within brackets are those which do not form part of 
the collection made by Dr. Coppinger.] 

PODOPHTHALMIA. 

Decapod a. 

Beachytjea. 

Achmis lacertostts, Stimpson. E. and N. Australia (Dundas Sraits). 

* affinis, sp. n. N., N.E., E., and W. Australia. 

Camposcia retusa, Latreille. N., N.E., and W. Australia ; Oriental 
Region. 



182 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

Onemopus aranea, De Haan. X. and N.E. Australia; Japan; Mindoro 

Sen : New Hebrides. 
Mencethius monoceros (Latreille). N., N.E., and W.Australia; Oriental 

Region. 
Huenia proteus, De Haan. N. and X.E. Australia ; Japan; China; 

Philippine Islands. 
Egeria arachnoides (Rumph.). N. and N.E. Australia ; Indian, Malayan, 

and Chinese sea~. 
Choriltbinia gracilipes, Miers. N. and X.E. Australia ; Papua. 
Paramithrax (^Chlorinoides) coppingeri, Ilaswell. X. and E. Australia ; 

Japan. 
* ( ) aculeatus, M.-Edw., var. armatus, n. X. and X.E. Aus- 

trali a (Thursday Island to Port Curtis). 
Hyastenus diacanthus (De Haan). N., X.E., E., and W. Australia ; 

Philippine Islands, Chinese and Japanese Seas. 
(Chonlia) oryx, A. M.-Edwards. X., X.E., and W. Australia ; 

Oriental Region. 
* ( ) planasius (Ad. & White). X.E. Australia; Chinese 

seas. 
( ) convexus, sp. n. X.E. Australia (Port Molle). 



*_ 
Naxia serpulifera, M.-Edwards. X. and W. Australia. 
Schizophrys aspera, M.-Edw. X. Australia ; Oriental Region. 

[* damn (Herbst). W. Australia.] 

*Pseudomicippa ? variant, Miers. X., N.E., and W. Australia. 
Mieippa thalia (Herbst). X., X.E., and W. Australia ; Oriental 
Region. 

* philyra ( Herbst). X., X.E., and W. Australia ; Oriental Region. 

curtispina, Ilaswell. X. and X.E. Australia. 

Paramicippa spinosa (Stimpson). E. Australia. 

Lambrus hngispinns, Miers. X. and X.E. Australia; Shanghai. 

* Icevicarpus, Miers. X.W. Australia (Arafura Sea). 

longimanus (Linn.). X. and X.E. Australia; Oriental Region? 

(Mauritius, Jarau Sea, &c). 

nodosus, Jacq. & Lucas. X., X.E., and W. Australia ; Xew 

Zealand. 

turriger, White. X. and X.W. Australia ; Borneo and Philip- 
pine Islands. 

koplonotus (var. granulosus, Miers). X. and X.E. Australia; 

Ceylon ; Philippines ; Xew Caledonia. 

{Parthenopoides) harpax, Ad. & White. X. and X.E. Australia ; 

China ; Borneo. 

Cryptopodia fomicata (Eabr.). N., N.E., and E. Australia; Indian 
and Malaysian seas; Japan, China. 

spatulifrons, Miers. X., E., and W. Australia. 

Gonatonotus pentagonus, Ad. & White. X. and X.E. Australia ; 

Javan sea ; Borneo. 
Euxanthus hwmii (Lucas). X. and X.E. Australia. 

[* seulptilis, Dana. X.E. Australia; Philippines : Fiji Islands.] 

* tuieretdosus. sp. n. N. Australia (Thursday Island and Warrior 

Reef). 
*Hypocoelu$ punctatus, sp. n. X. Australia (Thursday Island). 
Atergatis floridus, Linn. X., X.E., and W. Australia ; Oriental Re- 
gion. 
Lophozozymus epheliticus, Linn. N.W., X.E., and E. Australia ; Java ; 
Philippines. 
*Galene gratwlata, sp. n. X. Australia (Port Darwin). 
#llalimede? coppingeri, sp. n. N.W. Australia (Arafura Sea). 






CRUSTACEA. 183 

*Actcra riipppllii (Krauss). N. and N.E. Australia ; Oriontal Region 
(from Natal to Red Sea and eastward to Norfolk Island ?). 

* areolata, Dana. N.E. Australia; Sooloo Sea or Balabac Straits. 

*Banareia inconspicua, sp. n. N.Australia (Pert Darwin). 

*Xantlio macgillvrayi, sp. n. N.E. Australia (Port Molle, Port Curtis). 

*Oycloxanthua lineatus, A. M.-Edwards. N.W. and N. Australia; New 
Caledonia and Lifu. 

*Carpilodes venosus, M.-Edwards. N.E. Australia ; Oriental Region. 

Leptodkis exarutus (M.-Edwards). N.E. and W. Australia ; Oriental 
Region. 

* lividus (De Haan). N.E. Australia ; Japan. 

Chlorodins niger (ForskSl). N., N.E., and E. Australia ; Oriental Re- 
gion. 
*CMorodopsis granulatus (Stimpson). N. and N.E. Australia (Port 
Darwin, Port Denison, and Port Molle); Hong Kong; Philip- 
pines ; Singapore. 

Etisus kevimanus, Randall. N.E. and E. Australia ; Oriental Region. 

Etisodes electro, Ilerbst. N.E. Australia; Oriental Region. 

anaglyptics, M.-Edw. N.E. Australia ; Philippine Islands. 

Menippe (MyoHienippe) legiiilloui, A. M.-Edw. N.E. and W. Aus- 
tralia (Port Curtis and Swan River) ; Indian and Indo-Malayan 
seas. 

Pilumnus vespertUio, Fabr. N.W., N., and N.E. to E. Australia; Ori- 
ental Region. 
* pulcher, sp. n. N. Australia (Islands of Torres Straits). 

rufopttnetatus, Stimpson. E. and S. Australia. 

lanatus, Latr. N.E. and E. Australia; Tasmania? East Indies 

(Latr.). 
* scmilanatus, sp. n. N. and E. Australia (Prince of Wales Chan- 
nel, Cape Capricorn, Moreton Bay). 

* semintidus, sp. n. N. and N.E. Australia (Thursday Island, Port 

Denison). 

cursor, A. M.-Edwards ? N.E. Australia ; New Caledonia and 

Samoa Islands. 

* labyrinthicus, sp. n. N. and N.E. Australia (Thursday Island, 

Port Molle). 

? pugilator, A. M.-Edwards ? IS .E. and E. Australia ; Loyalty 

Islands ; Lifu. 

Actumnns setifer (De Haan). N., N.E., and W. (?) Australia ; Oriental 
Region. 

Cryptoc&loma fimbriatum (M.-Edwards ?). N. and N.E. Australia ; 
Java. 

Pilumnopeus serratifrons, Kinahan. E. and S. Australia; New Zea- 
land. 

Ozius guttatus (var. speciosus, Hilgendorf). N.E.Australia; Oriental 
Region. 

Neptunus pelagicus (Linn.). N., N.E., E., and W. Australia; New 
Zealand ; Oriental Region. 

[* armatus, A. M.-Edwards. W. Australia, Shark Bay.] 

* (Amphitrite) hastafoides (Fabricius). N. and N.W. Australia 

(Friday Island, Arafura Sea) ; Indian Ocean, Hong Kong, &c. 

Achelous gramdatus (M.-Edwards). N. and N.E. Australia ; Oriental 
Region. 

* , var. imisphwsus, n. N. Australia (Prince of Wales 

Channel). 
*Thalamita admete (Herbst). N.W., N.E., and E. Australia; Oriental 
Region. 



184- COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

Thaiamita sima, M.-Edwards. N., N.E., ar.d W. Australia; New Zea- 
land ; Oriental Region. 

[* chaptali, Audouin. Red Sea; Ceylon.] 

stimpsonii, A. M. -Edwards. N. and N.E. Australia ; Malaysian 

Islands; Sunday Island : New Caledonia. 

* crenata, Riippell, N. and N.E. Australia (Torres Straits, Port 

Mode, Percy Island); Oriental Region. 
*6oniosoma varieya/inn (Fabricius). N.Australia (Port Darwin) ; S. 
and E. Asian seas ; India to Japan. 

* spiniferum, sp. n. N.E. Australia (Port Molle). 

Nectocarcinus integrifrom (Latr.). N.E., E., aud S. Australia ; Tas- 
mania ; Red Sea?; Oceania. 

* Lwpocyclus rotundatus, Ad. & White. N. and N.E. Australia ; N. 

Borneo. 
*Kruussia nitida, Stimpson. N. Australia (Thursday Island) ; Philip- 
pines ; Japanese and Chinese seas. 
*Tdphusa ( Geotdphum ) crassa ?, M. -Edwards. N. Australia (Thursday 
Island, Cape York); Philippines? 

[* leichardtii, sp. n. ? E. Australia.] 

Gelasitnus signatus, Hess. N.E., E., and W. Australia. 
Ocypoda ceratophthalma (Pallas). N. to E. Australia ; Oriental Re- 
gion; St. Christophers (??). 

huhlii, De Haan. N. and W. Australia ; Oriental Region. 

*Macrophthalmu8 punctulattis, sp. n. E. Australia (Port Jackson). 
*Euphix (Cheenostoma) boscii (Audouin). N.E. Australia (Port Molle) ; 

Oriental Region. 
*Campt&plax cojypingeri, gen. et sp. n. N. Australia (Prince of Wales 
Channel). 
Pseudorhombila vestita (De Haan), var. scxdentata (Haswell) ? N.W. 
Australia (Arafura Sea). 

* mlcatifroiis (Stimpson), var. australiensis, n. N.E. Australia 

(Port Molle). 
*Ceratoplax arcuata, sp. n. N. Australia (Port Darwin). 

* ? Icevis, sp. n. N.W. Australia (Arafura Sea). 

Metopograpsus messor (Forskal). N. to E., N.W., and W. Australia; 

( Iriental Region. 
Chasmaynathus (Paragrapsus) lesvis, Dana. N.E. to S.E. Australia; 
New Zealand. 
*Sesarma bidens, De Haan ? N.E. Australia ; Oriental Region ? 
* , sp. N.E. and E. Australia. 

* Pinnotheres viUosultis, Guerin-Meneville. N. Australia (Warrior Reef, 

Torres Straits) ; Timor. 

Mycteris longkarpus, Latreille. N.W., N. to E., and W. Australia ; 
Tasmania ; Indo-Malaysian and China seas ; New Caledonia. 

Halicarcinus ovatus, Stimpson. N.E., E., and S.W. (?) Australia. 

Leucosia ocettata, Bell. N.E. and N.W. Australia. 

whitei, Bell. N., N.E., and W. Australia 

* craniolaris, L. (Var. leevimana, n.). N.Australia; Indian, Indo- 
Malaysian, and Chinese seas. 

Myra cannata, Bell. N.E.Australia; Celebes; Philippines; Hong 
Kong. 



affihis, Bell. N. and N.E. Australia ; Philippines. 

mammillaris, Bell. N.E. and S. Australia (Port Denison, Ade- 
laide). 

australis, Haswell? N., N.E., and W. Australia. 

Phly.cia rrasxiprs, Bell. N., N.E., and S. Australia. 

lambriformis, Bell. N., N.E., and S. Australia (Port Darwin to 

Bass Straits). 



CRUSTACEA. 1 >•") 

Nursia sinuata, Miers. N.E. and E. Australia. 

[* abbreviata, Bell. E. Australia: MoretoD Bay.] 

Nursilia dentata, Bell. N.W. and N.E. Australia; Oriental Region 
(Fiji Island-, Seychelles). 
*Iphiculua sponyiosus, Ad. & White. N.W. Australia (Arafura Sea); 
Philippine Islands. 
Arcania pulcherrima, Haswell. N.W. to N.E. Australia; Borneo. 
Lithadia scttlj/ta, Haswell. N.W. and N.E. Australia. 
*Oreophorus reticulatus, Ad. & White. N. Australia (Thursday and 
Friday Islands) ; Straits of Sunda : Philippines. 

* front (ilia, sp. u. N.E. Australia (Port Molle). 

Matuta victrix (Fahricius). N. to F. and W. Australia; Oriental 
Region. 

* inermis, sp. n. X. Australia (Islands of Torres Straits). 

Calappa hepatica (Linn.). N.E. to E. Australia (Clairmont Island, 

Trinity Pay, West Hill, Sydney) ; Oriental Region. 
Dorippe durst'///'*, L. N.. N.E.,' N.W., and W. (?) Australia; Oriental 
Region (Zanzibar and Ibo to Japan |. 

* australiensis, sp. n. N.E. and E. Australia (Port Denison and 

Moreton Bay). 

AXOMTTRA. 

Cryptodromia lateralis, Gray. N.E. to S. and W. to N.W. Australia ; 

Tasmania; New Zealand ; Philippines and Japan. 
*Petalomera pidchra, sp. n. N. Australia (Prince of Wales Channel). 
*Paratymulus bituberculatus, Haswell (var. gracilis, n.). N. and N.E. 

Australia. 

* sexspinosus, sp. n. N. Australia (Friday Island). 

*Dio//e>tes rectimanus, sp. n. N. Australia (Prince of Wales Channel). 
*Pagurus imbricatus, M. -Edwards. N. and W. Australia (Thursday 

Island, Shark Bay). 

* hessii, sp. n. N.W. Australia (Arafura Sea). 

*C'/iba>iaritts tceniatus (M. -Edwards). N.E. and W. Australia (Port 

Molle, Shark Bay). 
*Eupa<ittrtis compressipes, sp. n. N.E. Australia (Port Denison). 

* kirkii, sp. n. N.W. Australia (Arafura Sea). 

Petrolisthes japonieus, De Ilaan (var. inermis, Haswell). N.E. and W. 

Australia : seas of China and Japan. 
* lamarchii (Leach). N.E. Australia (Flinders Island, Port Molle); 

Philippine Islands. 
* hasicdli, sp. n. N. and N.E. Australia (Thursday Island, Port 

Curtis) ; Koo-Keang-San. 

[* rtiffosus, M.-Edw. N. Australia ; India, Karachi.] 

* annulipes, White. N. and N.E. Australia (Thursday Island, Port 

Denison, &c.) ; Philippine Islands ; Seychelles. 

? corallieolus (Haswell). N.E. Australia (Port Molle). 

*Polyonyx obesuhis (White, ined.). N. to N.E. Australia (Port Darwin 

to Port Denison) ; Philippine Island-. 
Pachycheles pulchellus (Haswell). N. and N.E. Australia (Thursday 

Island, Albany Island, Holhorn Island, Port Molle). 
*Purcella/ta nitida, Haswell, var. rotundifrons, n. N.W., N., and N.E. 

Australia (Arafura Sea, Port Darwin, Dundas Straits, Friday 

Island, Port Denison). 

dispar, Stirnpson. E. and S.E. Australia. 

* quadrilobata, n. sp. N.E. Australia (Port Denison). 

Galathea australiensis, Stm. N.W. to S.E. Australia (Arafura Sea to 

Port Stephens). 



180 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

Galathea elegans, "White. X. and N.E. Australia ; Borneo; Philippines. 
*Munida spinulifera, sp. n. N.W. Australia (Arafura Sea). 
*Ma8tiffochirus quadnlobatus, Miers. X. Australia (Prince of Wales 

Channel) ; Philippines. 

Ma CRURA. 

*Gebia carinirrwda, Stimpson. N.Australia (Thursday Island, &c.)j 

Hong Kong. 
*Gebiopsis darwinii, sp. n. N. and S.W. Australia (Port Darwin); 

Singapore. 
*A:rius pkctorhynchus, Strahl. N.E. Australia (Port Molle) ; Luzon. 
*Thcdassina anomala (Herbst). N.W. Australia (Nicol Bay) ; N. Aus- 
tralia (Thursday Island) ; Philippines, Borneo, &c. ; Penang; Fiji 
Islands. 
Alphens edwardsii, Audouin. N. to E. Australia (Ports Darwin and 
Essington to Sydney) ; Oriental Begion ; Atlantic Begion (Cape 
Verda ?, W.-American coast from N. Carolina to the Abrolhos, 
Brazil) ; coast of California. 

[* gracilidactylus, sp. n. Fiji and Sandwich Islands.] 

* dbesomanus, Dana. N.E. Australia (Port Molle) ; Fiji Islands ; 

Mauritius. 

* gracilipes, Stimpson. N.E. and S. Australia (Port Molle, Flinders 

Island) ; Corean Channel ; Ceylon ; Tahiti. 

* minus, var. neplunus, Dana. N. and S.E. Australia (Thursday 

Island, Port Jackson) ; Oriental Begion (to Panama). 

comatttlarum, Ilaswell. N. Australia (Albany Island, Thursday 

Island, &c.) : Ceylon ; Singapore. 

villosus, Milne-Edwards. IS. Australia (Warrior Beef, Thursday 

Island). 
*Poi)tu)ii(i (Conchodytes) tridaonce, Peters. N. and N.E. Australia 
(Warrior Beef, Keppell Islands); Fiji and Samoa Islands; 
Djeddah ; Ibo. 
*Earpilins inermis, sp. n. N.E. Australia (Fort Molle) ; W. Australia 
(Shark Bay). 

[* spinvMferus, sp. n. Hub. ?] 

*Anchtstia petitthouarsi, Audouin ? N.E. Australia (Port Molle) ; Oriental 

Begion (Bed Sea to Ousima, Japan). 
*Coralliocan's tridentata, sp. n. N. Australia (Thursday Island). 
Talcemon (Leander) intermedins, Stimpson. E. Australia (Port Jackson, 
Sydney?); Tasmania; S.W. Australia (King George's Sound); 
Fiji Islands. 
Sicyon'ia ocettata, Stimpson. N. to E. Australia (Thursday Island, 

Port Jackson ?) ; Hong Kong ; Ceylon. 
Penmis granulosus, Ilaswell. N. and N.E. Australia (Port Darwin, 
Thursday Island, Darnley Island, Cape Grenville). 

velutinus, Dana. N. Australia (Port Darwin, Thursday Island, 

Albany Island); W. Australia (Shark Bay); Oriental Begion; 
Senegambia (Goree Island) ; West Indies? (St. Thomas?). 
* batei, sp. n. N. Australia (Albany Island). 

Stomatopoda. 

Squilla nepa, Latr. N. to S.E. Australia (Port Darwin to Sydney) ; 

Oriental Region. 
Gonodaetybis chiragra | Fabr.). N. and N.E. Australia (Port Essington 

to Port ^lolle) ; S.W. Australia (Swan River) ; Oriental Begion; 

Mediterranean ; W. Indies ; Brazil ; W. coast of N. America ? 



* 



CRUSTACEA. ]S7 

Gonodactylw graphurus, White (ined.), Miers. N.W. to N.E. Australia 
(Xicol Bay to Tort Curtis) ; Oriental Region. 

EDRIOPHTHALMIA. 

IsOPODA. 

Ligia gattdichaudii, var. audraltensis, Dana. N.E. to E. Australia 

(Port Molle to New South Wales) ; Singapore P Ceylon? 
Ceratuthoa imbricata, Eabr. NYE., S., and W. Australia ! Port Essing- 
ti in, Sydney, Port Jackson, Murray River, Shark Hay); China; 
Madias ; Calcutta : Java ; New Zealand. 
*Cirohuia multidigitata (Dana). N. Australia (Albany Island) ; W. Aus- 
tralia (Swan River); Philippines; Borneo. 

* schiiidtei, sp. n. N.W. Australia (Aral'ura Sea) ; Torres Straits. 

- ienuistylis, sp. n. N. Australia (Prince of Wales Channel). 
— lata, Ilaswell, var. Integra. N. to S.E. Australia (Albany Island 
to Port Stephens). 
*Mocinela orientalis, Schiodte & Meinert. N. to E. Australia (Prince 
of Wales Channel to Moreton Bay) ; Oriental Region (Gulf of 
Suez to Philippines). 
\*JEga meinerti, sp. n. S. Australia, King George's Sound.] 
*Q/modoeea longistylis, sp. n. N.Australia (Thursday Island) ; Singa- 
pore. 
*Cerceis bidentata, M.-Edw. (var. aspericaudata, n.). N. Australia 
(Prince of Wales Channel). 
Cilicaa hdrvillvi, Leach. N. to S.E. Australia (Thursday Island to 
Port Stephens) ; S. Australia (King George's Sound). 

latreUlei (var. crasstcaudata, Ilaswell). N.W. to N.E. Australia 

(Arafura Sea to Ilolborn Island). 

* (var. longispina, n.). Bass's Straits.] 

* antenna/is (White, ined.). W. Australia, Swan River.] 

Haswellia carnea (Ilaswell). E. and S.E. Australia (Port Jackson, 
Port Stephens). 

Anisopoda. 

Paranthura australis, Ilaswell. N. and E. Australia (Dundas Straits, 
Port Jackson). 

Amphipoda. 

Ephippiphora h-oyeri, White. N. to N.E. Australia (Dundas Straits 

to Port Denison) ; Tasmania ; New Zealand ? 
Zeucothoe spinicarpa, Abildgaard (var. commensalis, Ilaswell). N. to S. 

Australia, along E. coast (Thursday Island to Western Port) ; 

Great Britain, Scandinavia, &c. ; Red Sea? 

* brevidacfi/la, sp. n. N. Australia (Thursday Island). 

Melita australis, Ilaswell. N.E. to S. Australia (Port Denison to 

Western Port). 
Mcera ramsayi, Haswell. N. and E. Australia (Prince of Wales 

Channel, Port Jackson). 
rubromaculata (Stni.). N. Australia (Dundas Straits) ; N.E. to 

S.E. Australia (Port Denison to Port Stephens). 

* ? crassimana, sp. n. E. Australia (Port Jackson). 

Megamosra suensis, Haswell. N. and N.E. Australia (Sue Islands, 

Albany Island, Port Denison). 
* thomsoni, sp. n. N. Australia (Albany Island, Prince of Wales 

Channel, Thursday Island). 
Podocerus australis, Haswell. E. Australia (Port Jackson). 



188 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

Caprella cequilihra (Say). E. Australia (Port Jackson) ; New Zealand ; 
Hong Koiifr; Mediterranean; Norway; Britain; E. coast of 
Uniliil States; Brazil. 
* attenuata, Dana? E. Australia (Port Jackson) ; Bio de Janeiro. 

Ostracoda. 

Oypridina albo-maculata, Baird. N. Australia (Port Darwin, Dundas 
Straits) ; W. Australia (Swan River). 

CIEEIPEDIA. 

Balanus trigonus, Darwin. E. Australia (Port Jackson and Sydney) ; 

New Zealand; Malaysian seas; W. coast of America; Peru; 

Columbia; California. 
amaryllis, Darwin. N. to E. Australia (Port Darwin to Moreton 

Bay) ; Philippines ; Malaysian archipelago ; mouth of the Indus. 
Acasta sulcata, Lam. (var. P). N. to E. Australia (Albany Island to 

Moreton Bay) ; S. Australia ; W. Australia (Lamarck). 

PYCXOGONIDA. 

Achelia Icevis, Hodge, var. australiensis, n. E. Australia (Port Jackson). 
PhoxichUidium hoekii, sp. n. N. Australia (Dundas Straits, Thursday 
Island, Prince of Wales Channel). 



DECAPODA. 

BBACHYUEA. 

1. Achseus lacertosus, Stimpson. 

Here is somewhat doubtfully referred a small male specimen from 
Port Jackson (0-5 fms.), which differs from Stimpsoirs diagnosis 
only in the somewhat slenderer merus-joint of the chelipedes, which 
resembles that of A. breviceps, Haswell (a species which Mr. Haswell 
in his latest work regards as synonymous with A. lacertosus), in being 
of a somewhat trigonous form ; the palm or penultimate joint is 
thin-edged along its upper margin, but scarcely carinated. 

The specimen I refer to A. lacertosus also bears some resemblance 
to the European A. cranchii in the absence of a neck-like constriction 
behind the orbits, and in the comparatively short ambulatory legs, the 
dactyli of the last three pairs being rather strongly falciform. In A. 
cranchii, however, the eye-peduncles have a tubercle on their anterior 
margin, the distal end of the merus of the outer maxillipedes is more 
distinctly truncated, and the ambulatory legs are even shorter. 

In the second collection received from Dr. Coppinger are two 
females from Dundas Strait, North Australia (No. 161), which 
scarcely differ, except in the somewhat broader carapace. 

2. Achseus affinis. 

Carapace subtriangular and moderately convex, with the surface 
uneven, but the regions not very distinctly defined ; the postorbital 
region is constricted. The rostrum is moderately prominent, the 



CRUSTACEA. 189 

frontal lobes very small and subacute. On the cardiac region is a 
bilobated prominence, which is usually very much elevated ; there 
is a small angulated prominence on the hepatic regions, and occa- 
sionally one or two granules on tho branchial regions, which are 
not at all convox. Eye-peduncles with a blunt tubercle in the 
mid lie of their anterior margins. The nierus- joints of the outer 
maxillipedes are narrowed and subacute at their distal ends where 
they are articulated with the next joints. The chelipedes (in both 
sexes) arc rather slender; margins of the arm, wrist, and palm 
usually with a few granules or spinules ; merus somewhat trigonous ; 
fingers as long as the palm, and somewhat incurved, with their inner 
margins denticulated, and having between them when closed (in the 
males) a small hiatus at base. The ambulatory legs aro slender, 
filiform, and very much elongated, the second legs being, in an adult 
male, four times as long as the postfrontal portion of the carapace ; 
the dactyli of the two posterior pairs only are distinctly falciform ; 
both chelipedes and ambulatory legs are scantily clothed with long 
hairs. Length of carapace (including rostrum) of an adidt male 
about 5 lines (10-5 millim.), breadth about 3 lines (6 millim.) ; 
length of second leg about 1 inch S lines (42 millim.): an adult 
female has the carapace relatively somewhat broader, length nearly 
5| lines (12 millim.), breadth 4 lines {H-o millim.). 

The bilobated prominence on tho cardiac region and tubcrculated 
eye-peduncles serve to distinguish this species. The cardiac promi- 
nence is much more elevated in the females than in the males in the 
Museum Collection. 

There is an adult male of this species in the first collection received 
from Dr. Coppinger, obtained at Port Denison, Queensland, at a 
depth of 4 fms. (No. Ill) ; also an adult female from Port Jackson, 
5-7 fms. (No. 104), and one from Moreton Bay, Queensland 
(Warwick) ; one from Shark Bay, West Australia (F. M. Rayner, 
H.M.S. ' Herald ') ; and other Australian specimens without special 
indication of locality in the Museum collection. 

In the second consignment made by Dr. Coppinger were an adult 
male and two females from Thursday Island, 3-4 fms. (No. 177) ; 
and a female from Prince of Wales Channel, 7-9 fms. 

3. Camposcia retusa, LatreiUe. 

Several females are retained for the British-Museum collection 
from Thursday Island, 3-4 fms. (Nos. 175-177). It is recorded by 
Mr. Haswell from Cape Grenville and Port Denison. Specimens 
are in the British-Museum collection from Shark Bav, W. Australia 
(F. M. Rayner, H.M.S. ' Herald '). 

There are also specimens in the Museum collection from the 
Philippine Islands, (iuimaras and Bureas(Cw.mi>i(7), and Pijis, Ngau 
(H.M.S. ' Herald ') ; also specimens from the Mauritius (Lad;/ F. 
Cole) are probably not distinct, but are much covered with foreign 
overgrowth. Thus it is widely distributed throughout the Oriental 
Begion. 



190 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

4. Oncinopus aranea. 

De Haan, Faun. Japan., Crust, p. 100, pi. xxix. fig. 2 (d ?)> and 

pi. H (1839). 
Oncinopus neptnnns, Adams $• White, Zool. ' Samarang,' 1 Crust, p. 1, 

pi. ii. tig. 1 (1848). 
Oncinopus subpellucidus, Stimpson, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. p. 221 

(1857 ) ; Haswell, Cat. Australian Stalk- and Sessile-eyed Crust, p. 5 

(1882). 
Oncinopus anirulatus, Ilasiccll, Proc. Linn. Soc, K. S. Wales, iv. 

p. 433 (1880). 

Specimens are in the collection from Port Jackson, 5-7 fms. 
(No. 104), and Port Molle, 14 fms. (No. 93). Besides the above 
specimens the .British-Museum series includes examples from Port 
JacksoD (J. Brazier §c), from Brisbane Water, Queensland (Mac- 
gillivray, H.M.S. ' Battlesnake '), from the Mindoro Sea (A. Adams, 
H.M.S. 'Samarang'), and from the New Hebrides (J.MacgilUvray)* 

Oncinopus subpellucidus, Stimpson, from Port Jackson, only differs 
(according to its author) from O. neptunus in the somewhat smaller 
and slenderer terminal and penultimate joints of the posterior legs, 
and can scarcely be regarded as distinct. Oncinopus araneus of 
De Haan (the species on Avhich the genus was originally founded) 
was regarded by Adams and White as distinct from O. neptunus, on 
account of the much shorter legs, more deeply-incised front, with 
more angulated lobes ; but there is an adult specimen from Port 
Jackson, in Dr. Coppinger's collection, in which the legs are only 
twice as long as the carapace, and quite as robust as in De Haan's 
figure of 0. araneus ; and in a male from Brisbane Water, Queens- 
land, in the Museum collection, the chelipedes have their palms 
dilated, just as in the Japanese species. In consideration of the 
evident variability of the length and robustness of the legs in this 
genus, I have considered it necessary to nnite all the described 
species under De Haan's original designation, O. araneus. 

5. Menaethius monoceros (Latr.). 

A male is in the collection from Port Denison, Queensland, 4 fms. 
(No. 111). I have in a previous Beport* remarked upon the wide 
distribution of this common Oriental species, and for the numerous 
synonyma would refer to A. Milne-Edwards's report on the Crustacea 
of New Caledonia f . 

A female received in Dr. Coppinger's second collection from Prince 
of Wales Channel (No. 109) differs widely in its broader, much more 
strongly tubercnlated carapace from the male from Port Denison ; 
in these particulars it closely resembles specimens from the Mauritius 
in the British-Museum collection. Specimens from Shark Bay, West 
Australia (Sun/eon Bayner, H.M.S. ' Herald ') nearly approach the 
Mauritius specimens in these particulars. 



* Philosoph. Trans. Eoy. Soc. clxviii. p. 485 (1879). 
t Vide Nouv. Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat. viii. p. 252 (187i 



CRUSTACEA. 101 

6. Huenia proteus. 

Be Haan, Faun. Japon., Cr. p. 95, pi. xxiii. fig's. 4,5 3 (elon<jata), 
fig. 6 2 (heraldica), and pi. G (1839); Adams § White, Cr. in 
Voy. ' Samara nr/,' p. 21, pi. iv. ti_rs. 4-7 (1848); Haswell, Pror. 
Linn. Soc. JY. 8. Wales, iv. p. 437 (1880) ; Cat. Austr. Crust, p. 9 
(1882). 

Huenia dehaaui, White, Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 223 (1847). 

Huenia proteus, var. tenuipes, Adams & White, Cr. ' Sanutrang,' p. 22, 
pi. iv. fig. 5 (184- ). 

Huenia proteus, vara, elongata and heraldica, Adams fy Wliitc, t. c. 
p. 21 (1848). 

Among the Crustacea collected by Dr. Coppinger are an adult male 
from Fitzroy Island, Queensland, 10 fms. (Xo. 113); a male and 
female from Port Denison, 4 fms. (Xo. 122) ; and a male from 
Thursday Island, Torres Straits, 4-6 fms. 

From the second collection were retained for the British Museum 
a considerable series from Thursday Island, 3-4 fms. (Xo. 177), a 
female from Prince of Wales Channel (Xo. 142), and four specimens 
from West Island, Torres Straits, 7 fms. 

If the various species of Huenia mentioned above are rightly 
united under the designation H, proteus, it will follow that there 
are but three species, so far as at present known, referable to this 
genus — one, H. proteus, ranging (as Mr. Haswcllhas already shown) 
from Japan and China, southward through the Philippine Islands to 
the coast of Queensland and islands adjacent; another, H. paeifica, 
Miers*, from the Fiji Islands ; and a third, H. grandidieri, A. M.- 
Edwardst, from Zanzibar. It is possible that a larger series would 
show that H. padfica is no more than a marked variety of the very 
variable H. proteus ; it differs, however, from all the specimens of 
that species I have seen in the form of the rostrum, which is not 
only much longer and slenderer, but also much narrower above at 
base. 

The other described species of Huenia belong, as I have shown 
(t. c. pp. 5-6), to other genera. 

7. Egeria arachnoides (Mumph.). 

Here is referred an adult male from Port Molle, 14 fms. (93), a 
locality already mentioned by Mr. Haswell (Cat. p. 12). 

This specimen presents the characters cited by Mr. Haswell (Proc. 
Linn. Soc. X. S. Wales, iv. p. 439) as belonging to the specimens he 
refers to Egeria herbstii — e. g. the orbits are Avidely open above, 
the eye-peduncles are very short and thick, and there is a spine at 
the distal end of the third joint of the ambulatory legs, which, 
however, is very small in the two posterior pairs. These characters 
can, however, hardly be considered of specific importance ; in a 
smaller female from Albany Island, 3-4 fms., and in several 

* Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, iv. p. 5, pi. iv. fig. 3 (1879). 
t Ann. Soc. Entom. France, ser. 4, v. p. 143, pi. iv. fig. 2 (1865). 



192 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

specimens in tho British-Museum collection scarcely any traces 
exist of the meral spines above mentioned. I may add that I 
have observed a considerable degree of variation in the length of 
the rostrum in the large series of specimens of this species in the 
collection of the British Museum. In the type specimen of Egeria 
indie i of Leach in this collection the third joint of the outer maxil- 
lipede does not in reality present any peculiarity of form, nor does 
this specimen differ from ordinary adult examples of the genus. 

1 believe, then, it will be necessary to unite under one specific 
designation the three forms Egeria arachnoides, E. herbstii, and 
A. indica, mentioned by Milne-Edwards*, and that to this species 
the name arachnoides must be applied rather than the Linncan 
designation longipes, because LinnaBus's description of his Cancer 
longipes f differs in several particulars from Egeria arachnoides; 
thus he says " manw ovatai, muricatce" or u scabrw," whereas in 
Egeria arachnoides the hands are always elongated and smooth; 
moreover, in the middle line of the carapace are five (not four) 
tubercles or short spines ; other distinctions might be mentioned. 

Specimens of En ria arachnoides are in the Museum collection 
from the Indian Ocean (Harduricke), Philippine Islands, Zebu 
(Cuming), Shanghai (purchased of Jamrach), Port Curtis. Australia 
(J. Macgillivray), &c. : several other X.E. Australian localities are 
recorded by Mr. Has well. 

The species designated Egeria longipes, M.-Edw., by Adams and 
AVhitei, if correctly characterized, differs from any specimen of the 
genus I have seen in its very much broader, transverse front, and 
may belong to a distinct species. 



8. Chorilibinia gracilipes. 

Miers, Ann. ^ Mar/. Nat. Hist. ser. o. xix. p. 7, pi. iv. fig. 4 (1879); 
Haswell, Proc. Linn. Soc. X. S. Wales, iv. p. 439 (1880) ; Cat. 
Austr. Crust, p. 17 (1882). 

In Dr. Coppinger s first collection two adult females were received 
from Port Molle, 14 fms. (No. 93), and one from Albany Island, 
3-4 fms. (No. 109). In the second collection are a male and female 
from Port Darwin, 7-12 fms. (No. 173). 

The types in the British Museum are from Papua, and Mr. lias- 
well records the occurrence of this species at Cape Grcnville. 



9. Paramithrax ( Chlorinoides ) coppingeri, Haswell. 

An adult female is in the collection from Port Darwin, 12 fms., 
and two small males from Dundas Strait. 17 fms. (No. 1(51). Har- 
well's specimens were from Whitsunday Passage (H.M.S. ' Alert '). 

* Hist. Nat. des Crustaces, i. pp. 291, 292 (1834). 

t Mus. Lud. Ulrici, p. 446 (1764) ; Syst. >~at. ed. xii. p. 1047(1766). 

} Crust, iu Zuol. Yoy. H.M.S. ' Sania'rans,' p. 6 (1848). 



CRUSTACEA. 193 

Other specimens of this species are in the British Museum from 
Morcton Bay (purchased), and from the collection of HALS. 
' Samarang,' without precise indication of locality. 

The spines of the carapace vary considerably in number and 
length ; in an adult female from Moreton Hay the two posterior 
spines of the carapace are absent : in a small male from the same 
locality both are present, although very small ; in Dr. Coppinger's 
specimens one only is developed. In none of the specimens I have 
examined are the spines of the carapace knobbed at the tip. 
These specimens principally differ from Haswcll's description in 
having but a single broad and usually dentated lobe behind the 
three straight, acute, spinous teeth of the upper orbital border, as in 
De Haan's figure of P. longispinus. They are only distinguished 
from P. longispinus by the form of the hands of the chelipcdes, the 
palms (alike in males and females) being slenderer, with the upper 
margins straight, and the fingers straight and meeting along their 
inner edges, which are entire, without spines or tubercles on their 
inner margins. It is not stated if this character exists in the types 
of P. coppingeri; and I am therefore somewhat doubtful if our speci- 
mens belong to that species, which may after all be synonymous 
with P. longispinus. In the latter event the Museum examples 
referred to P. coppingeri would apparently require a distinct 
specific appellation. 



10. Paramithrax ( Chlorinoides ) aculeatus, var. armatus. 
(Plate XYIII. fig. A.) 

I thus designate a series of specimens in the collection which 
apparently approach so nearly the Chorinus aculeatus of Milne- 
Edwards as to render it unadvisable to separate them specifically 
in the absence of figures of C. aculeatus. As Milne-Edwards's 
description * is somewhat brief, I subjoin the following description 
of an adult example in Dr. Coppinger's collection : — 

Carapace more or less pubescent, subpyriform, moderately convex, 
with five spines ai'rangedin a median longitudinal series, of which two 
are situate on the gastric, one on the cardiac, and one on the intestinal 
region, and one on the posterior margin ; there are also two strong and 
outwardly-divergent spines on each of the branchial regions. The 
rostral spines are long, acute, curving outward, and separate! from 
one another, even at their bases, by a distinct interspace ; the upper 
orbital margin has two deep fissures ; the praeocular spine is strong 
and curves upward ; there is also a strong postocular spine, which 
has a tooth on its posterior margin ; posterior to this, on the sides 
of the carapace, is another small spine. On the inferior surface of 
the carapace (on the pterygostomian region^) are three tubercles 
arranged in an oblique line ; and posterior and parallel to these an 
oblique crest, which terminates in a tooth or short spine. There is 
a strong tooth directed downward on the interantennal septum, and 

* Vide Hist. Nat. Crust, i. p. 316 (1834). 



194 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

at the distal end of each basal antennal joint two teeth, whereof one 
is directed downward and one outward. The legs are more or less 
pubescent. The chelipedes are slender ; the arm or merus-joint 
denticulated on its lower surface, and armed above with three or 
four short spines ; the wrist or carpus rather obscurely bicarinatcd ; 
hand (in both sexes) smooth, slender, naked, somewhat compressed, 
and twice as long as broad, or even longer ; ringers straight and 
acute. The ambulator)' legs are of moderate length ; the merus- 
joints usually bear two well-developed distal spines, but one of these 
is occasionally absent ; there is usually a short spine or tubcrclo at 
the distal end of the following joint, which is most distinct in the 
first pair of ambulatory legs ; daetyli slightly curved. Length of 
the largest specimen (an adult female) to base of rostrum about 1^ 
inch (30 mm.), of rostral spines ^ inch (15 mm.), greatest breadth 
rather over -| inch (22 mm.) ; length of first ambulatory leg about 
1| inch (38 mm.). 

There are in the first collection several specimens of both sexes 
from Port Curtis, 7-11 fms. (Nos. 85, 87). In the second collection 
are two males from Thursday Island, 3-4 fms. (Xo. 175). 

The spines of the dorsal surface of the carapace vary considerably 
in length. 

Several of the specimens are more or less thickly covered with an 
overgrowth of Polyzoa and Sertulariaus (Thuiaria and Crisia), and 
with a species of Zoanihus. 

From P. aculeatus, as described by llilne-Edwards, this variety 
is distinguished only by the form of the postocular spine (see fig. A), 
and by the existence (usually) of two spines at the distal end of 
the merus-joints of the ambulatory legs. From the P. halimoides, 
recently described by me, it is distinguished by having two spines 
on each branchial region, the form of the postocular tooth, &c. 
Several other species of this subgenus have been described, none 
of which aro to be confounded with P. (Chlorinoides) aculeatus. 
P. spatulifer, Haswell, a species dredged at Port Stephen, is at 
once distinguished by its bifurcated rostral spines, &c. 



11. Hyastenus diacanthus (De Haan). 

A male and three females of this very common species are retained 
for the collection from Thursday Island, Torres Straits, 3-6 fms. 
(Nos. 130, 175), one was received from Port Denison, another from 
Port Molle, 14 fms. (93), another from Port Curtis, 0-11 fms. 
(92), and another from Port Darwin (12 fms.). As is very usual 
with H. diacanthus, these specimens are more or less covered 
with sponges, &c. 

I have already referred to the synonyma and general distribu- 
tion of this species *. 

In a very small female in the collection, from Port Denison, 

* Proc. Zool. Soc. pp. 19, 26 (1879).; Cat. New-Zeal. Crust, p. 9 (1876). 



CRUSTACEA. 195 

4 fms. (No. 122), length to base of rostrum little over 5 lines 
(11 mm.), and in a small, male from Dundas Straits i Xo. 101), the 
rostral spines are relatively somewhat shorter, and there are only- 
very small tubercles in the place of the lateral epibranchial spines: 
it is not improbably a young example of IF. djacanthus. There 
are specimens presenting very similar characters in the collection 
of the British Museum without definite locality (//.J/X i Samarang ') 
and from Pcnang (India Museum ). 

There are specimens in the British-Museum collection from the 
following points on the Australian coast: — Dunk Island, and lat. 
20° 58' S., long. 14'.)° 12' E., between Cumberland Island and 
Slade Point (J. MacgiUivray, H.M.S. ' Rattlesnake '), Brisbane Water 
(purchased), Moreton Bay (purchased), .Swan Eiver (Bring), 
Shark Bay, "West Australia (Rayner, H.M.S. ' Herald '). 



12. Hyastenus (Chorilia) oryx. 

Hyastenus oryx, A. M.-Edward8, Nouv. Arehiv. Mas. Hist. Nat. viii. 
'p. 250, pi." xiv. fig. 1 (1872) ; HasweU, Proa Linn. Soc. N. S. 
Wale.*, iv. p. 442 (1880) ; Cat. Austr. Crust, p. 20 (1882). 

To this species are referred specimens from several different 
localities ; e. g. from the first collection two males and a female 
from Port Molle — the males obtained between 5 and 14 fms. (Nos. 
93, 118), and the female on the beach (No. 95) ; and a female 
from Port Denison, 4 fms. (No. 122) ; also from the second collec- 
tion a good series from Thursday Island, 3-5 fms. (Nos. 105, 177), 
and Prince of Wales Channel, 7 fms. (No. 109), one female. 

M. A. Milne-Edwards's types were from New Caledonia ; Mr. 
Haswell records this species from Darnley Island, Torres Straits ; 
and there are specimens in the collection of the British Museum 
from Raine's Islet, North-east Australia (J. B. Jukes), Shark Bav, 
"West Australia (Rayner, H.M.S. 'Herald'), and other Austra- 
lian specimens without special indication of locality (Boiverbank) ; 
also from the Philippine Islands, Corregidor (Cuming), and Chinese 
seas (H.M.S. ' Samarang } ). 

In the second part of this Report its occurrence is noted at Provi- 
dence Island, Mascarenes. 

The length of the rostral spines and prominence of the prseocular 
tooth or lobe seems to vary considerably in this species with the age 
of the specimen. I regard the Lepidonaxia dejtlippii of Targioni- 
Tozetti *, founded on a female example, as very possibly a mere 
variety of H. oryx, from which it scarcely differs except in these 
particulars and in the less numerous and prominent tubercles of the 
carapace. Certainly it is congeneric with that species. 

* ' Zoologia della Magenta :' Crostacei, p. 5, pi. i. figs. 4-6, 8, 10, 11 (1877). 

o2 



196 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

13. Hyastenus (Chorilia) planasius. 

Pisa planasia, Adams fy White, Crust, in. Zool. Voij. ' SamarangJ 

p. 9, pi. ii. tigs. 4,5(1*4*). 
Hyastenus planasius, A. M.-Echvards, N. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. viii. 

p. 250(l67i'). 

A small male was obtained at Port Denison with H. oryx 
(No. 122). The original types (and specimens in the Museum 
collection) were from the Chinese seas. 

14. Hyastenus (Chorilia) convexus. (Plate XYIII. fig. B.) 

Carapace subpyriform, somewhat scantily pubescent ; gastric region 
elevated, rounded and convex ; cardiac region also somewhat elevated 
and rounded ; branchial regions with three low rounded promi- 
nences : no lateral epibranchial spine ; the praeocular angle of the 
orbit is prominent, but can scarcely be said to be produced in the 
form of a spine ; there are two spines on the ptcrygostomian 
region, between the lateral margins of the buccal cavity and the 
sides of the carapace. Spines of rostrum slender, nearly straight, 
and strongly divergent. Postabdominal segments distinct. Basal 
antennal joint with a small spine or tooth at its antero-external 
angle. Chelipedcs of male of moderate length : merus or arm 
rather slender and nearly smooth ; wrist with a very small tooth 
on its inner margin ; palm not twice as long as broad, somewhat 
inflated, with a small tubercle on its upper margin ; fingers about 
as long as the palm, arcuated, meeting only toward the apices, 
which are minutely denticulated and acute ; upper finger with a 
tubercle or small tooth on its inner margin near the base ; the 
fingers (when closed) have between them a wide hiatus. Ambu- 
latory legs very slender and smooth : the anterior pair much the 
longest, the three following diminishing successively in length. 
The colour of the single specimen examined is a uniform light 
yellowish brown. Length of carapace a little over 5 lines (11 mm.) ; 
greatest breadth nearly 4 lines (8 mm.) ; length of rostral spine 
a little over 3 lines (7 mm.), of chelipede about 6 lines (nearly 
13 mm.), of first ambulatory leg rather over 10 lines (22 mm.). 

The unique male example was obtained at Port Molle, 14 fms. 
(Ko. 93), and in size and form of the chelipedes is very comparable 
to H. graeilirostris, Miers, from tho Fijis, from which, however, it 
is at once distinguished by the absence of spines on the carapace, 
&c. 

15. Naxia serpulifera, M.-Edw. 

Thursday Island, 4-6 fms. (Xo. 130), two young males (first 
collection). A good series of different ages and of both sexes from 
the same locality has been retained from the second collection (175). 

Specimens are in the British-Museum collection from Shark Bay, 



CKUSTACEA. 197 



West Australia (Rayner, H.M.S. ' Herald '), and from Raffles Bay 
(Mu8. Paris). 

Its occurrence at Port Essington is mentioned by Mr. Haswell. 



16. Schizophrys aspera (M.-Edw.). 

A nearly adult female is iu the collection from Thursday Island, 
3-4 fms. (No. 175). 

Professor Alphonse Milne-Edwards * has united, I believe rightly, 
under the designation S. aspera several so-called " species " de- 
scribed by various authors, and I may refer to his memoir for infor- 
mation on the geographical distribution of this very variable species. 
Nevertheless, it may be found useful to distinguish two or three 
varieties under the different specific names formerly adopted, charac- 
terized by the armature of the carapace, rostrum, and chelipedes. 

The specimen from Thursday Island is referred to the typical 
S. aspera, M.-Edwards (although in it the tooth on the middle of 
the lower orbital margin is obsolete). To the typical form (with 
which S. serratus, White, and S. spiniger, White, may be considered 
identical) are also referred specimens in the Museum collection from 
the lied Sea (?), Mauritius {Lady F. Cole), Madagascar (Rev. Deans 
Cowan), Ceylon (Dr. W. Ondaatje), and Philippine Islands (Cuming), 
and perhaps a very fine adult male from Japan (purchased). 

To the variety spinifrons, A. M.-Edwards, characterized by pos- 
sessing an accessory spinule on each rostral spine, belong specimens 
from Torres Straits (J. B. Jukes), Lizard Island (J. B. Jakes), and 
Fiji Islands, Ngau, Ovalau (H.M.S. ' Herald '). 

I may add that there are in the British-Museum collection speci- 
mens of the very distinct species $. dama (Herbst) from Shark 
Bay and King George's Sound, West Australia (H.M.S. 'Herald'). 
This species is not mentioned in Mr. Haswell's recently published 
Catalogue. 

Kossmann has recently t proposed a very different classification 
of the species of this genus, which he regards as a subgenus of 
Mithrax. He proposes (unnecessarily, as I believe) a new specific 
designation, M. triangularis, for the typical species generally desig- 
nated S. aspera (M.-Edwards). 

17. Pseudomicippa ? varians. 

Pseudoniicippe ? varians, Miers, Ann. 8f Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, iv. 
p. 12, pi. iv. fig. 8 (1879). 

In Dr. Coppinger's first collection a female with ova, from Port 
Denison, 4 fms. (No. Ill), is referable to this species ; in the second 
collection is an adult male and female from Thursday Island, 3-5 

* Nouv. Archiv. Mus. Hist. Naturelle, viii. p. 231, pi. x. fig. 1 (1872). 
t 'Zool. Ergeb. einer Eeise im Kustengeb. des rothen Meeres,' (i.) p. 11 
(1877). 



193 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

fms. (Xos. 165-175). In the female the gastric region is less 
convex than in the type specimens, which are from W. Australia, 
Shark Bay. 

Microhalimus defiexifrons, Haswell (t. c. p. 435, pi. xxv. fig. 2, 
and Catalogue, p. 7, 1882), from Port Jackson, is very nearly allied 
to this species, and may only be a variety of it; it differs, however, 
in the less hairy carapace with fewer tubercles and somewhat more 
robust ambulatory legs, also in having a spine at the antero-extcrnal 
angle of the basal antennal joint (in P. varians there is only a 
small tooth). 

In my original notice of this species, I merely pointed out the 
diagnostic characters distinguishing it from P. tenuipes, A. M.- 
Edwards, which it closely resembles, on which account perhaps 
Mr. Haswell may have omitted to note the affinity of his Micro- 
halimus defiexifrons with both. The diagnosis of the genus Micro- 
Jialimus given by Mr. Haswell is scarcely sufficient for its proper 
identification. 

18. Micippa thalia. 

Caucer thalia, Herbst, Nature/. Krabben u. Krebse, iii. Heft 3, p. 50, 

pi. lviii. fig. 3(1803). 
Paramicippa sexspinigera, White, List Crust. Brit. Mus. p. 9 (1847). 
Micippa thalia, Gerstacker, Arch. f. Naturg. xxii. p. 109 (1856) ; 

Alph. M.-JEd wards, Nouv. Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat. viii. p. 2^8, 

pi. vi. fig. 1 (1872). 
Micippa thalia. var. caledonica, Kossmami, Zool. Ergebn. roth. Meen 

Crust p. 8, pi. iii. tig. 4 (1877). 
Micippa inermis, Haswell, Pr. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, iv. p. 445, 

pi. xxvi. fig. 3 (1880) ; Cat. Austr. Crust, p. 24 (1882). 

A single female in the first collection, from Port Denison, 4 fms. 
(Xo. Ill), is apparently to be referred to this species ; it is of small 
size and densely pubescent. In the second collection is an adult 
female from Thursday Island, 3-4 fms. (Xo. 175). Specimens are in 
the British-Museum collection from Swan Biver (Bring), designated 
by "White P. sexspinigera, and from Pa-tchu-san (H.M.S. ' Sama- 
rang'); they vary somewhat in the length of the spines of the 
dorsal surface of the carapace. 

Micippa inermis, Haswell, from Gloucester Passage, Queensland, 
and Port Denison (H.M.S. 'Alert '), scarcely differs except in the 
uniformly tuberculated carapace, and must, I think, be united with 
M. thalia. 

19. Micippa philyra (Herbst). 

A male and female from Thursday Island, 3-4 fms. (Xo. 175), 
and another male and female from the same locality and depth, but 
larger, in the second collection, are referred here. 

There are specimens in the British-Museum collection dredged 
between Percy Islands and the mainland in 7 fms. (./. Macgillivray, 
H.M.S. ' Rattlesnake *) : Torres Straits (J. B. Juices) : W. Australia, 
Shark Bay (llagncr, H.M.S. ' Herald'); Philippine Islands, Gui- 



CKUSTACEA. I'M) 

maras, Luzon (Cuming), and the Mauritius (Lady F. Cole), besides 
others without special indication of locality. 

In the larger individuals the spines of the lateral margins are 
more developed, and the orbits more open above than in the specimens 
described and well illustrated by A. Milne-Edwards. The Para- 
micippa spatulifrom (Micippa spatulifrons, A. M.-Edw.), to which 
Mr. Haswell refers specimens from Cape Grenville, is principally 
distinguished by the dilated palms of the chelipedes, with fingers 
meeting only at tips ; the lateral margins are not armed with 
prominent spines as in M. superciliosa, Haswell. 



20. Micippa curtispina (Haswell). 

An adult female is in Dr. Coppinger's second collection from 
Thursday Island, 3-4 fms. (No. 175), and a smaller male from 
Prince of Wales Channel, 7-9 fms. 

Haswell's types were from Port Denison. 

This species is very distinctly characterized by the form of the 
rostrum, which is not merely deflexed but curves round so as to be 
inflexed at the apex ; the lateral subapical lobes of the rostrum, 
which are very little prominent and rounded in Mr. Haswell's 
figures, are obsolete in the specimens I have examined. 



21. Paramicippa spinosa (Stimpson). 

Several specimens are in the collection from Port Jackson, 
obtained at depths not exceeding 7 fms. (No. 10-4). There are in 
the collection of the British Museum specimeus from New Zealand 
and Brisbane Water, besides others from Port Jackson. It also 
occurs, according to Mr. Haswell, at Port Stephens. 

The Micippa superciliosa of Haswell (t. c. p. 446, pi. xxvi. fig. 2), 
from Darnley Island, Torres Straits, is an interesting and apparently 
very distinct form, intermediate between this species and the Micippa 
philgra (Herbst). It differs from P. spnnosa in the acute lateral spines 
of the rostrum &c, and from M. philgra in the compressed and 
dilated palms of the chelipedes with fingers which, when closed, 
meet only at the tips, on which account I should be inclined to 
refer it to the genus Paramicippa. 



22. Lambrus longispinus. 

Lambrus longispinus, Miers, Ann. 8f Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, xix. p. 18 

(1879). 
Lambrus spinifer, Haswell, Proc. Lmn. Soc. N. S. Wales, iv. p. 451, 

pi. xxvii. fig. 1 (1880) ; Cat. Austr. Crust, p. 35 (1882). 

Port Molle, 14 fms. (No. 93), eight specimens, males and females ; 
Port Curtis, 11 fms. (No. 87), one male — first collection: both 
localities anticipated by Mr. Haswell. 



200 COLLECTIONS FBOM MELANESIA. 

In the second collection are two males and a female from Thursday 
Island, 3-4 fms. (No. 175), and a small female obtained on the beach 
at Port Darwin (No. 176). 

Nearly all of these specimens present the rostral characters 
attributed by Haswell to his L. spinifer, but in one example of the 
series the lateral teeth of the rostrum are absent. Traces of them, 
as very obscure tubercles, exist in the typical examples of L. longi- 
spinus in the British-Museum collection. 

In some of the specimens the spines of the cardiac and branchial 
regions and of the posterior and postero-lateral margins are much 
more strongly developed than in others. Besides the above men- 
tioned Australian localities, Mr. Haswell records this species from 
Darnley Island, and Cape Grenville. 

23. Lambrus lsevicarpus, Miers. 

Two small males are in Dr. Coppinger's second collection, obtained 
in the Arafura Sea off the N.W. coast of Australia at a depth of 
32-36 fms. (No. 160). They agree in all particulars with the 
typical specimen, without definite locality, in the Museum collection. 

24. Lambrus longimanus (Linn.). 

To this species as I have defined it ('Annals', xix. p. 21, 1879) 
are to be referred an adult male specimen from Flinders, Clairmont, 
obtained at a depth of 11 fms. (No. 108) ; a male and a female from 
Port Molle, 14 fms. (No. 93) ; and a female of large size, with ova, 
from Fitzroy Island, 10 fms. (Xo. 113). 

This species, as I have already noted, ranges from the Mauritius 
through the Indian and Malaysian seas to the North-eastern 
coast of Australia. 

25. Lambrus nodosus (Jacquinot and Lucas). 

A small male in the first collection from Port Denison, 4 fms. 
(No. 122), belongs here. Specimens from the same locality are 
recorded by Mr. Haswell, the original types being from New Zealand. 
In the second collection are a male and a female from Thursday 
Island, 3-4 fms. (Nos. 175-177). 

Small specimens of this species have a considerable resemblance 
to the L. intermedins, described by myself from the Corean seas*, 
where also are perhaps to be referred small specimens from 
Shark Bay, W. Australia (Bayner, H.M.S. 'Herald'), in the British- 
Museum collection, from which L. nodosus is distinguished by the 
prominent and globosely-rounded tubercles of the chelipedcs. In 
L. intermedium the marginal tubercles of the chelipedes are flattened 
and (in the typical specimen) the palms are quite smooth on 
their upper surfaces. Ver) r small granules exist, however, on the 

* Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 30 (1879). 



CRUSTACEA. 201 

upper face of the palms in one (the largest) of the Shark-Bay 
specimens. 

As there are in the British-Museum collection adult examples 
undoubtedly referable to L. nodosus from Shark Bay, collected by 
Lieut. Suckling;, B.N., and presented by W. Wykekam Perry, Esq., 
it is possible that L. intermedins may represent merely a young 
condition of this species. 

2(5. Lambrus turriger, White. 

An adult male and female, in somewhat imperfect condition, are 
in the second collection, from the Arafura Sea, 32—36 fms. (No. 100). 

These specimens aro certainly identical with specimens from the 
Philippine Islands {Cuming) and Borneo (Admiralty), designated 
L. turriger by "White, although in the adult male received from 
Dr. Coppinger the spines of the carapace are considerably longer 
than in the largest of these examples. 

Mr. Haswell mentions the occurrenceof L. turriger at Darnley Island. 

As the description and figure of Adams and White* give an 
inadequate idea of this very remarkable form, I subjoin the following 
description of the principal specific characters, based upon an ex- 
amination of Dr. Coppinger's adult male :— 

The carapace is somewhat rhomboidal, constricted behind the 
orbits ; the front prominent, triangulate, acute and deflexed, with a 
small tooth or tubercle on each side near the base. The carapace 
is armed with long spines, whereof one is situate on the gastric, one 
(very long) on the cardiac, and one (very long) on each branchial 
region ; these spines are vertical ; there is besides a shorter spine 
behind and in front of each of the branchial spines, and two, directed 
obliquely backwards, on the posterior margin of the carapace. The 
chelipedes are very long, more than 4| times as long as the carapace, 
slender, and approaching more nearly to a cylindrical form than in any 
other species I have examined ; the palm is scarcely more dilated 
than the wrist; and both arm, wrist, and palm are closely tuberculated 
both on their upper and under surfaces ; the anterior and posterior 
margins are armed with longer tubercles or short spines, nearly as 
in the figure of Adams and White. In the smaller examples some 
of the shorter spines of the carapace may not be always developed, 
but the four long vertical spines of the gastric, cardiac, and branchial 
regions and the two spines of the posterior margin are always 
distinct. 

27. Lambrus hoplonotus, var. granulosus, Miers. 

Three specimens from Flinders, Clairmont, N.E. Australia, 11 fms. 
(No. 108, first collection), and one from Port Darwin, 12 fms. 
(second collection), agree more nearly with this variety than with any 
other of this protean species, but exhibit a marked approach to var. 
longioculis in the subspiniform tubercles of the gastric, cardiac, and 

* Zoology H.M.S. ' Samarang,' Crustacea, p. 26, pi. v. fig. 2 (1848). 



202 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

branchial regions ; the margins of the rostrum are, however, 
minutely denticulated, and the eyes do not project so much beyond 
the orbits as in the latter-mentioned variety. There can be no doubt 
that the two pass into one another by insensible gradations. 

The range of L. hoplonotus (so far as ascertained) is from Ceylon 
eastward, through the Philippine Islands to the N.E. coast of Aus- 
tralia, whence Mr. Haswell records it from Darnley Island, Cape 
Grcnville, and Port Denison ; also from Albany Island and Port 
Molle (H.M.S. 'Alert'). 

M. A. Milne-Edwards mentions its occurrence at New Caledonia. 

28. Lambrus (Parthenopoides) harpax. 

Lambrus harpax, Ad. 8f White, Zool. ' Samarangj Crust, p. 25, pi. vi. 

fig. 3 (1848) ; Haswell, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, iv. p. 450 

(1880) ; Cat. Austr. Crust, p. 32 (1882). 
? Lambrus (Parthenope) sandrockii, Haswell, t. c. p. 452, pi. xxvii. 

fig. 2 (1880) ; Cat. p. 30 (1882), var. 

An adult female bearing numerous ova is in the first collection 
from Thursday Island, Torres Straits (No. 130), aud a small and 
imperfect male from Port Molle (No. 93) ; also an adult and a smaller 
male from Thursday Island, 3-4 fms. (No. 177) (second collection). 

Mr. Haswell mentions the occurrence of this species at Albany 
Passage (H.M.S. ' Alert '). 

In the adult specimens the depressions separating the branchial 
from the gastric and cardiac regions are wide and deep, and these 
regions are convex and covered with low tubercles ; there is a deep con- 
cavity on the postfrontal region ; the front itself is almost vertically 
detlexed; the margins of tbe carapace are armed with about a dozen 
oblong laminate teeth, which increase in size towards the postero- 
lateral angles, and whose margins are themselves crenulated ; tbe 
postero-lateral marginal spines are large and laciniated (i. e. each 
bearing two or three smaller lateral spines or teeth). The chelipedes 
are robust and more or less tubereulated ; arm strongly dentate on 
its anterior margin and with two or three spines on its posterior 
margin. Palm with a curved longitudinal series of larger rounded 
tubercles on its inner surface ; the tubercles on its outer surface also 
showing a disposition to arrangement in longitudinal series ; its in- 
ferior margin thin-edged and granulated. Pingers dentated on their 
inner margins, upper ringer with a high dentated crest. Ambulatory 
legs compressed ; third, fourth, and fifth joints somewhat cristated. 
above ; in the last pair the crests are more elevated and interrupted, 
and there are two or three spines on the lower margins of these 
joints. Length of the largest specimen (female) about 1 inch 2 
lines (30 millim.), and greatest breadth (not including lateral bran- 
chial spines) about 1 inch 1 line (28 millim.). 

The above description, although not exhaustive, will suffice (when 
compared with that given by Adams and White in their work above 
cited) to indicate the manifold differences between what I regard 
as the adult aud young of this species. A specimen marked as the 



CRUSTACEA. ^o;{ 

type of their description is in the collection of the British Museum, 
and is of very small size (length lines, 12^ millim.) ; surface of the 
carapace nearly smooth, with the regious little prominent and but 
slightly granulated ; a spine on the gastric and cardiac regions and 
a somewhat obscure ridge on the branchial regions; teeth of the 
antero-lateral margins nearly confluent, postero-lateral spines with 
scarcely any traces of lateral teeth &c. Very similar characters are 
exhibited by the small specimen from Port Molle (No. 93). In the 
smaller male from Thursday Island (No. 177) and in two specimens 
from the Australian seas, the largest of which measures about 
10 lines (21 millim.), and which were dredged by Mr. Macgillivray 
during the voyage of II.M.S. ' Rattlesnake,' in 7 fms. between Percy 
Island and the mainland, in lat. 21° 50' S., long. 150° 20' E., there 
is a considerable approach to the larger specimens from Thursday 
Island : in all the spines of the gastric and branchial regions are 
nearly obsolete ; but in two specimens the carapace is nearly smooth, 
in the others it is granulated nearly as in the large specimen from 
Dr. Coppinger's collection, the spines of the postero-lateral angles 
are less prominent and less distinctly laciniated than in that example, 
though bearing distinct traces of lateral teeth. 

I have entered thus fully into the distinctions observable between 
these specimens, because of the great degree of variability that exists 
in many species of Parthenopidas ; no one, I think, comparing two 
specimens at opposite ends of the series would regard them as be- 
longing to one and the same species. 

29. Cryptopodia fornicata (Fabr.). 

Port Curtis, 11 fms. (No. 87), a female, first collection ; Thurs- 
day Island (No. 175), second collection, a young male. Specimens 
are in the British-Museum collection of this common species from the 
Indian Ocean (General tfardwicke) ; Borneo (from the India- Museum 
collection); Philippine Islands, Mindoro (Cuming); Japan (Jam- 
rack) ; Lizard Island (J. Macgillivray); and Moreton Bay ( Warwick). 
Additional Australian localities mentioned by Mr. Haswell are Brook 
Island, Cape Grenville, and Port Denison. 

It was collected in the Chinese seas during the voyage of H.M.S. 
• Samarang.' 

A very small male from Thursday Island (No. 1G5) has the cara- 
pace and under surface of the chelipedes smooth, the gastric de- 
pression shallow, and scarcely any trace of the oblique ridges on 
the branchial regions usually characteristic of C. fornicata. 

30. Cryptopodia spatulifrons, Miers. 

An adult male was received with Dr. Coppinger's second collec- 
tion from Thursday Island, 3-4 fms. (No. 175), and a smaller male 
from Prince of Wales Channel, 7 fms. (No. 169). 

The larger example has the carapace more distinctly and coarsely 
pitted than the typical specimen in the Museum collection from 



204 COLLECTION'S FROM MELANESIA. 

Shark Bay (H.M.S. ' Herald ') ; the enialler specimen, which is 
referable to the variety I have designated Icevimana, is not pitted 
at all, and the carapace is granulated only on the posterior part of 
the cardiac region, on the elevated parts of the branchial regions, 
and on the posterior and postero-lateral margins. 

Mr. Haswell records a variety from Port Jackson which has the 
carapace ornamented with numerous small circular brown spots. In 
the specimens I have examined the carapace is generally uniformly 
pinkish or whitish ; but in the largest male from Thursday Island it 
is whitish, with a few large blotches of brownish pink on the gastric 
and branchial regions and posterior margin. 

31. Gonatonotus pentagonus. 

Gonatonotus pentagonus, Adams $- White, Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 58 
(1847); Zool. H.M.S. ' S^nnarang, 1 Crust, p. 33, pi. vi. ficr. 7 
(1848); Miei-s, Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 29 (1879); Haswell, Proc. 
Linn.' Soc. N. S. Wales, p. 455 (1880); Cat. Austr. Crust, p. 38 
(1882). 

Two very small females are in the collection from Thursday Island, 
4-6 fms. (No. 130), first collection, length little over 3 lines 
(7 millim.) ; and a somewhat larger male from the same locality, 
3-4 fms. (No. 177), second collection. The largest specimen in the 
Museum collection, a male from near Billiton Island, in the Javan 
sea, is about 6 lines (nearly 13 millim.) in length. Mr. Haswell 
records this species from Port Denison ; the typical example of 
Adams and "White was from Borneo. 

Gonatonotus crassimanus of Haswell is a very nearly allied but 
apparently well-characterized species from Port Jackson, differing, 
as its author notes, in its more deeply -cleft rostrum and in other 
points. 

32. Euxanthus huonii (Lucas). 

A male from Clairmont, east coast of Australia, obtained from a 
coral-reef (No. 151), belongs here. 

Mr. Haswell mentions (' Catalogue,' p. 47) its occurrence at Cape 
Grenville. 

M. Alph. Milne-Edwards remarks * that Euxanthus sculptilis, 
Dana, should perhaps not be distinguished from Eu. huonii. If the 
two species are to be united, Dana's specific name will, I believe, 
have priority ; but I prefer to regard them for the present as dis- 
tinct. In Eu. huonii, as described and figured by A. Milne-Edwards, 
and in the specimen of the 'Alert' coDection, the black coloration 
of the fingers extends along the outer surface of the palm ; no trace 
of this is apparent in Dana's figure of his Eu. sculjjtilis, nor in two 
specimens in the British-Museum collection, one of which is from 
the Philippine Islands and designated, I think, by M. A. Milne- 
Edwards Eu. huonii, the other from Trinity Bay, N.E. Australia ; 
both I refer, at least provisionally, to Eu. sculptilis. 

* Nouvelles Archives du Museum, i. p. 291 (1865). 



CRUSTACEA. 205 

33. Euxanthus tuberculosus. (Plate XIX. fig. A.) 

Carapace transverse, moderately convex, everywhere covered with 
numerous closely-set rounded tubercles, which in the adult are 
themselves distinctly puuctulated ; similar tubercles cover the outer 
surface of the -wrist and palm of the chelipcdes and the posterior 
surface of the ambulatory legs ; the cervical suture and the suture 
defining the anterior part of the nasogastric lobe are deep and well 
defined ; the tubercles are smallest, but yet distinct, on the cardiac 
and intestinal regions and posterior and postero-lateral margins ; the 
frontal margin is divided by a rather deep median notch ; the antero- 
lateral margins are divided into four rounded tuberculated lobes, 
the first of which is often scarcely distinguishable. The parts of the 
body immediately below the antcro-lateral margins are granulated, 
but the rest of the inferior surface is nearly smooth, the sternum 
and postabdomen rather coarsely punctulatcd ; the basal antennal 
joint enters (in the adult) well within the inner orbital hiatus ; the 
merus-joiut of the outer maxillipedes is transverse and much shorter 
than the preceding joint. The chelipedes are robust ; the merus or 
arm short, and tuberculated at its upper and distal extremity ; wrist 
and palm (as stated above) closely tuberculated on their upper and 
outer surfaces, the tubercles, even in the adult, somewhat conical 
and acute ; inner margin of the palm having some small granules ; 
fingers shorter than the palm, denticulated on their inner margins, 
and having between them when closed scarcely any hiatus ; mobile 
finger granulated above at base ; both fingers obtuse and rounded at 
apex, or (in the smaller examples especially) even somewhat exca- 
vated. The fourth to sixth joints of the ambulatory legs are com- 
pressed, tuberculated ; the tubercles (of the superior margin 
especially) high, conical, and acute ; the dactyli are small, slender, 
armed with small subspiniform granules, and pubescent distally, with 
a small naked terminal claw. Length of the largest adult example 
(from which the description is taken) 11 lines (23 millim.), greatest 
width nearly 1 inch 4 lines (33 millim.). 

Of this species, an apparently adult but not full-sized male 
and female are in the second collection from Thursday Island 
(Xo. 1G7), obtained on the beach; a young male from the same 
locality (Xo. 177), and another young example from Warrior 
Reef, Torres Straits, 10 fms. (no. 137). There are in the British- 
Museum collection a male from X. Australia (Dr. J. R. Elsey), 
and an adult male from the Australian seas without definite loca- 
lity, from which the description and figure are taken (Dr. J. S. 
Bowerbank). The coloration varies in the different examples, all 
of which are preserved in spirit : the two specimens which have 
been longest in the collection are a chocolate-brown ; the two largest 
specimens in the ' Alert ' collection (Xo. 167) are of a deep purplish 
red, and the two smallest of a bright orange hue. 

As the basal antennal joint enters well within the inner orbital 
hiatus (see fig. «), this species must, I think, be referred to the 
genus Euxanthus, from all the species of which genus known to me 



206 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

it differs in the character of the tuberculation of the carapace and 
legs. In the smaller examples the tubercles are much smaller and 
more acute, and these specimens have much the aspect of certain 
Actcece, e. g. A. granulata, Audouin, and A. carcharias, White ; from 
both of which species they may be distinguished upon the most 
superficial examination by the smoothness of the sternum and post- 
abdomcu. 

A small specimen from Tasmania in the British-Museum collec- 
tion, designated " X. peronii, M.-Edw.," in, I think, Prof. A. 
Milne-Edwards's handwriting, and two from Bass Straits, received 
with fishes of H.M.S. 'Challenger' collection, are intermediate be- 
tween this genus aud Actcea, and are principally distinguished by 
the smooth, more distinctly separated and rounded tubercles of the 
carapace and the longer spines of the ambulatory legs. I believe 
the Xantho spinosus of Hess to be identical with A. peronii. 

Actceodes polyacanthus*, from the Bed Sea, comes very near this 
species, but has five acute antero-lateral marginal teeth, &c. 

Euxantlms maculatus, HasweUt (which is only known to me by 
the author's brief diagnosis), from Darnley Island, differs in the 
form of the teeth of the antero-lateral margins and the existence of 
longitudinal rows of pits on the outer surface of the hands. 

34. Hypocoelus punctatus. (Plate XIX. fig. B.) 

The carapace is transverse, somewhat broader in proportion to its 
length than are specimens of II. sculptus in the Museum collection. 
As in that species it is everywhere strongly lobulated, the lobules 
rounded, convex, and separated by deep intervening grooves, the 
cervical suture being even wider and deeper than the rest ; the lobules 
are rather coarsely punctulated. The front is rather obscurely 
bilobated (besides the rounded lobe over the inner orbital angle) ; the 
antero-lateral margins are strongly arcuated and eristiform, with 
scarcely any indications of any antero-lateral teeth except the last, 
which is small and little prominent ; the postero-lateral margins are 
shorter than the antero-lateral margins and deeply concave. The 
inferior parts of the body are more or less coarsely pitted ; the 
pterygostomian cavity is smaller than in II. sculptus, but rather 
wider than in a specimen of H. granulatus in the Museum collection, 
nearly ovate in outline, and divided along its greatest width by a 
crest running parallel to that part of the antero-lateral margin that 
borders the cavity above. The basal antennal joint enters the inner 
orbital hiatus, but not so deeply as in H. sculptus. The chelipedes 
resemble those of H. sculptus ; the wrist and palm, however, are 
strongly pitted on their upper and outer surfaces, whereas in speci- 
mens of H. sculptus in the Museum collection these pits are absent 
from the wrist and from the upper surface of the palm. Fingers 

* Chlorodius polyacanthus, Heller, Sitz. Akad. Wien, xliii. (i.) p. 339 pi ii 
fig. 21 (1861). 

+ Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, ri. p. 751 (1881); and 'Catalogue,' p. 48 
(1882). 



CRUSTACEA. 207 

nearly as in H. sculptus. The ambulatory legs are slender, with 
the penultimate and antepenultimate joints rugose and pitted. The 
colour (in a spirit-specimen) is reddish upon a yellowish ground. 
Length of carapace 8| lines (18 millim.), breadth about 1 inch 
(25 millim.). 

A single male was obtained at Thursday Island, 3-4 fms. 
(No. 175). 

It may be at once distinguished from Hgpoccelus scutptvs (M..- 
Edwards) and H. granulatus (De Haan) by the crest or ridge 
dividing the cavities of the pterygostomian regions (fig. L). 

The species of this curious genus appear to be rare. I have seen 
no specimens of H. punctatus except the unique type example. Of 
H. scnlptus there are in the Museum three specimens — one from 
the Red Sea (J. Burton), one from the Gulf of Suez (R. MacAndrew), 
and one from the Mauritius. Of H. granulatus there is but one 
specimen, a mutilated male without indication of locality, in the 
national collection. 

35. Atergatis floridus {Linn.). 

Of this very common and widely distributed species five specimens 
(males and females), obtained on a coral-reef at the Clairmont 
Islands, X.E. coast of Australia (Xo. 151), are retained for the British 
Museum. 

Specimens are in the national collection from Port Essington, 
Trinity Bay (J. MacgUUvray, H.M.S. ' Rattlesnake '), and Swan 
River (H. Bring) ; also from Port Xatal (purchased), and from 
the Philippine Islands, Guimaras (H. Cuming) ; Java, Karang- 
bollong, and Amboina (Dr. P. Bleeker) ; Indian Ocean (Old 
Collection) ; Ceylon, Galle (Dr. W. Ondaatje) ; Duke of York 
Island (Bev. G. Brown) ; Sunday Island (J. B. Juices) : Minerva 
Reef (H.M.S. 'Herald'); Fiji Islands, Ovalau, Totoya (H.M.S. 
' Hi raid') ; Samoa Islands, Upolu (Rev. S. J. Whitmee) ; and others 
with less definite indication of locality. 



36. Lophozozymus epheliticns (Linn.). 

Port Molle (Xo. 95). A small male, having the beautiful colora- 
tion usual in this common species, was obtained on the beach. 

Mr. Haswell mentions its occurrence at Cape Grenville (as L. octo- 
dentatus). 

Specimens are in the collection of the British Museum from Xew 
South Wales (G. Krefft) ■ Darnley Island (J. B. Juices); Xicol 
Bay, N.W. Australia (Mr. Dv, Boiday) ; Philippine Islands (Cuming) ; 
Java (BleeTcer Collectioyi) ; and others without definite locality. 

The coloration, both in dry and spirit specimens, is variable ; 
ordinarily carapace and legs are crimson or orange-red with white 
spots, but sometimes the white greatly predominates, and the red 
forms irregular patches and reticulating lines. 



208 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

37. Galene granulata. (Plate XX. fig. A.) 

Carapace narrower in proportion to its length than Galene bispi- 
nosa, Herbst, the whole of the upper surface granulated, the 
granules, however, somewhat unevenly disposed ; the cervical and 
cardiaco-branchial sutures are distinctly defined. In G. bispinosa 
(Herbst) the carapace is granulated only near the lateral margins. 
The two median teeth of the front are distinctly developed, but the 
two lateral teeth (those over the inner orbital hiatus) are obsolete ; 
these teeth are very distinct in Galene bisjiinosa (Herbst). The 
antcro-latcral margins have three distinct tuberculiform teeth ; 
there are but two developed in G. bispinosa ; the palms of the 
chelipedes are granulated over the whole of their outer surface, 
whereas in G. bispinosa the granulations exist only at the base, 
near the articulation with the wrist. 

Of G. granulata there is but one specimen in the collection, a 
small male from Port Darwin, 7-12 fms. (Xo. 173). 

The characters enumerated above, important though they may 
appear, may possibly be found to be dependent on the age and size 
of the specimen, the length of whose carapace is only ok lines 
(11 A millim.), less than one fourth of the length of an adult ex- 
ample of G. bispinosa from Singapore (A. It. Wallace) in the 
Museum collection, and which is the only specimen I have examined; 
but I do not feel justified in uniting the two forms in the absence 
of any specimens with transitional characters. Both the specimens 
of G. bispinosa and of G. granulata are imperfect, that of G. bispi- 
nosa having lost the postabdomen, and that of G. granulata all ex- 
cept one of the ambulatory legs. 

38. Halimede ? coppingeri. (Plate XX. fig. B.) 

In this curious little species the carapace is anteriorly somewhat 
defiexed, with the anterolateral margins somewhat shorter than 
the postero-lateral ; body and legs are alike covered with a close 
velvety pubescence. The sulci defining the regions of the carapace 
are indistinguishable ; the carapace is tuberculated, the tubercles 
rather large, and arranged in rather irregular transverse series. 
The front is divided by a median notch into two rather prominent 
rounded lobes, on either side of which the exterior angles form less 
prominent teeth. The upper orbital margin has a large blunt 
tubercle behind the outer frontal lobes. The antero-lateral margins 
have four very distinct tuberculiform teeth, the first of which is 
situated immediately behind the exterior angle of the orbit. The 
epistoma is transverse, the pterygostomian regions without spines 
or tubercles. The postabdomen in the female has all the segments 
distinct. The eye-peduncles are short and robust ; the antennules 
nearly transversely folded ; the basal antennal joint reaches beyond 
the subfrontal process, and thus enters within the inner orbital 
hiatus ; the two following joints are slender ; the flagellum filiform 
and rather long. The merus-joiut of the outer maxillipedes is, as 



CRUSTACEA. 209 

usual, nearly quadrate, with the anterior margin straight, and has 
the next joint articulated with it at its antcro-intcrnal angle. The 
chelipedes are subequal and moderately robust ; the merus or arm 
short, trigonous, its upper margin distally armed with thrco or four 
teeth ; carpus or wrist very distinctly tuberculated on its upper and 
outer surface ; palm with only three or four tubercles appearing 
through the pubescence at base ; fingers little shorter than the palm, 
pubescent, except at and near the tips, which are acute, regularly 
denticulated, and closing along their inner margins. The ambula- 
tory legs are slender, rather long, and densely pubescent ; the merus- 
joints have a tubercle at their distal, and the carpus-joints one at 
their proximal ends. Colour cinereous grey. Length of the single 
specimen examined (a female) about 3 h lines (nearly 8 milliui.), 
breadth about 4^ lines (nearly 10 millim.). 

This specimen was dredged in the Arafura Sea, at a depth of 
32-36 fms. (No. 100). 

In the structure of the antennae and orbits (see fig. b) this 
species resembles Euxanthus and Liar/ore, but the form of the 
strongly tuberculated and densely hairy carapace seems to preclude 
its being assigned to either of these genera. In these particulars and 
in the slender ambulatory legs it more closely resembles Halimede 
fragifer, De Haan ; and I have accordingly assigned it to the genus 
Halimede, although with some uncertainty, since De Haan in his 
description does not say whether the basal antennal joint enters 
within the inner orbital hiatus or is merely in contact with the sub- 
frontal process ; if the latter, our new species will, I think, have to 
be made the type of a new generic division. 

39. Actaea rtippellii (Krauss). 

To this species must, I think, be referred a small and very hirsute 
female from Port Molle, 14 fms. (No. 93), and a somewhat larger 
female with very prominent and distinctly granulated areolae on 
the carapace, obtained at Port Denisou, 4 fms. (No. 122), first 
collection ; also two small females from Thursday Island, 3-4 fms. 
(No. 177), second collection. 

There are specimens in the British-Museum collection from the 
Mauritius {Old Collection) and Malaysian seas (coll. Dr. Bleeker); 
perhaps also a specimen from Norfolk Island, 23 fms. (H.M.S. 
'■Herald''), belongs here. 

I have already, in my report on the late Dr. Bleeker's Malaysian 
collection*, given the leading references to the synonyma of Aetata 
ruppellii. 

40. Actaea areolata, Dana ? 

To this species are very doubtfully referred several specimens of 
both sexes from Port Molle, obtained either on the beach (Nos. 95, 
103) or at a depth of 14 fms. (No. 93). The largest example mea- 

* Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, v. p. 232 (1880). 



210 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

sures 5 lines (10| millim.) in length, and about 8| lines (18 millim.) 
in breadth. 

In two of these specimens the coloration is reddish brown, with 
the very short pubescence of a brownish hue ; the three others (103) 
are much paler, and the pubescence is of a light hue. 

These specimens agree with Dana's description and figures in 
most particulars, and especially in the very considerable transverse 
width of the carapace, very concave postero-lateral margins, and 
very short pubescence of the carapace, wherein they differ from 
most other species of Actcea : the lobes of the antero-lateral margins 
of the carapace are, however, very indistinct and are themselves 
interrupted ; and the areolae of the upper surface appear to be much 
more strongly defined and separated by deeper furrows than in 
Dana's figure*. His specimens were from the Sooloo Sea or lialabac 
Straits. 

Actcea consobrina of Alphonse Milne-Edwards f is a closely allied 
species from Upolu, which, as far as can be learned from the very 
brief diagnosis, is only distinguished by the lighter coloration and 
4-lobed antero-lateral margins. It may not be distinct from 
A. areolata, or, if distinct, perhaps our specimens should be re- 
ferred to it. 



41. Banareia inconspicua. (Plate XIX. fig. C.) 

Carapace transverse, moderately convex, everywhere clothed 
with rather short hairs, beneath which the surface is granulated ; 
similar hairs cover the upper surface of the legs ; the carapace is 
not lobulated, nor are the interregional sutures visible : the front is 
4-lobed, the lobes small, rounded, and equidistant. The antero- 
lateral margins are longer than the postero-lateral, unevenly gra- 
nulated, with very obscure traces of division into teeth or lobes ; the 
postero-lateral margins are strongly concave. The epistoma is 
almost linear-transverse ; the anterior margin of the buccal cavity 
projects, and is divided by two very distinct fissures. The post- 
abdomen presents nothing remarkable. The antennules are ob- 
liquely folded ; the antennae have a rather stout basal joint, which 
reaches to the infero-lateral angle of the front, and a rather lonf 
•flagellum. The ischium -joint of the outer maxillipedes is but little 
longer than the merus, which is nearly quadrate. The chelipedes 
are nearly smooth and unarmed, without spines or tubercles ; the 
merus or arm is trigonous, its upper and lower margins fringed wi'h 
hairs ; the wrist is clothed with hair on its upper and outer surface 
the angle on its inner surface prominent, but without a tooth or 
spine ; palm also hairy above and on the upper part of its outer sur- 
face, naked on the lower part, where it is punctulated, and granu- 
lated on its lower margin ; fingers nearly as long as the palm, naked 
(except at the base of the upper margin of the mobile finder or 

* U.S. Explor. Erped. xiii Crust, i. p. 162, pi. viii. fig. 1 (1852). 
t Journal Museum Godeffroy, iv. p. 79 (1873). 



CRUSTACEA. 211 

dactyl, where there are a few hairs), acute at their apices, and den- 
ticulated on the inner margins only at base, the margins (in their 
distal half) thin-edged and entire. Ambulatory legs of moderate 
length and rather compressed ; the dactyli very short. Colour (in 
spirit) purplish or fuscous brown. Length a little over 5 lines 
(11 millim.), breadth nearly 8 lines (16£ millim.). 

Two specimens (males) were obtained on the beach at Port 
Darwin (Xo. 176). 

The absence of any distinct lobation of the carapace or of distinct 
antero-lateral marginal teeth is very characteristic of this species, 
which is also distinguished by its quadrilobate front. (See fig. c.) 

I at first referred this species to the genus Actcea, not having 
observed the notches in the front of the endostome*, which in one 
specimen are nearly obliterated. Jn a specimen sent by Mr. 
Haswell from Port Denison, which in its narrower carapace con- 
nects this species with Atergatopsis, these notches are deep and well 
defined. In two specimens in the Museum collection which I refer 
to the typical Banareia armata, A. M.-Edwards (since they agree 
with that species in all particulars except in the notches of the 
endostome), they are nearly obliterated. 

The genus Banareia apparently connects the genera Actcea and 
Atergatopsis, and will have, perhaps, to be united with the latter, 
with which it agrees in the somewhat broader basal antennal joint 
and narrow naked acute finger-tips. 

42. Xantho macgillivrayi. (Plate XX. fig. C.) 

Carapace transverse, of the form usual in this genus, with the 
cervical suture and the depressions separating the prominences of 
the postfrontal, gastric, hepatic, and branchial regions very distinct ; 
these lobules are themselves granulated, the granules being for the 
most part disposed in short transverse raised lines or low ridges, 
which are most prominent on the anterior part of the carapace ; the 
intestinal region is plane and more or less punctulated. The front 
is rather prominent, and (in an adult example) more than one fourth 
the greatest width of the carapace, and is divided by a very slight 
median notch into two truncated lobes, exterior to which on each 
side is a small and less prominent tooth, formed by the inner and 
upper angle of the orbit ; the antero-lateral margins are armed with 
four rather small but acute and well-defined teeth, which increase 
regularly in size from the first to the last ; the subhepatic and ptery- 
gostomian regions and the postero-lateral margins of the carapace 
are granulated. There is a small tooth at the outer and another 
at the inner suborbital angle. The male postabdomen is 5-jointed, 
the third to fifth segments coalescent; that of the female is 7-jointed. 
The eye-peduncles are small, and thickened at their bases. The 
basal antennal joints are in contact with the subfrontal lobes. The 
outer maxillipedes present nothing remarkable, having the ischium- 

* Annales de la Soc. Entoni. cle France, ser. 4, ix. p. 168, pi. viii. (1869). 

p2 



212 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

joint longitudinally canaliculated, and the morus truncated at its 
distal end, and with the antero-external angle little prominent. 
The chelipedes are moderately robust ; merus or arm very short, 
trigonous ; carpus or wrist nearly as large as the merus, with a 
rather prominent tooth on its inner margin, and its upper and outer 
surfaces marked with raised reticulating or anastomosing granulated 
lines or ridges ; palm longer than the wrist, with somewhat similar 
sculpture on the upper surface, which has also two longitudinal de- 
pressions ; on the outer surface the granulations (on the larger 
chelipede) are almost wholly obliterated, but in the smaller cheli- 
pede (which is the left in the two males I have examined) they 
cover the whole of the outer surface ; the inner surface of the palms 
are smooth ; fiugers purplish brown, the coloration not extending 
over any part of the inner or outer surface of the palms. The 
mobile finger is canaliculated above, aud has a very prominent tooth 
on its inner margin at base. Ambulatory legs of moderate length ; 
merus-joints nearly smooth, but with their upper margins thin- 
edged and almost carinated ; the two following joints are roughened, 
and marked on the sides with longitudinal depressions ; terminal 
joints clothed with a dense velvety pubescence. The colour (of spe- 
cimens preserved in spirit) is a pale yellowish brown. Length of 
the carapace of the largest specimen (a male) about 7| Hues 
(16 millim.), greatest width nearly 11 lines (23 millim.). 

A male and female are in the collection from Port Molle, obtained 
on the sandy beach (Kos. 95, 103), and a male of larger size from 
Port Curtis, 7-19 fms. (No. 85). In the female the outer surfaces 
of both palms are vermiculated, and the fingers are pale purplish. 

A male is in the British-Museum collection from Pacing Island, 
Port Curtis, obtained under stones at low water (J. Macgillivray, 
H.M.S. 'Rattlesnake'). 

This species has much the aspect of a Leptodius, and is distin- 
guished from all with which I am acquainted by the armature of 
the carapace and chelipedes. It bears a very considerable resem- 
blance to a species from Marseilles in the Museum collection (Coll. 
Leach), referred by Leach, but wrongly, to Xantho poressa of Olivi*, 
and designated by White (in manuscript) X. confusus, in which, 
however, there are no transverse granulated lines on the carapace, 
which is punctulated anteriorly. I have much pleasure in naming 
it after the late Mr. Macgillivray, by whom a specimen was collected, 
and by whose exertions the carcinological collections of the British 
Museum have been so much benefited. 

X. hirtipes, M.-Edwards, to which is referred a specimen without 
special locality in the Museum collection, has some indications of 
raised lines upon the carapace, but has a much less prominent 
straighter front. 

43. Cycloxanthus lineatus, A. M.-Edw. 
To this species are referred, though with some hesitation, twe 
* 'Zoologia Adriatica,' p. 48, pi. ii. fig. 3 (1792). 



CRTJSTACEA. 213 

females in the second collection, the one obtained at Friday Island, 
Torres Straits, 10 fms. (No. 158), and the other in the Arafura Sea, 
32-30 fms. (No. 160). These specimens are both of very small 
size, one with ova measuring only 2^ lines (5 millim.) in length. 
They differ from M. A. Milne-Edwards's description and figure in 
being (in spirit) of a uniform ashy-grey colour, and in having the' 
surface of the carapace very uneven, well-marked depressions ex- 
isting at the back of the cardiac region and in front of each branchial 
region ; the surface of the body, viewed under the microscope, is 
minutely and very closely granulated, but appears smooth to the 
naked eye. 

Milnc-Edwards's examples are from New Caledonia and Lifu, 
and are much larger, the carapace measuring over half an inch 
(13 millim.) in length. The inequalities of the carapace observable 
in our specimens may very probably disappear as the animal in- 
creases in size ; therefore I do not regard the Australian specimens 
as belonging to a distinct species. 

Ci/clo.vanthus punctatus, Haswell (Catalogue, p. 50), from the 
Paramatta Itiver, seems to be a very distinct form, to judge from 
the brief diagnosis*. 



'B' 



44. Carpilodes venosus, M.-Echv. 

A female from Port Molle (No. 95), obtained on the beach, belongs 
here. 

This specimen (preserved in spirit) is of a deep purplish-red hue, 
and has the sulci defining the areolets of the carapace very distinctly 
defined, and altogether corresponding in arrangement with the 
same sulci in De Haan's figure of his C. obtusus, which is, I believe, 
a mere variety of this species. The length of this example is a 
little over 7 lines (15 millim.), and its greatest width nearly 1 inch 
(25 millim.). 

In a larger female example from the Japanese seas, presented to 
the British Museum by Capt. H. C. St. John, B.N., and received 
since the publication of my report on the Podophthalmia of his 
collection — length of carapace over 10 lines (22 millim.), width 
1 in. 5 lines (36 millim.) — the colour (in spirit) is a lighter orange- 
red, and several of the sulci of the carapace less distinctly defined 
or partially obliterated ; this is no doubt due to the greater age of 
the specimen. 

Stimpsont mentions the occurrence of C. venosus (as Liomera 
obtusa) at Ousima Island in the Japanese seas ; and there is a 
specimen in the British-Museum collection from the Philippine 
Islands, Corregidor {Cuming), designated G. venosus, and others from 
Sir C. Hardy's Island, dredged in 11 fms. {J. B. Juices), &c. Its 
range extends from the Mauritius to New Caledonia. 

* It may be useful here to mention that Panopeus acutidens, Haswell {t. c. 
p. 51, pi. i. fig. 2), is scarcely to be regarded as distinct from Epixanthus den- 
tatus (Panopetis dentatus, Ad. & White), of which there are authentic specimens 
in the British-Museum collection. 

t Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil. p. 31 (1858). 



214 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

The Oriental specimen referred by White (List Crust. Brit. Mus. 
p. 13, 1847) to C. venosus certainly does not belong to this species. 

45. Leptodius exaratus (M.-Edw.). 

Here are referred, at least provisionally, an adult male from Port 
Curtis (No. 95), obtained on the beach, and two smaller specimens 
dredged in 7-11 fms. at the same locality (No. 85), also six speci- 
mens obtained on the beach between tide-marks at Port Molle 
(No. 103). 

The Port-Curtis examples and one from Port Molle (in spirit) 
are of a yellowish-brown or greenish hue ; the five remaining 
examples from the latter-mentioned locality are purplish red, the 
carapace being obscurely punctulated with spots of a similar but 
darker hue. Several of these specimens, in the form of the teeth of 
the antero-lateral margins and in the lesser distinctness of the areo- 
lation of the carapace, resemble L. gracilis (Dana), as do also specimens 
in the British-Museum collection from Australia, the Mauritius, and 
the Fiji and Sandwich Islands ; but these are connected by such 
gradual and insensible gradations with the more convex distinctly- 
areolated and irregularly-toothed specimens referred to L. exaratus, 
that I must regard L. gracilis as very doubtfully distinct. 

Prof. Alphonse Milne-Edwards and others have referred to the 
wide geographical distribution of this common Oriental form*; and 
on this account, and also because of the uncertainty I at present feel 
regarding the true specific limitations of L. exaratus, I think it 
at present needless to refer in detail to the numerous examples in 
the British-Museum collection which belong to it or to closely 
allied types. I may note, however, the occurrence of several 
varieties (as I believe) of this species at Shark Bay, W. Australia 
{H.M.S. 'Herald'). 

46. Leptodius lividus. 

Xantho lividus, De Haan, Faun. Japan., Crust, p. 48, pi. xiii. fig. 6 
(1835). 

Seven small specimens, males and females, are in the collection ; 
the carapace of the largest male measures but 5 lines (nearly 
11 millim.) in length and 8 lines (17 millim.) in width; these 
specimens (in spirit) are of a pale greenish or brownish yellow, and 
agree in all particulars with De Haan's diagnosis, except that the 
chelipedes have their palmar joints (like the wrists) rather coarsely 
granulated or even rugose on the upper and on the upper part of 
the outer surfaces. 

These specimens were obtained on the beach at Flinders Island, 
under stones. 

They are connected by a nearly complete series of intermediate 
forms (such as L. distingendus) with Leptodius exaratus. 

* Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. ix. p. 223 (1873). 



CRUSTACEA. 215 

A complete revision of the genus would be necessary, based upon 
the comparative study of types and of a much larger series of 
specimens than the Museum at present possesses, in order to deter- 
mine the real value of the characters ascribed to several of the 
species, which I think will be shown hereafter to be merely syno- 
nyms of earlier-described forms. (See on this question Kossmann, 
Zool. Ergeb. roth. Meer. pp. 32, 33, 1877.) 

Two very small males obtained on the beach at Thursday Island 
(second collection, No. 167) are apparently intermediate in many 
characters between this genus and Etisodes, which they resemble in 
general appearance. The basal antennal joint enters the inner 
orbital hiatus, but the flagellum is just excluded from it, and the 
carapace is broader than in Etisodes and is shaped as in Leptodius; 
the frontal lobes are truncated, not sinuatcd as in Leptodius lividus; 
the anterior margin straight : there are five distinct acute antero- 
lateral marginal teeth ; the carapace is slightly lobulated and granulated 
anteriorly, plane and smooth posteriorly ; the carpus and palms of 
the chelipedes rugose ; the ambulatory legs somewhat compressed. 
Length of carapace barely 4 lines. 



47. Chlorodius niger (Forslcal). 

A single female of this very common Oriental species was obtained 
at Port Denison in 4 fms. (No. 111). 

A specimen is in the British Museum from Port Jackson {Cuming). 

C. niger ranges from the Red Sea and the Mascarene Islands 
eastward through the Indian Ocean and Malaysian archipelago to 
the islands of the Pacific (Samoa and Sandwich Islands). 

Specimens are in the collection of the British Museum from Egypt 
(Col. J. Burton); the Gulf of Suez (11. Mac Andrew) ; lied Sea, 
Dasdalus Shoal (Lt.-Col. Playfair); El Tor (Major MacDonald); 
Seychelles (Dr. E. P. Wright); Ceylon, Galle (Dr. W. Ondaatje); 
Balabac Straits (Smithsonian Institute, Wilkes Expedition) ; New 
Guinea (Dr. Bleekers Coll.); Philippine Islands, Guimaras (Cuming), 
designated C. hirtipes by Adams and AVhite : Keeling or Cocos 
Islands (Lt. Bumaby, R.N.) ; Samoa Islands, Upolu (Rev. S. J. 
Whitmee), and Sandwich Islands (W.H. Pease). 

Perhaps the Chlorodius rufescens, Targioni-Tozetti *, from Java, 
should be added to the synonyma of this species, from which it is 
distinguished by its author by the longer, more convex carapace, 
with more acute areolae and marginal lateral teeth. MM. A. M.- 
Edwards and De Man have noticed considerable variation in the 
degree of acuteness of the antero-lateral marginal teeth and adjacent 
tubercles in C. niger f . 

* ' Crostacei delta Magenta,' p. 43, pi. iv. figs. 6-8, 10-12, 14, 18 (1877). 
t Vide ' Notes from the Ley den Museum,' ii. p. 174 (1880). 



216 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

48. Chlorodopsis granulatus. (Plate XXI. fig. A.) 

? Pilodius granulatus, Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Set. Philacl. p. 34 

(1858). 

In this little species, which has never been figured, and is only 
known by Stimpson's brief diagnosis, the carapace is transverse, 
rather depressed, and very distinctly lobulated on its upper surface; 
the lobules or areolets granulated, covered with a close velvety 
pubescence, and separated one from another b}' naked interspaces ; 
the antero-lateral margins have four distinct spiniform teeth, near 
to which are one or two minute spinules or granules, there being no 
tooth or spine at the outer orbital angle ; the front is rather broad, 
projects but little, and is divided by a median incision into two 
rounded lobes, which are separated by a wider sinus from the outer 
frontal angles, which are in contact with the basal antennal joints ; 
the orbital margins are entire. The male postabdomen is 5- or 6- 
jointed, two or three of the intermediate joints being coalescent. 
The basal antennal joint is robust, and its outer and distal angle 
enters the inner orbital hiatus, from which the flagellum is just 
excluded ; the merus-joint of the outer maxillipedes is truncated at 
its distal end. Chelipedes moderately robust ; merus or arm short, 
trigonous and unarmed ; wrist and palm covered externally with 
small granules, wrist with one or sometimes two acute teeth on its 
inner margin ; fingers as long or nearly as long as the palm, the 
mobile finger with two longitudinal series of acute granules on its 
upper margin ; the fingers are regularly denticulated on their 
inner margins, and have between them scarcely any interspace when 
closed. The ambulatory legs are compressed, without spinules, but 
have a series of minute denticules on the upper margins of the 
merus-joints only. Colour (in spirit) light yellowish brown, fingers 
a much deeper brown ; this coloration extends also over a great 
part of the inner and outer surfaces of the palm. The areolets of 
the carapace, pterygostomian regions, and legs are pubescent ; the 
ambulatory legs clothed on their margins with longer hairs. Length 
of the largest male rather over 4 lines (9 millim.), greatest breadth 
6 lines (nearly 13 millim.). 

A specimen is in the collection from Port Denison, 4 fms. (Xo. Ill), 
and four were collected on the beach at Port Molle (Xos. 95, 103). 
Stimpson's specimens were from Hong Kong. 

In another male from Port Molle (No. 103) the carapace is nearly 
naked and the fingers black ; this coloration forming also a broad 
black cincture covering the greater part of the inner and outer 
surface of the palms. 

In a male in the second collection, obtained on the beach at Port 
Darwin (Xo. 176), which is probably no more than a variety of this 
species, the fingers are pinkish and scarcely differ in coloration 
from the rest of the palm, and have between them (when closed) a 
wider hiatus ; the palm also is slenderer than in the other males I 
have examined. (See fig. «'.) 

Chlorodopsis granulatus is evidently very nearly allied to G. me- 



CRUSTACEA. 217 

lanochirus, A. M.-Edwards* ; but the spiniform teeth of the antero- 
lateral margins are much more prominent, the anterior margin of 
the merus of the chelipedes is not tuberculated, the ambulatory legs 
not spinulose. In a specimen from the Philippines (Cumin//) that 
I refer to C. melanochirus, in the British Must urn, the hands of the 
chelipedes in the male are much more robust, and the merus and 
two following joints of the ambulatory legs strongly spinulose, not 
only on the outer margins, but also on the posterior surface. From 
most of the other species of this genus it is distinguished either by 
the different coloration of the hands (fig. a) and the form of the 
antero-lateral marginal teeth, or the absenco of spinules on the 
ambulatory legs. 

Chlorodopsis areolatus (Milne-Edwards), a species originally de- 
scribed from Xew Holland, and referred to in the second part of 
this Report, is easily distinguishable by the form of the frontal lobes 
and antero-lateral marginal teeth. 



49. Etisus laevimanus, Randall. 

A male of this very common Oriental species was obtained at 
Port Molle, on the beach (Xo. 95). 

Mr. Haswell records it from Holborn Island, near Port Denison. 

The British-Museum collection includes specimens from Trinity 
Bay and Pacing Island, Port Curtis (J. Macgillivray, H.M.S. 'Battle- 
snake'); Morcton Bay {purchased of Warwick); Torres Straits 
(J. B. Juices) ; Blackwood Bay (J. B. Jules) ; Singapore (purchased) ; 
Fiji Islands, Yanua-Levu, Bau (Rayner, H.M.S. * Herald ') ; New 
Hebrides (J. Macgillivray) ; Samoa Islands (Rev. 8. J. Whitmee) ; 
also specimens without locality designated E. macrodactylus. 

Dr. F. Hilgendorff has already referred to the synonyma of 
E. Icevimanus, which ranges in a westerly direction to the Red Sea 
and Mozambique. 



50. Etisodes electra. 

? Cancer electra, Herbst, Natwrg. Krabben u. Krebse, iii. (2) p. 34, 

pi. xli.fig. 6(1801). 
? Cancer metis, Herbst, t. c. p. 36, pi. liv. fig. 3 (1801). 
Etisus metis, White, List Crust. Brit. Mm. p. 126 (1847). 
Etisodes frontalis, Buna, Proc. Acad. Nat. <S«. Philad. p. 77 (1852) ; 

U.S. Expl. Exped. xiii. Cr. i. p. It", pi. ix. fig. 3 (1852) ; Haswell, 

Cat. Austr. Crust, p. 56 (1882). 
Etisodes rugosus, Lucas, Crustaces in Voyage au Pole Sud, iii. p. 33, 

pl. iv. fig. 2 (1853). 
Chlorodius dentifrons, Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. p. 34 

(1858). 



* Nouv. Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat. ix. p. 228, pl. viii. fig. 5 (1873). 
t Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 791 (1878). 



218 



COLLECTIONS FEOiT MELANESIA. 



Etisodes sculptilis, Heller, Sitz. Akad. Wicn, Math.-nat. Klasse, xliii. 

(i.) p. .'!•'!•'! i l>ii] ) : A. M.-Edivards, Noav. Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat. 

ix. p. 236, pi. ix. fig. 2 (1873). 
Chlorodius samoensis, Miers, Ann. <§* Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, xvi. 

p. 341 (1875). 

A small female was obtained on a coral-reef off Clairmont 
(No. 151). 

Mr. Haswell records it from Holborn Island (as E. frontalis). 
In the British-Museum collection are specimens from the Gulf of 
Suez (R. MaeAndrew) ; Philippines {Cuming); Samoa Islands (Rev. 
S.J. Whitmee, types of Chlorodius samoensis); Sandwich Islands 
(W. H. Pease); and others without special locality. 

In this very variable species the front is usually 4-lobed (without 
including the inner orbital angle), but sometimes the submedian 
incisions are so shallow that the lateral lobes are scarcely defined ; it 
also varies much in the distinctness of the areolation of the carapace 
and the granulation of the chelipedes. I have little doubt, however, 
that all the forms referred to in the synonynrical citations given 
above are varieties of one widely distributed Indo-Pacific species. 

51. Etisodes anaglyptus (M.-Edw.). 

An adult female from Clairmont, obtained on a coral-reef (No. 
, 151), belongs here. 

This specimen certainly belongs to the same species as do two 
specimens in the British-Museum collection from the Philippine 
Islands (Cuming), referred by "White to E. anaglyptus : but these all 
differ from Milne-Edwards's figure in the large illustrated edition of 
Cuvier* in having the frontal lobes divided by a deeper median 
fissure, and these lobes are themselves not merely truncated but also 
have the distal ends slightly convex, and the teeth of the antero- 
lateral margins are somewhat more conical and acute than in that 
figure. I may add that the lobules of the carapace have a few 
scattered punctulations, the tuberculation on the outer surface of 
the hands shows a disposition to arrangement in longitudinal series, 
and the black coloration of the fingers in the male extends over the 
inner and outer surface of the palms. 

52. Menippe ( Myomenippe) legouilloui, A. M.-Edw. 

Several specimens are in the collection from Port Curtis, obtained 
either on the beach (Nos. 88, 96) or dredged at 7-11 fms. (No. 85). 
Length of the largest specimen about 1 inch 7 lines (40 millim.), 
greatest breadth about 2 in. 3 lines (57 millim.). In the smaller 
specimens the distinctions between the median and the rest of the 
frontal teeth are much less marked than in the full-sized example. 

In the British-Museum collection there are, besides, only a 
specimen from Swan Paver, and another from the Malaysian seas, 

* ' Kegne Animal,' CrustactSs, Atlas, pi. xi. fig. 4. 



I 









CRUSTACEA. 219 

without definite locality, from the collection of the late Dr. Bleeker, 
and already referred to in my report on that collection. 

53. Pilumnus vespertilio ( Fabr.). 

Five specimens •were collected on the heach at Tort Mollo (X os. 95, 
103) (first collection). Prom the second collection are retained a 
female from Thursday-Island heach (No. 107), a male from a 
coral-reef at Clairmont (No. 151), a female from West Island, 
Prince of Wales Channel (No. 149), and a small female from Dundas 
Straits, N.W. Australia, 17fms. (Xo. 101). In nearly all the hairs 
with which the carapace is clothed are of a cinereous colour. Hess 
mentions its occurrence at Sydney. It is said hy Mr. Haswell to 
be common in Australia on coral-reefs. 

A very large series of specimens of this widely distributed species 
is in the Museum collection, from the following localities : — Mau- 
ritius (Old Collection); Seychelles (Dr. E. P. Wright)', Java (coll. 
Dr. Bleeker) ; Timor Laut (H. 0. Forbes) ; N.W. coast of Australia, 
Nicol Hay (Mr. du Boulay) ; Madjica-Sima group (S.M.S. 'Sama- 
ran<j,' types of P. ursulus) ; Philippine Islands, Siquijor (Cuming) ; 
Cumberland Island, Sir C. Hardy's Island (J. B. Jukes) ; New 
Zealand (Dr. A. Sinclair, R.N.) ; Fiji Islands, Yanua Levu, Bau 
(H.M.S. ' Herald ') ; Samoa Islands, Upolu, &c. (Rev. S. J. Whitmee) ; 
New Hebrides (J. Macgillivray) ; besides others without definite or 
well-authenticated localities. 

I have in my report on the late Dr. Blocker's collection of 
Malaysian Crustacea given the principal references to the synonyma 
of this species. 

54. Pilumnus pulcher. (Plate XXII. fig. A.) 

In this species the carapace is regularly convex and somewhat 
orbiculate, the antero-lateral margins being as long as the postero- 
lateral and regularly arcuate ; the upper surface of the body and 
legs is rather thinly clothed with very long fulvous hairs, beneath 
which the carapace is granulated ; the median frontal lobes are 
very prominent, deflexed, and divided by a very narrow (or closed) 
median fissure ; the orbital margins are denticulated ; between each 
of the four principal spines of the antero-lateral margins are three 
or four scarcely smaller spinules. The pterygostomian regions are 
smooth ; the sternum coarsely punctated. All the segments of the 
postabdomen distinct in both sexes. The basal antennal joints are 
robust and reach to the subfrontal processes ; the merus-joints of 
the outer maxillipedes small and smooth. The chelipedes are mode- 
rately robust, and in the specimens examined nearly of equal size ; 
arm short, trigonous, smooth, with a strong spine near the distal 
end of its upper margin ; wrist granulated externally, with only a 
small spinule near the distal end of its inner margin ; palm with 
three spines on its upper margin (see fig. a), its outer surface 
strongly tuberculated, the tubercles arranged in longitudinal series, 



220 COLLECTIONS EROJI MELANESIA. 

largest near the base of the lower (immobile) finger ; fingers brown, 
the coloration not extending over the inner or outer surface of the 
hands, inner margins rather obscurely but regularly denticulated, 
apices acute ; ambulatory legs rather long for a species of the genus. 
Length of the carapace of the largest male nearly 11 lines (23millim.), 
breadth 1 inch \ Hue (27 millim.). 

There is in Dr. Coppinger's collection a small female from Warrior 
Keef, Torres Straits, aud a yet smaller male from Albany Island, 
3-4 fms. ; also in the second collection an adult male from Thurs- 
day Island, 3-4 fms. (No. 177). In the Museum collection is 
an adult male from Torres Straits (Mr. McFarlane). I cannot 
identify this species with any of the Australian forms described 
by Mr. II as well. 

Prom the Pilumnus bleeJceri, recently described by me *, which 
inhabits New Guinea, and which this species somewhat resembles 
in external appearance, it is distinguished by the much narrower 
fissure of the front, different spinulation of the antero-lateral 
margins, and the three spines on the upper surface of the palms of 
the chelipcdes. 

In Pilumnus vestitus, Haswell (Cat. p. 68), from Port Jackson 
and Port Stephens, which has the carapace covered with stiff yellow 
hairs as in P. pulcher, the surface is not granulated, and the spinu- 
lation of the carapace and chelipedes is different. 

55. Pilumnus rufopunctatus, Stimpson. 

Three specimens (two males and a female) were obtained at Port 
Jackson, 5-7 fms. (No. 1 04). 

Mr. Haswell records it from Port Stephens and "Western Port. 

It nearly resembles the following species (P. lanatus), which 
occurred with it, but is distinguished by the granulations of the 
chelipedes extending over the whole of the outer surface of the 
hand, and the tuberculation of the carapace, which, however, seems 
to be a variable character, &c. 

Possibly the P. rufopunctatus of Stimpson is itself to be identified 
with P. tomentosus of Milne-Edwards. This is a point which cannot 
be satisfactorily determined from the very brief diagnosis of the 
latter author. 

56. Pilumnus lanatus, Latreille ? (Plate XXI. fig. P.) 

As the P. lanatus has been only very briefly described, and the 
identification of this species must be regarded as uncertain, I append 
the following detailed description : — 

In the specimens I thus designate the carapace is moderately 
convex, of the usual shape, and, as well as the legs, is covered with 
a short dense brown pubescence, which is absent in great measure 
from the inferior surface of the body and from the anterior and 

* Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, v. p. 235 (1880). 



CRUSTACEA. 221 

lower surfaces of the hands ; the front is moderately deflexed, and is 
divided by a median notch into two rounded lobes ; the antero-lateral 
margins arc somewhat shorter than the postero-lateral, with only 
the three posterior teeth distinct, these are small and spiniform. 
The orbits are tubsrculated on their margins, but without any dis- 
tinct spinules ; the inner suborbital angle is rather prominent. All 
the postabdominal segments are distinct in both sexes. The basal 
antcnnal joint apparently docs not reach to the front: the merus- 
joint of the outer maxillipedea is short and transverse; the cheli- 
pedes in the male have the merus-joint short and trigonous, with a 
tooth near the distal end of its upper margin ; carpus and palm 
granulated on their outer surface, but the granules for the most 
part concealed by the pubescence ; there is a small tuberculiform or 
subspiniform tooth on the inner margin of the carpus or wrist : the 
hand (for so small a species) is large, its inner surface naked, smooth, 
and polished, and the granulations usually obsolete on the naked 
part of the outer surface in the larger chelipede ; the fingers are 
chocolate-brown, the coloration not extending over any part of the 
palm, and the upper finger has scarcely any traces of teeth on its 
inner margin. The ambulatory legs are closely pubescent. Length 
of the largest male in the collection a little over 4| lines (10 millim.), 
breadth about 6| lines (14 millim.) ; length of largest chelipede 
about 10| lines (2~2 millim.). 

Ten specimens are in the collection, from Port Jackson, 5-7 fins. 
(No. KH). 

Either the right or the left chelipede may be the larger in the 
male Occasionally the granulations of the hands are distinct even 
upon the naked part of the outer surface ; there are several females 
in the series of very small size, yet bearing ova. 

There is in the British-Museum collection a specimen from Percy 
Island (H.3I.S. ' Herald '). Possibly also a small male from Tas- 
mania (B. Gunn) is to be referred here. 

Finally, there are in Dr. Coppinger's collection a series of very 

small specimens from Port Denison, 4 fms. (Xo. Ill), of much 

paler colour than those collected at Port Jackson, and two from 

Port Curtis, 11 fms. (Xo. 87), which perhaps belong to this species. 

This species bears some resemblance to P. Jtirsutas, Stimpson, 

which Mr. Haswell records from Port Jackson, but differs (in the 

adult at least) in the close brown pubescence, and in having a series of 

tubercles or small spines on the carpus (not merus) of the ambulatory 

legs. In the specimens from the Japanese or Corean seas referred 

to P. hirsutus in the Museum collection there is but a single spinule 

at the distal end of the carpus of these legs. Pilumnus Jissifrons, 

Stimpson, from Port Jackson, differs in having the carapace 

distinctly areolated and the antero-lateral marginal teeth normally 

developed. 

If our specimens should prove to belong to an undescribed species, 
I would propose for them the name of P. humilis. 



222 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

57. Pilumnus semilaiiatus. (Plate XXII. fig. B.) 

The carapace is not very convex ; a few granules exist near the 
antero-lateral teeth ; its anterior part (i. e. the frontal and post- 
frontal regions and parts adjacent to the antero-lateral margins) is 
clothed with longish hairs, which are altogether absent from the 
gastric, cardiac, and branchial regions, which are nearly plain and 
smooth ; the cervical suture only is distinct in some specimens ; 
the frontal lobes are scarcely defined by a median notch, and are 
very little prominent ; the antero-lateral margins much shorter 
than the postero-lateral, and armed with three teeth, the first of 
which is blunt and is itself crenulated, the second dentiform, and 
the third very small ; no tooth exists at the exterior angle of the 
orbit, but immediately behind it are sometimes one or two small 
granules ; the orbital margins are rather obscurely denticulated ; 
tbe pterygostomian regions nearly smooth ; all the postabdominal 
segments are distinct; the basal antennal joint barely reaches to 
the subfrontal process ; the merus-joint of the outer maxillipedes is 
nearly quadrate. The chelipedes are of moderate size ; arm with a 
small spine near the distal end of its upper margin; wrist granu- 
lated externally, the granules inconspicuous, and with a small spine 
on its inner margin ; palm also granulated above and externally, tbe 
granules large and showing a tendency to disposition in longitudinal 
series, and becoming more crowded toward the lower margin ; fingers 
brownish, the coloration not extending over the palm : legs slender 
and proportionately rather long. Length of the largest perfect 
specimen rather over 4 lines (9 millim.), breadth 5 lines (nearly 
11 millim.). 

Three small specimens (a male and two females) are in the 
first collection, but unfortunately without definite locality ; the label 
with particulars respecting habitat (if there existed any) was lost 
when the bottle (Xo. 123) came into my hands. In the second 
collection two males from Prince of Wales Channel, 7-9 fms. 

Either the left or the right hand may be the larger. 

There are in the collection of the British Museum a male and a 
female specimen preserved dry, and collected by Mr. J. Macgillivray 
(H.M.S. 'Rattlesnake ') off Cape Capricorn, in 15 fathoms, on a muddy, 
sandy, and shelly bottom, that I refer to this species ; also an adult 
male from Moreton Bay (piirchased). The coloration of Dr. Cop- 
pinger's spirit-specimens is purplish, that of the dry examples reddish 
brown. 

This species bears some slight resemblance to P. monilifera, Has- 
well, from Tasmania (vide Cat. p. (35, pi. i. fig. 3), which, however, 
has the carapace and limbs covered with a short close pubescence, 
and the front much more deeply incised, the carapace more granu- 
lated. 

58. Pilumnus seminudus. (Plate XXI. fig. C.) 

This species resembles the foregoing in having the gastric, cardiac, 
and branchial regions of the carapace smooth and naked ; but it may 



CRUSTACEA. 223 

be at once distinguished by the following characters : — The carapace 
is broader in proportion to its length, and its anterior parts clothed 
with a close velvety pubescence, which also extends over the upper 
and outer surface of the wrist and palm of the chelipedes ; the two 
posterior teeth of the antero-lateral margins are more distinctly 
spiniform, the basal antennal joint does not nearly reach to the sub- 
frontal process ; the granulations of the wrist and palm are much 
more inconspicuous, those of the outer surface of the palm appear, 
through the pubescence, to be arranged in four distinct longitudinal 
series (fig. c) ; the ambulatory legs are slenderer. 

Colour (in spirit) purplish brown, hairs cinereous. Length of the 
largest specimen, a female, about 5| lines (nearly 12 millim.), 
breadth about 7g lines (16 millim.). 

There is a male in the first collection from Port Donison, 4 fins. 
(No. Ill), and a female in the second collection from Thursday 
Island, 4-5 fms. (No. 165). 

Mr. Haswell has described a species (Pilumnus inermis*) from 
Port Jackson which apparently resembles this and the preceding 
species in having the anterior parts only of the carapace clothed 
with hairs, which are long as in P. semilanatus. It differs, how- 
ever, in the less distinctly toothed antero-lateral margins of the 
carapace, in the form of the front, which is entire, not notched, and 
in the disposition of the granules of the chelipedes, both from P. 
semilanatus and P. seminudus. 

Pilumnus Icevimanus, Danaf, is apparently allied to this and the 
foregoing species, but has the carapace almost wholly naked, and 
the larger hand rounded above and quite smooth, with only some 
faint traces of minute tubercles toward the base. It has been re- 
corded from Borneo and New Caledonia. 

In Pilumnus nitidus, A. M. -Edwards J, from New Caledonia, 
which is another nearly allied species, the two anterior teeth of the 
antero-lateral margins of the carapace are obsolete. 

59. Pilumnus cursor ? 

? Pilumnus cursor, A. M.-Edwards, Nouv. Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat. 
ix. p. 244, pi. ix. fig. 4 (1873). 

In the specimen I thus very doubtfully designate the cara- 
pace is nearly smooth, with the anterior portion moderately de- 
flexed, antero-lateral margins much shorter than the postero- 
lateral, which are nearly straight and convergent posteriorly ; both 
carapace and limbs are scantily clothed with very short hairs, 
among which a few longer hairs are interspersed ; the frontal lobes 
are divided by a rather deep and wide median fissure ; the antero- 
lateral margins are armed with three spines, besides a smaller but 
distinct spine at the exterior angle of the orbit. The basal antennal 

* Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, vi. p. 544 (1881) ; Catalogue, p. 70 (1882). 
t Crust. U.S. Expl. Exp. xiii. p. 237, pi. xiii. fig. 11 (1852). 
\ Nouv. Arch. Mus. ix. p. 249, pi. x. fag. 2 (1873). 



224 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

joint barely reaches to the subfrontal angle, but attains to a level 
with the apex of the inner suborbital lobe ; tbe antennal flagella are 
much elongated. The chelipcdes (in the single male examined) are 
rather slender and nearly equal ; the arm has two spines at the 
distal end of its upper margin ; the wrist is armed with several 
spines, the strongest one being on the inner margin ; the palm has 
its upper margin and outer surface armed with small spines or spini- 
form tubercles disposed in longitudinal series ; these are with 
difficulty discernible through the hairs covering this joint ; fingers 
brown, and distinctly dentated on their inner margins. The ambu- 
latory legs are elongated and slender, and have their upper and 
lower margins clothed with long hairs. Colour reddish (in spirit), 
with purplish markings. Length about 2| lines (5 millim.), breadth 

3 lines (nearly 7 millim.) ; length of penultimate ambulatory limb 
nearly 6 lines (12 millim.). 

The single specimen (a male) was obtained at Port Denison, 

4 fms. (No. 111). 

P. cursor, A. M. -Edwards, was founded on specimens from New 
Caledonia and the Samoa Islands ; the description differs from the 
above in several minor particulars ; but I have thought it better to 
regard the Australian example before me as identical with this 
species than to run the risk of unnecessarily adding to the svnonyma. 
Mr. Haswell (Cat. p. 67) records it from Port Molle. 

60. Pilunmus labyrinth! cus. (Plate XXII. fig. C.) 

In this curious form the surface of the carapace is everywhere 
covered with raised curved or sinuated ridges, which are separated 
by wide depressions ; the body and legs are covered with a dense 
close brown pubescence ; from most of the ridges and from the teeth 
of the antero-lateral margins of the carapace spring longer setae, 
and the margins of the ambulatory legs are also fringed with longer 
hairs. The frontal lobes, which are scarcely separated as usual by a 
median notch, are rather broad, straight, and but little prominent ; 
the antero-lateral margins are somewhat shorter than the postero- 
lateral, and are armed with three distinct teeth, that of the exterior 
orbital angle being obsolete. The orbital margin is somewhat 
thickened ; the epistoma rather longer in proportion to its breadth 
than is usual. The basal antennal joint is short, scarcely attaining 
to the subfrontal process, and not nearly reaching to the apex of 
the very prominent lobe at the inner suborbital angle. The cheli- 
pcdes are rather small and (like the carapace) are densely pubescent, 
besides being clothed with longer hairs ; the outer surface of the 
wrist or carpus is tuberculatcd beneath the hairy coat ; the palm is 
clothed externally with long dense hairs ; the upper margin of the 
palm bears three distinct tubercles ; the fingers are slaty coloured, 
dentated on their inner margins and acute at their apices. The 
ambulatory legs are densely hairy and of moderate length. Length 
of carapace nearly 4 lines (8 millim.), breadth about 4| lines 
(0 millim.). 



CRUSTACEA. 225 

One specimen (a male) was obtained at Port Molle, 14 fms. 
(Xo. 93); in the second collection are an adult female and two 
smaller specimens from Thursday Island, 3-5 fms. (Xos. 165, 177). 

In many of its characters this species resembles P. vespertilio, 
but differs in the curious sculpture and less dense hairiness of the 
carapace, the prominent teeth of the antero-lateral margins, and the 
existence of distinct teeth on the upper margin of the palm (fig. c). 

In the very remarkable sculpture of the carapace it somewhat 
resembles P. vermiculatus, A. M.-Edwards*, from Xew Caledonia ; 
but in that species the vermiculations are much less numerous, the 
front is much deflexed and in a continuous line with the upper 
orbital margin, the teeth of the antero-lateral margins are much 
more obtuse, &c. 

61. Pilummis ? pugilator ? 

? Actumnus pugilator, A. M.-Edwards, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. 
ix. p. 195, pi. vii. fig. 1 (1873) ; Haswett, Cat. Austr. Crust, p. 72 






Here is referred, though with some hesitation, a fine male from 
Port Molle, 14 fms. (Xo. 93) ; also a male and two females in the 
British-Museum collection, preserved dry, and dredged by Mr. Mac- 
gillivray in 17 fathoms between Percy Island and the mainland, on 
a bottom consisting of coarse sand and shells. M. A. Milne-Edwards 
says that the regions of the carapace in his unique example (obtained 
at the island of Lifu) are distinct, whereas in the Australian 
examples I have before me scarcely any traces of the intervening 
depressions exist : moreover the form of the seriately disposed 
tubercles of the outer surface of the chelipedes is very peculiar and 
characteristic ; these tubercles are separated, indeed, at their bases, 
but have their heads dilated and in contact with one another, and 
the heads are also armed (usually on one side only) with laterally 
projecting spinules. This disposition cannot be seen except under a 
lens of considerable power, and hence may have been unnoticed by 
M. A. Milne-Edwards. 

Mr. Haswell gives Darnley Island as an additional Australian 
locality for this species. 

62. Actunmus setifer. 

Cancer (Pilumnus) setifer, De Haan, Faun. Japon., Cr. p. 50, pi. iii. 
fig. 3 (1835). 

Actumnus tomentosus, Dana, Proc. Ac. Nat. Set. Phil. p. 82 (1852); 
U.S. Explor. Exped. xiii. Cr. i. p. 243, pi. xiv. fig. 2 (1852) ; A. M.- 
Edwards, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. i. p. 285 (1865); Targioni- 
Tozetti, Crostacei del Viaggio tlella 'Magenta,' p. 56, pi. ix. fa'gs. 22- 
24, 26, 29 (1877) ; Haswell, Cat. Austr. Crust, p. 73 (1882). 

Actumnus setifer, A. M.-Edwards, t. c. p. 287, pi. xv. fig. 5 (1865) ; 



« Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. ix. p. 247, pi. ix. fig. 6 (1873). 

Q 



226 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

Richters, Decapoda in Motrins? Beitr. zur Meeresfaima der Insel 
Mauritius and der SeycheUen, p. 148 (1880). 

In the collection is a male from Thursday Island, Torres Straits, 
4-6 fms. (No. 130) ; a female from Port Denison, 4 fms. (Xo. Ill) ; 
another from Percy Islands, Queensland, obtained at a depth not 
exceeding 5 fms. (Xo. 91) ; and three small specimens from Port 
Molle, 14 fms. (Xo. 93). 

There arc specimens in the British-Museum collection, that appear 
to be referable to this species, from Australia (J.S. Bowerbank, Esq.) 
and Sir C. Hardy's Island, dredged in 11 fms., on a bottom of coarse 
sand (J. B. Jukes) ; also from the Philippine Islands, Corregidor 
(Cuming), Fiji Islands, Totoya (II. M.S. ' Herald'), and Xew Hebrides 
(J. Macgillivray). A specimen from Shark Bay, W. Australia (F. M. 
Rayner, H.M.S. ' Herald ') has a more coarsely pubescent carapace, 
and may be distinct. 

Dana founded A. tomentosus upon a female from Tahiti or Upolu, 
in which the regions of the carapace were apparently somewhat less 
distinctly defined than in the specimens I have seen, and the granu- 
lations of the chelipedes more irregularly disposed. 

A careful comparison of the descriptious above cited with the 
series in the Museum collection shows that certain of the characters 
which have been hitherto regarded as of specific value are by no 
means as constant as has been hitherto supposed. 

In most of the Australiau specimens I have seen the antero- 
lateral margins are 4-lobed, without any traces of spiniform teeth. 
Indications of these, however, exist in one specimen from Sir C. 
Hardy's Island, one out of two from the Philippines, and one from 
the Xew Hebrides in the Museum collection. In most of the speci- 
mens the carapace is clothed with a close velvety pubescence, and 
the upper margin of the chelipedes finely and closely granulated; 
but in the specimen from Xew Hebrides and one from the Philip- 
pines the pubescence is much more scanty and the granulations of 
the hands more acute, especially toward the upper margins. 

The finger-tips of the species of this genus are generally scarcely 
to be described as excavated, but rather as obtuse, and the transi- 
tion is effected to Pilumnus by almost insensible gradations through 
6uch species as P. dehaani, Miers*, which, indeed, may be merely 
the young of A. setifer, but differs not only in the acute antero- 
lateral marginal teeth and finger-tips, but also in the relatively 
shorter antero-lateral margins and entire obliteration of the regions 
of the carapace. A specimen nearly resembling P. dehaani is in 
Dr. Coppinger's collection, from Port Denison (Xo. Ill) ; in it, how- 
ever, the tubercles of the chelipedes are less conical and acute. In 
the small specimens I refer to A. setifer, from Port Molle, the regions 
of the carppace are fully as well defined as in the adult. 

Dr. F. Piichters (t. c. p. 148) records this species from the Mauri- 
tius : hence its range evidenlly extends throughout the Oriental 
region. 

* lYoe. Zool. Soc. p. 32 (1879). 



CKUSTACEA. 227 



CRYPTOCCELOMA, gen. nov. 

Carapace transverse, nearly flat above, with the anterolateral 
margins much shorter than the postero-lateral, and forming with 
the apparent frontal margin (as viewed from above) an unbroken 
curve. Epistoma narrow-transverse. Palate or endostome with 
the longitudinal ridges nearly obsolete. Orbits transverse, with the 
margins subentire, not visible from above, but concealed beneath the 
projecting anterior margin of the carapace (see Plate XXIII. fig. A). 
Abdomen of female 7-jointed. The basal antennal joint reaches to 
the sub frontal process, and partly occupies the inner orbital hiatus. 
Outer maxillipcdes with the merus-joint quadrate. Chelipedes sub- 
equal and of moderate size. Ambulatory legs compressed. 



63. Cryptocceloma fmibriatuin. (Plate XXIII. fig. A.) 

Pilumnus fimbriatus, M.-Edwards, Hist. Nat. Crust, i. p. 41(5 (1834) ? ; 
Hasicell, Cat. Austr. Crust, p. 66, pi. i. fig. 4 (1882). 

The carapace is transverse, its upper surface nearly flat ; the antero- 
lateral margins are much shorter than the postero-lateral, and armed 
only with one or two inconspicuous granules or spinules ; the pos- 
tero-lateral margins are nearly straight, and slightly convergent 
posteriorly ; the upper surface is obscurely granulated toward the 
lateral margins, and the cervical suture is faintly but distinctly 
defined. The apparent frontal margin is thin, entire, and forms a 
continuous and unbroken line with the antero-lateral margins, the 
orbits being altogether inferior. The margin thus formed is bordered 
with a thick fringe of very close-set cinereous hairs, beneath which 
are much longer hairs of a yellowish hue ; the real front, however, 
is narrow-transverse, nearly vertically deflexed, with its anterior 
margin arcuated and having a small median notch. The eyes lie 
closely within the transverse inferior orbits, whose margins are 
nearly entire. The epistoma is narrow-transverse; very faint indi- 
cations exist of longitudinal palatal ridges. All the segments of 
the postabdomen (which is rather narrow in the female) are distinct ; 
the first segment only reaches to the bases of the fifth ambulatory 
legs. The anteunules are transverse ; the basal antennal joint just 
attains to the subfrontal lobe, and partly occupies the inner orbital 
hiatus. The ischium-joint of the rather broad outer maxillipedes is 
but little longer than the merus-joint, which is nearly quadrate, but 
shallow-excavate at its antero-internal angle at the place of articula- 
tion with the next joint ; theexognath is narrow, straight, and just 
reaches to the distal end of the merus. The chelipedes are subequal, 
the merus trigonous and very short ; the carpus granulated above, 
with a small tooth on its inner margin near the distal end, the outer 
margin fringed with very long fulvous hairs ; similar hairs border 
the upper surface of the palm and mobile finger ; the palm is granu- 
lated externally, and somewhat compressed ; fingers rather obscurely 
granulated on their inner margins and acute at the apices, with 

<j2 



228 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

scarcely any interniarginal hiatus. The ambulatory legs are defi- 
cient except one fifth leg, which has the joints except the last 
compressed and bordered with long hairs ; the upper margin of the 
inerus is acute and obscurely crenulated ; dactyl hairy, styliform, 
and short, with a small terminal claw. Colour (in spirit) light yel- 
lowish white. Length of carapace 3| lines (6| milliin.), breadth 
4| lines (about 9| millim.). 

The single female in the collection was obtained at Thursday 
Island, 4-5 fms. (No. 165). 

There is also a female in the Museum collection obtained near 
Java (H.2I.S. ' Samarang '). 

As I have examined no male specimens of this curious species, and 
am ignorant of the position of the male verges, I do not venture to 
remove it from the vicinity of Pilumnus, in which genus it is re- 
tained by Mr. Haswell. There is, I thiuk, no doubt of the specific 
identity of our example with the specimen figured in the ' Catalogue 
of Australian Crustacea,' though whether this be identical with the 
P.fimbriatus of M.-Edwards remains somewhat uncertain, on account 
of the brevity of the diagnosis of the latter author. This species 
certainly cannot be retained in Pilumnus as at present restricted ; 
and I am inclined to think it should be removed from the Cancroidea 
to the Grapsoidea. I am, however, unable at present to indicate 
its exact affinities. 

Mr. Haswell records it from Port Molle. 



64. Pilumnopeus serratifrons (Kinahari). 

Two specimens are in the collection from Port Jackson (No. 104). 

The British Museum contains 'specimens from Port Jackson 
(Cuming), Port Phillip, Victoria (Dr. J. 11. Kinahan), and the Austra- 
lian seas, no definite locality, (Stutchbury) ; also from ]S T ew Zealand. 

In my ' Catalogue of the New -Zealand Crustacea,' p. 21 (1876), 
I have already pointed out the possible identity of Pilumnopeus 
crassimanus, A. M.-Edwards, with P. serratifrons. I believe Mr. 
Haswell is right in regarding lleteropanope australiensis, Stimpson, 
as also synonymous with this species (Cat. p. 70). 

65. Ozius guttatus, var. speciosus. 

Ozius speciosus, Hilgenchrf, in Van der Decken's Reisen in Ost-Afriha, 
iii. p. 74, pi. ii. fig. 1 (1660). 

An adult female is in the collection from Flinders Island, North- 
east Australia. Mr. Haswell records it from Port Denison and Port 
Curtis. 

To the same variety, as I think it must be designated, belongs an 
adult female in the British-Museum collection from Mauritius (Lady 
Frances Cole). 

In the typical form of Ozius guttatus, as described and figured by 
Prof. Alph. Milne-Edwards in his Report on the Crustacean Fauna 



CRCSTACEA. 229 

of Xew Caledonia, the frontal teeth are much smaller and less pro- 
minent than in either Hilgendorf's figure of his 0. speciosus or in 
the two specimens I have before me. As, however, Prof. A. Milne- 
Edwards had evidently a larger series for examination, and unites 
0. guttatus and 0. speciosus, I do not venture to regard the two forms 
as distinct species. 

Mr. Haswell records 0. gnttatus from Port Denison and Port 
Curtis. 

This species has evidently a wide Oriental range, having been 
found in the Red Sea, at Zanzibar, Mauritius, Batavia, Torres 
Straits, and Xew Caledonia. 



66. Neptunus pelagicus (Linn.). 

Of this very common Oriental species two males are in tho first 
collection from Port Curtis, 7 fms. (Xo. 88), and a male from Prince 
of \Yales Channel, 3-4 fms., in the second collection. Specimens 
from the same locality are in the collection of the British Museum, 
obtained during the voyage of H .M.S. ' Rattlesnake ' by Mr. Mac- 
gillivrav, and also from the following Australian localities: — Port 
Jackson (J. Macgillivray) : Sydney (It. Schutte); Swan River (J. B. 
Jala) ; Shark Bay, W. Australia (F. M. Bayner, H.M.S. ' Herald') ; 
also from Xew Zealand (Sowerby). 

Besides the above, there are specimens in the Museum collection 
from the Red Sea (Major J. Barton, Major MacDonald) ; Gulf of 
Suez (R. MacAndreiv) ; Zanzibar (Dr. Kirk) ; Pondicherry, Indian 
Ocean (Gen. HardwicJce) ; Penang (Dr. Cantor); Borneo (Bleel-er's 
coll.); Celebes, Badjoa, &c. (Dr. Bheher's coll.); Timor Laut (H. 0. 
Forbes); Philippine Islands, Zebu (Cuming); Shanghai, Cheefoo 
(Swinhoe); Japan (Mas. Ley dm); Honolulu (H.M.S. ' Challenger''); 
New Caledonia (Macgillivray) ; also others, without special indica- 
tion of locality, from the collections of the • Herald,' ' Rattlesnake,' 
and ' Samarang.' 

The Neptunus armatus, A. Milne-Edwards, from Shark Bay, W. 
Australia*, of which the types, from the collection of H.M.S. 
' Herald,' are in the British-Museum collection, is not referred to in 
Haswell's Catalogue. The specimens are of small size and probably 
not fully grown. Both carapace and limbs are slightly pubescent. 
The carapace is relatively somewhat narrower, and the antero-lateral 
teeth broader and less distant one from another than in N. pela- 
gicas of about the same size, which otherwise this species very 
closely resembles. 



67. Neptunus ( Amphitrite) hastatoides (Fabricius). 

Three examples are in Dr. Coppiuger's second collection from 
Friday Island, Torres Straits, 10 fms. (Xo. 153), and a series of 



» 



Arch, du Mus. d'Hist. Nat. x. p. 322, pi. 33. fig. 2 (1861). 



230 COLLECTIONS FEOM MELANESIA. 

smaller specimens from the Arafura Sea, 32-36 fms. (No. 160). In 
these latter the carapace is more convex and the spines at the pos- 
tero-lateral angles of the carapace less developed. Although 
smaller, most of these are adult, since among them are females 
with ova. 

There are besides in the British-Museum collection a female from 
the Indian Ocean (Gen. Hardwiclce), several specimens from Hong 
Kong {Dr. W. A. Ilarland), and others, without definite locality, 
from the collections of H.M.SS. ' Herald ' and ' Samarang.' 

68. Achelous granulatus (M.-Edw.). (Plate XXIII. 

fig. B, var.) 

A male of this common and widely distributed species is in the 
collection from Friday Island, Torres Straits, 13 fms. (Xo. 153). An 
enumeration of the localities whence the Museum possesses speci- 
mens is given in my Report on the Crustacea collected at Rodriguez 
by the naturalists of the British Transit-of- Venus Expedition*, to 
which should be added the following: — Seychelles {Dr. E. Perceval 
Wright), and Loyalty Islands, Lifu (liev. S. J. Whitmee). It is 
recorded by Mr. Haswell from Palm Island (as Ampin trite gla- 
diator). 

A specimen from Prince of Wales Channel, 7 fms. (Xo. 169), 
differs from all the specimens of A. granulatus that I have examined 
in wanting the submedian spine of the posterior margin of the arm 
of the chelipedes (see Plate XXIII. fig. B) ; it may be designated var. 
unispinosus. The carapace is less granulated and the teeth of the 
antero-lateral margins less produced and spiniform than is usual in 
this species, and much less so than in the specimen from Friday 
Island. 

69. Thalamita admete (Herbst). 

Here are referred a small female from Port Molle, 5-12 fms. 
(Xo. 118), in the first collection, and another from Port Jackson, 
5 fms., and five males (adult and young) found on a coral-reef at 
Clairmont Islands, X.E. coast of Australia (No. 151), in the second 
collection. 

In the smaller examples of this species the minute rudimentary 
fourth tooth of the antero-lateral margins is occasionally deficient, 
as has been noted by A. Milne-Edwards in Thalamita savignyi. 

Specimens are in the British-Museum collection from Conwav 
Reef (H.M.S. < Herald'), and also from the Fiji Islands (H.MJ3. 
'Herald'), Samoa Islands (Rev. S. J. Whitmee), and Sandwich 
Islands ( W. H. Pease). 

I regard the Thalamita savignyi of Prof. A. Milne-Edwards t as 
probably merely a variety of Th. admete, Herbst. Specimens appa- 
rently referable to this variety arc in the British-Museum collection 
from the Gulf of Suez (11. MacAndrew) and Nicol Bay, N.W. Aus- 

* Phil. Trans. clxTiii. p. 488 (1879). 

t Arch, du Mus. d'Hist. Nat. x. p. 357 (1861). 



CRUSTACEA. 231 

tralia (21. du Boulay). It is retained as a distinct species by Koss- 
inann, who unites, however, under the designation Th. prymna, 
6everal of the species regarded as distinct by A. M. -Edwards (vide 
'Zool. Reis. roth. Meer. ' i. p. 17, 1^77). 

70. Thalamita sinia, M.-Edw. 

Small specimens are in the first collection from Port Molle, ob- 
tained In 'tween tide-marks (No. 103) and at 14 fms. (No. 93) ; and 
in the second collection, from Thursday Island, 3-4 fms. (Xos. 175, 
177), 4-5 fms. (No. 165), and Port Darwin, obtained on the beach 
(Xo. 176). 

In three very small specimens from Port Denison, Queensland, 
4 fms. (Xo. Ill), two of which are females with ova, tho median 
lobes of the front arc sinuatcd, and the front thus appears very ob- 
scurely 6-lobed. This is probabby a peculiarity due to the small size 
of the specimens examined ; the breadth of the carapace of one of 
the females is barely 4 lines (84 millim.). 

Of this species there are specimens in the British-Museum collec- 
tion obtained between Cumberland Island and Point Slade and off 
Cape Capricorn (J. Macgillivray, II. M.S. ' Rattlesnake ') ; also from 
Moreton Bav and Port Jackson, and from Swan River (J. B. Jukes) 
and Shark Bay, W. Australia (F. 21. Rayner, H.M.S. 'Herald'); 
also from Xew Zealand (purchased), and from the Indian Ocean 
(General IlardwicJce), aud Aku Sima, Japan (Capt. H. C. St. John) ; 
besides others without special indication of locality. A. Milne- 
Edwards records it from Xew Caledonia. The specimens from the 
Indian Ocean have the chelipedes more distinctly tuberculated than 
the other examples in the collection, but cannot, I think, on this 
account be separated, even as a distinct variety. Erom the Thala- 
mita chaptali, noticed below, T. sima is distinguished not only by the 
much more acute lateral teeth of the carapace, the last of which is 
rather more prominent than the rest, but also by the smoother 
sternum and by the well-developed spines of the palms of the 
chelipedes. In T. chaptali the last of the antero-lateral teeth is (if 
any thing) smaller than the preceding tooth, and the palmar spines 
are nearly obsolete *. 

* I may take this opportunity of noting that there is now in the collection of 
the British Museuin a specimen from Ceylon (E. W. H. Holdsvorth) apparently 
referable to this exceedingly rare Thalamita, originally described from the Red 
Sea, of which A. Milne-Edwards, when he published his Monograph of the 
Portunidse (Ai'ch. Mus. H. N. x. p. 360, 1861), wrote: — " Cette espece parait 
extremement rai-e, elle n'existe dans aucun Musee, soit de France, soit de 
Angleterre, soit de Hollande." 

This example is an adult male, and agrees very well with M. -Edwards's 
description and Savigny's figure of T. chaptali, except as regards the chelipedes, 
the arm of which is strigose, and the wrist and palm and fingers very closely 
and distinctly granulated; the sternum is also finely sculptured. As some 
indications of granulations appear on the wrist of the left-hand chelipede in 
Savigny's figure, I do not venture to regard our specimen as distinct. Should 
future researches, however, demonstrate it to be so, it may be designated 
T. holdsworfhi. 



232 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 



71. Thalamita stimpsonii, A. M.-Edw. 

A male and female are in Dr. Coppinger's first collection from 
Port Molle, obtained, one on the beach ( jN t o. 95), and the other on 
the coral-reefs in that harbour. In the second collection is a female 
from Port Darwin, found on the beach (jS t o. 176). 

Specimens are in the British-Museum collection from the follow- 
ing Australian localities : — Port Curtis (J. Macgillivray, H.M.S. 
« Rattlesnake ') ; Torres Straits (J. B. Jakes) ; and N. Australian 
coast (Br. J. R. Elsey). There are also specimens from New Guinea 
and Amboina (Br. Bleeker's collection), and Sunday Island (J. B. 
Jukes), besides others without special indication of locality. 

Recorded by Mr. Haswell from Port Denison &c. 

This may perhaps be a mere variety of the following species ; but 
I do not venture to unite the two, since adult examples of T. stimp- 
sonii seem to be distinguished from adult T. crenata not merely by 
the small fourth lateral marginal tooth, but also by the more trans- 
verse carapace and more granulated palms of the chelipedes. 



72. Thalamita crenata, Ruppett. 

An adult male is in the collection, from Port Molle, 14 fms. 
(No. 93). 

There is also in the British-Museum collection a female from the 
Percy Islands, off tbe Queensland coast (J. Macgillivray, H.M.S. 
1 Rattlesnake ') ; a male from Torres Straits (J. B. Jukes) ; also 
from the Mauritius (Lady F. Cole) ; Xatal (F. M. Rayner, H.M.S. 
' Herald ') ; Timor Laut (H. 0. Forbes) ; India, Karachi (Karachi 
Museum); Philippines (Cuming); the Samoa Islands (Rev. S. J. 
Whitmee) ; and others without special locality. 



73. Goniosoma variegatum. 

Portunus variegatus, Fabricius, Entomologies Systematica Supple- 

mentum, p. 3(34 (1798) ; M.-Edwards, Hist. Nat. des Crustaces, i. 

p. 405 (1834). 
Cancer callianassa, Jlerbst, Nccburgesch. d. Krabben u. Krebse, iii. 

Heft 2, p. 45, pi. liv. fig. 7 (1801). 
Charvbdis variegatus, Be Haan, Crust, in Siebold, Fauna Japonica, 

pp.' 10-42, pi. i. fig. 2 (1835). 
Cbavybdis truncatus, Be Haan, t. c. p. 65, pi. xviii. fig. 2 (1837), nee 

Fabricius ? 
Goniosoma callianassa, A. Milne-Edwards, Archives du Museum, x. 

p. 382 (1861). 
Goniosoma variegatum, Miers, Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 33 (1879). 

I append a description of the species I suppose to be the variegatus 
of Fabricius, the synonyma of which are somewhat confused. 

Carapace somewhat hexagonal in shape, with the postero-lateral 
angles rounded, pubescent, with the gastric and epibranchial ridges 



OBUSTACEA. 233 

smooth. Front 8-lobed, the lobes rounded, the median scarcely 
more prominent than the rest ; the fissure between the median lobrs 
and between the second and third lobes narrow-linear, those between 
the first and second and the third and fourth loins triangulate. 
Antero-latcral margins armed with six teeth, whereof the first is 
subtruncated, the second to fifth triangulate and acute and directed 
forward, the sixth about twice as long as the preceding and laterally 
projecting. Chelipedes short and robust, arm or merus-joint with 
two strong spines near the distal end of its anterior margin, its pos- 
terior margin convex, smooth, and angulated at a point midway from 
either extremity ; wrist with a strong spine on its inner margin, and 
three smaller spines on its outer surface ; palm with three spines, 
whereof one is situated at the proximal end close to the articulation 
•with the wrist, and two on the upper surface ; there is none above 
the base of the mobile finger ; the carinse of the upper and outer sur- 
face of the palm and the intervening parts are nearly smooth ; the 
fingers are armed along their inner margins with triangulate teeth, 
which fit closely between one another when the fingers are closed, 
and which are themselves divided into several smaller teeth. The 
second to fourth ambulatory legs are slender, smooth ; the penulti- 
mate joint of the fifth leg is not denticulated on its inferior margin ; 
there is a sjjine at the distal end of the inferior margin of the 
merus-joint. Length of the carapace of the largest example about 
| inch (19 millim.), breadth to base of lateral epibranchial spines 
about 1 inch (25 millim.). 

A single specimen is in the second collection, a male from Port 
Darwin, 12 fins. 

There are in the British-Museum collection several specimens of 
what is probably a mere variety of this species from Karachi 
(Karachi Museum), referred to by A. M. -Edwards as G. callianassa, 
which differ in having wider fissures between the median and the 
second and third teeth of the front. The first tooth of the antero- 
lateral margins is more distinctly truncated, and the last spine is 
shorter ; also the spines of the arm, wrist, and palm of the cheli- 
pedes are much shorter, those of the upper surface of the palm being 
reduced to mere spinules, and the palm itself much more turgid, as 
in A. Milne-Edwards's description. 



74. Goniosoma spiniferurn. (Plate XXIII. fig. C.) 

A single specimen is in the collection, obtained at Port Molle, 
between tide-marks (Xo. 103), which is evidently nearly allied to, 
and in M. A. Milne-Edwards's arrangement must be classed near to, 
Goniosoma affine (Dana), from Singapore. It differs, however, in 
the form of the frontal lobes, the median and submedian being 
broadly rounded and separated by narrow and not deep fissures. 
The fissure between the second and third lobe on each side is much 
deeper, and, although narrow, wider than those between the median 
and submedian lobes ; the third lobe is itself narrower than these. 



23 1 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

and is separated by a triangulate notch from the rounded fourth 
lobe or internal orbital angle. The basal joint of the antenna; is 
armed with a minutely granulated or denticulated ridge. The 
merus-joint of the anterior legs has four spines on its anterior 
margin, including a very small spinule at its antero-internal angle ; 
the wrist has a strong spine on its inner margin and two small 
spinulcs on its outer surface ; and the palm (as in G. affine) has 
five spines on its upper surface, the two anterior being very small. 
The fifth ambulatory legs have a strong spine, situated nearly at the 
distal end of the posterior margin of the merus-joint, and another 
on the posterior margin of the carpus ; the flattened terminal joint 
has a small spinule at its distal extremity, but is otherwise un- 
armed. 

From the preceding species, to which it is very nearly allied, 
G. spiniferum is distinguished by the greater transverse width of 
the carapace, the different form of the frontal lobes and of their 
intervening fissures and of the lateral teeth (see the figure). Gonio- 
soma hellerii, A. M.-Edwards *, from New Caledonia, which resembles 
this species in having five spines on the upper surface of the palm, 
and the merus-joint of the fifth ambulatory legs armed with a 
strong distal spine, differs in the form of the carapace and frontal 
lobes, and has the penultimate joint of the fifth ambulatory legs 
denticulated on its posterior margin, &c. 



75. Nectocarcinus integrifrons (Latr.). 

There are three females of this species in Dr. Coppinger's collec- 
tion, from Port Jackson, 0-7 fms. (Nos. 90, 104). 

A specimen from the same locality is in the British-Museum 
from the collection of Mr. Cuming, and another dredged in the 
same harbour on the Sow and Pigs Bank, and presented by John 
Brazier, Esq. ; also from Port Curtis (H.M.S. ' Herald') and 
New Zealand, Bay of Islands (Antarctic Expedition) ; also from 
Oceania (J. Macgitiivray, H.M.S. ' liattlesnake') ; and others with- 
out special locality. 

Dr. Kinahan records it from Port Phillip, Victoria. 

76. Lupocyclus rotundatus, Adams Sf White. 

A female is in the collection from Port Molle, Queensland (first 
collection, No. 118), and another from Friday Island, 10 fms. (second 
collection, No. 153), which I think must be referred to this species, 
although the carapace is somewhat broader, more convex, and less 
distinctly granulated, and the frontal lobes more acute than in the 
adult specimen in the British-Museum collection from Balambangan, 
N. Borneo, on which presumably the description of Adams and 
White was founded. 

As the Bornean example is a male, the distinctions between the 

* Bull. Soe. Entom. rip France, vii. p. 282 (1867). 



CRUSTACEA. 235 

two may be sexual. In two smaller examples from Balambangan 
(male and female), in the collection of the British Museum, the 
carapace is even more strongly granulated than in the adult, and 
this is not uncommon in the Portunidae, e. g. in certain species of 
Neptunus. 

M. de Man has quite recently recorded this species from the 
island of Amboina (vide Notes Mus. Leyden, v. p. 153, 1883). 



i t. 



Kraussia nitida, Stimpson. 



Two small specimens (males) from Thursday Island, 4-5 fms. 
(No. 105), evidently belong here. 

The distinctions between this species and K. Integra (De Haan), 
are very slight, K. nitida differing, as Stimpson has noted, only in 
its somewhat narrower carapace, with more prominent and excavated 
frontal lobes ; yet these distinctions are constant and easily perceived 
in the specimens I have examined. 

Specimens referablo to K. Integra are in the Museum collection 
from the Philippines, Siquijor (Cuming), and also from the ' Sama- 
rang ' collection without special locality. 



is 



8. Telplmsa (Geotelplmsa) crassa ? 



? Telplmsa crassa, A. M.-Eihiwds, Nouv. Arch. 3Ius. Hist. Nat. v. 
p. 177, pi. ix. fig. 2 (1869). 

A female in imperfect condition is in the collection, obtained at 
Thursday Island, Torres Straits (No. 125), that I refer, though with 
some doubt, to this species, as M. -Edwards's diagnosis is very short, 
and the specimen figured of mucb smaller size than the one I have 
before me. In this example there is a rudimentary epibranchial 
tooth, the sides of the anterior part of the carapace are faintly 
striated, shallow depressions indicate the anterior part of the 
cervical suture, and the chelipedes are more unequal than in the 
figure of M. -Edwards; there is a strong spine on the inner margin 
of the wrist, behind and below which is a second, much smaller 
tooth ; the palm is nearly smooth ; the fingers longer than the 
palm, with rather small denticulations and having between them, 
when closed, but a small interspace. Length of carapace about 
1 inch 4 lines (35 millim.), greatest breadth 1 inch 4 lines 
(45 millim.). 

There is a series of four specimens in the Museum collection, 
obtained by Mr. MacFarlane on one of the islands of Torres 
Straits, which are apparently referable here. The smaller agree, 
except in having some indications of a postfrontal crest, with the 
description of Milne-Edwards ; but in the larger there exist much 
more distinct traces of the exterior orbital and lateral epibranchial 
teeth. In the male the fingers have between them, when closed, 
hut a small interspace. 



236 COLLECTIONS FEOM MELANESIA. 

In two specimens from E. Australia, the smaller of which was 
received with fishes of H.M.S. ' Challenger ' collection, the cara- 
pace is coarsely punetulated in front, perfectly smooth above, and 
less convex, with scarcely any traces of the depressions indicative 
of the cervical suture, or of the postfrontal crest and lateral teeth. 
These probably belong to a distinct species ; the larger have been 
designated in MS. T. leichardti. 

Specimens are in the British-Museum collection from the Philip- 
pines, R. Xaga or Bicol (Cuming), which belong to T. crassa or to 
a closely allied species ; in the male the larger chelipede has the 
mobile finger arcuated, both are rather strongly denticulated on 
their inner margins, and have between them, when closed, a wide 
interspace. These specimens "were designated by White T. obesa 
(in manuscript) ; but this name has been applied by Prof. A. Milne- 
Edwards to a very nearly allied form from Zanzibar, which differs 
apparently only in having an even more distinct postfrontal crest, 
and yet more strongly arcuated and dentated fingers to the larger 
chelipede. If distinct, the Philippine examples may be designated 
T. cumingii. 

It is worthy of note that although Milne-Edwards in his de- 
scription says there exists no postfrontal crest in T. crassa, some 
indications of one appear in the figure. His species may, however, 
be identical with the one here designated T. leichardti, in which 
case the specimens I name T. crassa must receive a new specific 
appellation. 

70. Gelasimus signatus, Hess. 

A series of specimens is in the collection, of both sexes and of 
different sizes, from Port Curtis, some of which were collected at 
7-11 fms. (Xo. 85). 

These examples agree with the description aud figure of Hess *in 
nearly every particular, and there can be no doubt of their identity 
with his species ; but the margins of the somewhat triangular, flat, 
inferior face of the arm are minutely granulated, and can scarcely 
be described as furnished " with two rows of pearl-shaped tubercles," 
as stated by Hess, whose specimens were from Sydney. 

There are in the collection of the British Museum specimens from 
Swan River {Bring), which I regard as belonging to this species. 
In the largest, the tooth or lobe of the middle of the inner margin 
of the lower finger, which is generally very characteristic of this 
species, is not developed. These specimens were referred by my pre- 
decessor, Mr. Adam White f, to G. forceps, M.-Edwards ; but that 
author says that the larger chelipede in G. forceps is smooth, and 
the mer us- joints of the ambulatory legs appear to be even broader 
and more dilated than in G. signatus. 

Xo specimens had been seen by Mr. Haswell (who regarded the 

* Archiv f. Naturgeschichte, p. 146, pi. vi. fig. 6 (1865). 
t List Crust. Brit. Museum, p. 36 (1847). 



CRUSTACEA. i^37 

locality given by Hess as doubtful) at the time of the publication of 
his Australian Catalogue. 

80. Ocypoda ceratophthalma (Pallas). 

An adult female was collected at Friday Island on the beach 
(Xo. 154). A specimen is in the Museum collection from Moreton 
Island, N. S. Wales. It is mentioned by Mr. Ilaswell as occurring 
at Cape Grenville, Palm Island, &c. 

81. Ocypoda kulilii, De Haan. 

Five examples, males and females, were obtained on the beach at 
Thursday Island (No. 167). 

An adult male from Shark Bay, W. Australia (Eayner, H.M.S. 
• Herald *), and possibly a small mutilated example from Xicol Bay, 
X.AY. Australia (31. du Boulay), belong here. 

For remarks upon the specimens of this and the foregoing species 
in the Museum collection, I may refer to my recent memoir * on 
the genus. Both are widely distributed Oriental species. Since 
the publication of that paper, specimens have been received from 
Timor Laut (H. 0. Forbes) of 0. ceratophthalyna. 

Haswell (Catalogue, p. 95) mentions the occurrence on the tro- 
pical coasts of 0. eordimana, a species of which I have seen no 
examples from Australia. Since he particularly mentions the absence 
of a stridulating ridge, there can be no doubt that his specimens 
belonged to this species and not to 0. Jcuhlii, 

82. Macrophtkalinus punctulatus. (Plate XXY. fig. A.) 

The carapace is nearly quadrate and relatively narrow, being but 

little broader than long ; the cervical suturo is in its posterior part 

very distinctly defined ; the surface is uneven, punetulated, without 

spines or tubercles, but clothed with a few scattered hairs, which are 

more numerous, though not dense, on the postero-lateral parts of the 

branchial regions ; the front is about one third of the total width of 

the anterior part of the carapace, with its anterior margin nearly 

straight ; the antero-lateral margins are nearly straight and 3- 

toothed(tbe tooth at the external orbital angle included); the posterior 

lateral tooth is very small. The male postabdominal segments are 

all of them distinct. The first two joints of the slender antennal 

peduncle are contained within the large inner orbital hiatus ; the 

epistome is transverse and very short, almost linear ; the merus- 

joint of the outer maxillipedes is truncated at its distal end, and 

nearly as large as the preceding joint. The chelipedes (for so small 

a specimen) are well developed and are subequal ; merus and carpus 

are smooth, without spines or tubercles, merus more or less hairy 

on its inner surface and upper margin ; the palm is but little longer 

* Ann. k Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, x. p. 384, pi. xyii. fig. 8 (1882). 



238 COLLECTIONS FKOil MELANESIA. 

than its greatest vertical depth, which is at the articulation with 
the mobile finger, smooth and polished externally, its upper margin 
not carinated, its inner surface with a dense patch of hair ; the 
lower margin of the immobile finger is in a straight line with the 
lower margin of the palm, its upper or inner margin is denticulated 
and has a strong tooth or lobe in the middle ; the inner margin of 
the mobile finger has a smaller tooth near its base ; the fingers, 
when closed, meet only toward their apices, having an hiatus be- 
tween them, which is hollowed out into a deep, nearly semicircular 
cavity at the base of the immobile finger ; this cavity is margined 
with hairs. The ambulatory legs are slender, somewhat compressed, 
and the margins somewhat thinly clothed with hair. Colour, in 
spirit, brownish. Length of carapace nearly 3 lines (6 millim.), 
breadth 3| lines (somewhat over 7 millim.) ; length of chelipede 
about $>h lines (over 11 millim.). 

The single specimen (a male) was obtained at Port Jackson, 
5-7 fms. (No. 104). 

In the relatively narrow and quadrate carapace this species may 
be compared to such forms as Macrophthalmus pacificus, Dana*, 
to which species apparently belong specimens recently received from 
Timor Laut (//. 0. Forbes), Macrophthalmus bicarinatus, Heller f, 
and M. quadratus, A. Milne-Edwards j. 

M. pacificus and M. bicarinatus differ in their narrower front, 
&c. ; M. quadratus has but two lateral marginal teeth, and no lobe 
or tooth on the inner margin of the immobile finger. Macroph- 
thalmus setosus, an Australian species very briefly characterized by 
Milne- Edwards §, has, I suppose, a wider carapace. Specimens 
provisionally referred to this species in the British-Museum collec- 
tion are certainly very distinct from our new species. 

Macrophthalmus latifrons, Haswell |], from Port Phillip, has the 
carapace finely granulated, the immobile finger of the chelipedes 
defiexed, &c. 

In many of its characters our species approaches Euplax (CJiazno- 
stoma) boscii and E. crassirnanus, Stimpson, in both of which there 
are but two teeth on the lateral margins of the carapace. In 
Hemiplax hirtipes, Heller, not to mention other distinctions, the 
fingers are only minutely denticulated on their inner margins. In 
the absence of catalogues or systematic lists of the species, it is with 
great hesitation that I venture to describe this as a new form among 
so many nearly allied species. 

83. Euplax (Chaenostonia) boscii (Audouin). 

A small male is in the collection from Port Molle (Xo. 9.")). 
This example in its coloration and all other characteristics coin- 

* U.S. Exploring Expedition, Crust, xiii. p. .*514, pi. xix. fig. 4 (1852). 

t Eeise der Novara, Crust, p. 36, pi. iv. fig. 2 (1865). 

J Nouv. Archiv. Mas. Hist. Nat. is. p. 280, pi. xii. fig. 6(1873). 

§ Ann. Sri. Nat. s6r. 3, Zool. xviii. p. 159 ( 1852). 

\ Catalogue, p. 90 (1882). 



CRUSTACEA. 2!59 

cides witli Dana's description and figure of a specimen from tlio 
Fijis (see Explor. Exp., Cr. xiii. p. 313, pi. xix. fig. '■>). For remarks 
on the variation of the form of the chelipcdes and for synonyma, I 
may refer to M. A. Milne-Edwards (Nouv. Archiv. Mxlb. Hist. Nat. 
ix. p. 281, 1873). This species apparently ranges from the coasts of 
Egypt southward to Natal, and eastward to the islands of the 
Pacific (i . /,'. Xew Caledonia, Fijis). 

The specimen from Port Mollo differs from Savigny's original 
figure of this species * in its much less distinctly granulated cara- 
pace ; but specimens from Mozambique, received in the final con- 
signment of H.M.8. ' Alert,' havo the carapace as strongly granu- 
lated as in that figure. 



- 



CAMPTOPLAX, gen. nov. 

Carapace trapezoidal, anteriorly deflexed, with the antero-lateral 
much shorter than the postero-lateral margins, which are straight 
and converge slightly to the posterior margin. Front of moderate 
width. Endostome or palate without longitudinal ridges. Post- 
abdomen (of the male) covering at base the whole width of the 
sternum, and touching the bases of the fifth ambulatory legs, 
7-jointed. Eyes short, with thick peduncles. Antennules trans- 
versely plicated. Basal antennal joint short, not reaching to the 
subfrontal process. Outer maxillipede broad, not gaping, with the 
merus-joint transverse and much shorter than the ischium ; the 
exognath slender, straight, and reaching to the outer distal angle of 
the merus. Chelipedes of moderate length. Ambulatory legs with 
the margins of the merus-joints cristated. The male verges arising 
directly from the base of the fifth ambulatory legs, and not contained 
in sternal channels. 

This genus is apparently allied to Pilumnoplax and Heteroplax, 
Stimpsont, from both of which it is distinguished by the absence of 
palatal ridges and by the form of the basal antennal joint (Plate 
XXIV. fig. a), and also by the position of the male verges. In the 
latter character it would seem to be allied to the West-Indian genus 
Frevillea, A. M.-EdwardsJ, which, however, differs apparently in 
the larger orbits and longer eye-peduncles, &c. 

84. Camptoplax coppingeri. (Plate XXIV. fig. A.) 

The carapace is subtrapezoidal, little broader than long, the 
anterior portion abruptly deflexed, and with three broad and shallow 
transverse depressions, whereof the anterior is situated on the deflexed 
postfrontal region, one in the middle line of the carapace, and one 
near to the posterior margin ; the surface of the carapace is covered 
with a very close velvety overgrowth, amid which are numerous 

* Vide Savigny, Crustaces de l'Egypte, pi. ii. fig. 1. 
t Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. pp. 93, 94 (1858). 
\ Bull. Mus. Corup. Zool. viii. p. 15 (1880). 



240 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

small pits ; this coating, which is apparently the natural covering 
of the species, is entirely absent from the transverse depressions, 
but covers in great part the ventral surface of the body and the legs. 
The front is rather less than one third the greatest width of the 
carapace and is notched in the middle ; the very short antero-lateral 
margins are armed with three rather obscure teeth, whereof the 
first is situated at some distance from the orbit and the last at the 
angle formed by the junction of the antero-lateral with the postero- 
lateral margins, which is also the point at which the carapace 
is deflexed. The male postabdomen is as broad at base as the 
sternum and is 7-jointed ; the first two joints shorter than the rest, 
the last subtriangulate with a rounded apex. The antennules are 
nearly transversely plicated ; the basal antennal joint reaches- nearly 
to the subfrontal process ; the following joints are slender, the 
flagellum somewhat elongated. The maxillipedes (whose form is 
described above) have the fifth joints articulated with the merus at 
its antero-internal angle. The chelipedes, for so small a species, are 
rather robust ; merus trigonous and more or less granulated ; carpus 
(or wrist) and palm granulated on their upper and outer surfaces, the 
granulations disposed in reticulating lines, the intervening spaces or 
pits between which are smooth ; the fingers are shorter than the 
palm, acute at the apices, and dentated and meeting along their inner 
margins. The ambulatory legs are of moderate length ; the merus- 
joints are rather slender, trigonous, with the margins thin-edged or 
carinated, as are also the upper margins of the two following 
joints ; the dactyli are slender and stylit'orm. The male verges 
arise directly from the bases of the fifth ambulatory legs, and are 
not contained in sternal channels ; they are rather broad at base 
and strongly recurved at the distal extremities. Colour (in spirit) 
whitish. The length of the largest example I have seen is barely 
2jj lines (5 millim.), and width less than 3 lines (6 millim.). 

Two male specimens were collected in Prince of Wales Channel, 
at 7-9 fms. (Xo. 169). 

85. Psendorhombila vestita {Be Haan), var. sexdentata, Haswell. 

(Plate XXIY. fig. B.) 

P? Eucrate sexdentatus, Haswell, Cat. Austr. Crust, p. 86 (1882). 

The carapace and legs are scantily pubescent ; the carapace is 
little broader than long and is anteriorly deflexed ; the front is 
about one third the greatest width of the carapace, with its anterior 
margin straight and entire, the antero-lateral margins shorter than 
the postero-lateral and armed with three teeth (including the tooth 
or lobe at the outer orbital angle) ; the posterior tooth is longest, 
spiniform. and projects laterally ; the upper margins of the orbits are 
sinuated, the lower obscurely granulated, and there is a very wide 
hiatus on the inner side of the orbit. All of the postabdominal 
segments are distinct ; the second and third segments, although 
laterally produced, do not reach quite to the bases of the fifth 



CRUSTACEA. 24l 

ambulatory legs. The eye-peduncles are very short and thick, with 
very large cornese ; the antennules are transverse ; the basal joint 
of the antennae is slender, and although longer than the two fol- 
lowing joints, does not reach to the subl'rontal process ; the ischium- 
joint of the outer maxillipcdcs is rather short and broad, but longer 
than the next joint and longitudinally sulcated ; the merus is 
quadrate, the slender exognath reaches to the distal end of the 
merus. The chelipcdes are subequal and of moderate size, and, as 
already stated, pubescent ; the merus or arm is trigonous and has a 
tooth near the distal cud of its upper margin ; the carpus is armed 
with a strong spine on its inner surface ; palm somewhat shorter 
than the fingers, the margins not cristatcd, the fingers regularly 
denticulated and meeting along their inner margins and acute at 
their apices, but without a tuft of hair at base. The ambulatory 
legs are slender, with the joints somewhat compressed and scantily 
pubescent ; the margins of the penultimate and terminal joints of the 
last pair of legs are fringed with long hairs, but the terminal joint 
of the last pair of legs is styliform and not dilated. The bases of 
the male verges lie in wide open canaliculi of the sternum, and these 
organs (in the single specimen examined, which is probably not 
adult) are nearly straight. Colour (in spirit) whitish. Length of 
the carapace of the male 3g lines (nearly 8 millim.), breadth 4| lines 
(nearly ] millim.) ; length of chelipede when fully extended nearly 
| inch (12 millim.), of second ambulatory leg about 7| lines 
(16 millim.). 

Two specimens, one a male and the other sterile, were collected 
in the Arafura Sea, 32-36 fms. (Xo. 160). 

Haswell's types were from Holborn Island, Port Denison (20 fms.). 
As, in his brief description, he does not mention the pubescence of 
the carapace, and as his specimens differ in coloration, it is pos- 
sible that ours are distinct ; and if so, I would propose to designate 
them P. Jiasivelli. 

Carcinoplax vestitus*, as figured by De Haan, differs in its some- 
what narrower front, in the shorter, less prominent third antero-lateral 
spine, more quadrate carapace, less compressed chelipedcs, and in the 
absence of long cilia from the terminal joint of the dactyli of the 
fifth ambulatory legs. 

The distinctions between the genera Carcinoplax, Eucrate, and 
Pilumnoplax of Stimpson f are very slight, and a revision of the 
group is urgently needed. If, as is probable, all three genera should 
have to be united, the designation Pseudorhombila will, I think, tako 
precedence, since De Haan's name Eucrate differs by a letter only 
from the earlier name Eucratea, and Curtonotus had previously been 
used in the Coleoptera. 

* Cancer (Curtonotus) vestitus, De Haan, in Siebold, Fauna Japonica, Crust, 
p. 51, pi. v. fig. 3(1835). 
t Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. p. 93 (1858). 



B 



242 COLLECTIONS FKOM MELANESIA. 



86. Pseudorhombila sulcatifrons (Stimpson), var. australiensis. 

(Plate XXIV. fig. C.) 

As this variety may prove to be specifically distinct, I subjoin the 
following description : — 

As in Heteroplax dentata, Stimpson, the carapace is slightly trans- 
verse, anteriorly somewhat detlexed, posteriorly plane ; it attains its 
greatest width at the third lateral tooth. The front is about half 
the width of the carapace ; its anterior margin is faintly transversely 
sulcated, without any median fissure, and is straight ; there is, how- 
ever, a small notch on each side close to the lateral angles, which 
thus are separated as small teeth. The antero-lateral margins of 
the carapace are much shorter than the postero-lateral and armed 
with four teeth (the outer orbital angle included) ; the third tooth 
is larger and more prominent than the others, the fourth the 
smallest ; there is a small median notch in the middle of the upper 
orbital margin ; slight transverse inequalities are apparent on the 
front of the gastric region and on the sides of the carapace near the 
lateral teeth. The postabdomen is triangulate, with the segments 
distinct, the penultimate and the last being the longest ; the second 
segment covers the whole width of the sternum and reaches to the 
bases of the fifth legs. The eyes are placed upon rather short thick 
pedicels. The antennules are rather long and transversely folded. 
The basal antennal joint is slender, and although longer than either 
of the following joints, does not reach to the frontal margin ; the 
flagellum is elongated. Scarcely any traces are visible of palatal 
ridges. The merus-joint of the maxillipedes is quadrate, and much 
shorter than the preceding ; the next joint is articulated with it at 
its antero-internal angle. The chelipedes are of nearly equal size ; 
merus trigonous, short, with a tooth near the distal end of its upper 
margin ; carpus smooth externally, with a spiniform tooth on its 
inner margin ; palm smooth externally, moderately convex ; fingers 
about as long as the palm, denticulated on their inner margins and 
having between them scarcely any interspace when closed. Ambu- 
latory legs rather long, with the joints very slender, unarmed ; the 
last three with their margins somewhat scantily pubescent. Length 
of carapace nearly 3 lines (6 millim.), breadth nearly 4 lines 
(8 millim.) ; length of ambulatory leg of third pair about 6| lines 
(14 millim.). 

The single specimen was obtained at Port Molle, 14fms. (Xo. 93), 
and is apparently a female, although possessing an unusually nar- 
row postabdomen. It differs from Heteroj<l<t.r dentata and H. trans- 
versa, Stimpson*, in having the second tooth of the antero-lateral 
margins as long as the preceding, and also, it would appear, the 
shorter thicker eye-peduncles, and from the latter also in the 
narrower carapace. From the typical P. sulcatifrons (Stimpson), 
from Hong-Kong, it is distinguished only by the non-emarginate 

* Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. p. 94 (1858). 



CKU8TACEA. 243 

front and the absence of the woolly patch on the outer surface of the 
wrist. 

Litocheira bispinosa, Einahan, from Port Phillip*, which in maDy 
of its characters seems to be allied to PseudorTiomMla sulcatifrons, is 
at once distinguished by having but a single spine behind the exterior 
orbital angle. [Specimens are in the British-Museum collection from 
Port Curtis (II. M.S. 'Herald'). Mr, Haswell, in his Catalogue, 
omits reference to this species, and to several others described by 
Kinahan. 

The species described by Haswell as Euerate affinis (Catalogue, 
p. 86) is, I think, identical with typical P. sulcatifrons (Stimpson). 
The type was from Holborn Island, near Port Denison (20 fms.). 

I have quite recently described, under the name P. sulcatifrons, 
var. atlanticat, a specimen from Goree Island, Senegambia, which 
is scarcely distinguishable from Oriental examples of this species. 

87. Ceratoplax arcuata. (Plate XXV. fig. B.) 

Carapace longitudinally convex, scarcely broader than long and 
not wider behind than in the middle ; the surface, when viewed 
under a lens of sufneunt power, is seen to be covered with a very 
short pubescence ; the sides are anteriorly arcuated, posteriorly 
parallel : the antero-lateral margins, which are acute, are divided by 
three slight notches, but can scarcely be described as dentated. The 
front forms with the antero-lateral margins a continuous curved 
line ; it is somewhat deflexed, obscurely sinuated in the middle, with 
the exterior angles rounded off and not prominent, and has some 
longer hairs on its upper surface. The first two segments of the 
postabdomen in the male are very much shorter than the following, 
almost transversely linear in shape ; the first segment, although 
laterally produced, does not reach to the bases of the fifth ambulatory 
legs. The eye-peduncles fit closely into the orbits (which are not 
deep) and have their antei'ior and upper margins acute and clothed 
with rather long hairs ; the small cornea? are lateral, and are visible 
only in an inferior view. The epistoma is transversely linear ; the 
antennules transversely plicated ; the basal (or real second) antennal 
joint is slender, and does not nearly reach to the inferior margin of 
the front (see fig. h) ; the flagellum is of moderate length. There 
are no distinct palatal ridges. The outer maxillipedes are broad in 
proportion to their length ; the ischium-joint little broader than 
long : the merus transverse, its extero-dorsal angle prominent. The 
chelipedes are moderately large, the right a little the larger, and the 
margins of the joints are for the most part clothed with rather long 
hairs ; the carpus or wrist is angulated on its inner surface, with 
some long hairs at the angle ; the palm is little longer than broad, 
and vertically deepest at the place of articulation with the mobile 
finger, its margins are not cristated, its outer surface smooth and 

* Journ. Eoy. Dublin Soc. i. p. 121, pi. iii. fig. 1 (1858). 
t Vide Aim." & Mag. Sat. Hist. ser. 5, viii. p. 259 (1881). 

r2 






244 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

naked except toward the margins, the lower margin is in a straight 
line with the lower margin of the immobile finger ; the fingers are 
little shorter than the palm, acute at apices, and rather strongly den- 
ticulated along their inner margins. The ambulatory legs are slender 
and somewhat elongated, the dactyli styliform and straight, the 
margins (of the fifth pair especially) are clothed with longish 
hairs. The male verges are slender ; their bases lie in narrow 
canaliculi, which are partially open above. Colour (in spirit) light 
yellowish. Length nearly 3 lines (6 millim.), breadth about 3 lines 
(6| millim.). 

The single male in the collection was obtained at Port Darwin, at 
a depth of 12 fms. 

This species is distinguished from Typldocarchius nudus and 
T. villosus, Stimpson, by the form of the merus-joint of the outer 
maxillipedcs and the acnte anterior margins of the ocular peduncles, 
in which characters it agrees with Geratoplax ; in the form of the 
carapace and the structure of the antenna? it agrees better with 
Typhlocarcinvs ; but the very name of the latter genus prevents my 
assigning to it a species which has the organs of vision normally 
developed. Both this and the following species must, I think, be 
regarded as intermediate forms between Typhlocarcinus and Cerato- 
plax. The fifth ambulatory legs are much shorter than the pre- 
ceding, as in Asthenognathus incequipes, Stm. : but, unlike that 
species, the ambulatory legs are all very slender. 

Rhizopa gracilipes, Stimpson, to which this species is nearly allied, 
is described as having minute eyes, a straight frontal margin, a 
strong median frontal suture, and glabrous chelae. 

88. Ceratoplax ? laevis. (Plate XXV. fig. C.) 

In this species the carapace is transverse, smooth and shining, lon- 
gitudinally moderately convex, with only a very few punctulations ; 
the front somewhat deflexed, more than one third the width of the 
carapace, entire, with an indistinct transverse line of scanty hairs 
across its upper surface ; the antero-lateral margins are much shorter 
than the postero-lateral, acute, entire, and bordered with a few hairs ; 
the postero-lateral margins are straight and convergent to the pos- 
terior margin. The orbital margins are entire, the orbits widest 
internally. The epistoma is very narrow-transverse. There are no 
longitudinal ridges on the endostome or palate. The pofetabdominal 
segments (in what appears to be the young female) are all of them 
distinct and all narrow except the last, which reaches to the bases 
of the fifth ambulatory legs. The eye-peduncles are thick and hairy 
above the cornea?, distinct, and black ; the basal antennal joint, 
which is of moderate size, reaches to the subfrontal lobe (see fig. o). 
The ischium-joint of the outer maxillipedcs is little longer than 
broad ; the merus is transverse, with its antero-external angle pro- 
minent and rounded : there is no notch at the antero-internal angle. 
The chelipedes are subequal and of moderate size ; the merus short 
and trigonous, with a strong tooth near the distal end of its upper 



CRUSTACEA. 245 

margin ; the wrist smooth, its inner margin angulatcd, the angle 
with a fringe of long stiff hairs, its anterior margin and outer and 
upper surface have also some hairs ; the palm is scarcely longer than 
vertically deep, its upper margin (and that of the mobile finger at 
base) closely fringed with long stiff hairs, and there are some shorter 
hairs on the lower margin ; the outer surface is smooth, with a few 
scattered punctulations ; the fingers are scarcely longer than the 
palm, denticulated on their inner margins and acute at their apices, 
witli scarcely any intramarginal hiatus. The ambulatory legs are 
slender and somewhat hairy ; the tarsi styliform, straight, and longer 
than the penultimate joints. Colour (in spirit) yellowish white. 
Length of carapace about 2h lines (5 millira.), breadth about 3 lines 
(6| millim.). 

The single specimen (a female) was dredged in the Arafura Sea, 
32-36 fms. (No. 160). 

Prom the preceding species (C. arena ta) this form is at once dis- 
tinguished by the very differently shaped, smooth, and transverse 
carapace, longer basal antennal joint, &c. 

Ccratoplax ciliata, Stimpson, the type of the genus, from the 
N. China Sea, has the body transversely semicylindrical, palm of 
chelipedes with depressed granulations on its outer surface, &c. 

M. A. Milne-Edwards has described a genus and species (Notonycc 
nitidus) from New Caledonia*, which in many of its characters and 
in external appearance is very like Ceratoplaxl lavis. It is de- 
scribed and figured, however, as having the carapace, eyes, and 
chelipedes entirely glabrous, there is apparently no tooth on the 
upper margin of the arm, and the dactyli of the ambulatory legs are 
carinated ; the carapace is more quadrate, and the merus of the outer 
maxillipedes longer, not transverse, with the antero-exteroal angle 
less prominent. 

89. Metopograpsus messor (Forskal). 

This common and widely distributed species is represented in the 
first collection by a male and female from Port Molle, obtained on 
the beach (No. 95), and two males from Port Curtis, 0-19 fms. 
(Nos. 85-92) ; and in the second collection by a small female from 
the beach at Thursday Island (No. 167) and a male and female from 
West Island, Prince of Wales Channel (No. 149). Specimens are 
in the British Museum from Facing Island, Port Curtis, obtained 
under stones at low water (J. Macgillivray, H.M.S. ' Pattlesnake '). 
The other Australian localities whence there are specimens in the 
Museum collection are : — Port Essington ; Nicol Bay, N.W. Austra- 
lia (M. du Boulay) ; Keppel Islands, from mud among mangrove- 
roots (J. Macgillivray'); Moreton Bay (purchased of Warivick); and 
Shark Bay, W. Australia (F. M. Rayner, H.M.S. ' Herald '). 

Specimens also are in the collection of the Museum from :he Gulf 
of Suez (R. Mac Andrew, Esq.) ; Eed Sea (Major J. Burton) ; Mada- 

* Nout. Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat. ix. pp. 268, 269, pi. xii. fig. 3 (1872). 



240 COLLECTIONS FR03J MELANESIA. 

gascar (Rev. Deans Cowan) ; Mauritius (Lady F. Cole) ; Rodriguez 
(G. Gulliver); Indian Ocean, Celebes, Macassar, &c. (coll. Dr. 
Bleeher) ; Keeling Islands (Lieut. Burnaby, R.N.) ; various islands 
of the Fiji group (II.M.S. ' Herald ') ; Samoa Islands, Upolu (Rev. 
S. J. Whitmee) ; Sandwich Islands ( U.S. Exploring Expedition and 
W. H. Pease) ; besides others without special or with insufficiently 
authenticated locality. 

All the Australian examples I have seen, with one exception, 
appear to belong to the variety (as at most I consider it) described 
by Milne-Edwards as intermedins. One, however, of the specimens 
obtained at West Island (No. 149) must, on account of its colora- 
tion, be referred to the variety designated thulcujar by Owen. The 
colour is not indicative of geographical races or subspecies, since of 
this latter variety I have examined specimens both from the Mau- 
ritius and the Sandwich Islands. Mr. Kingsley, in his recent 
"Synopsis of the Grapsidae,"* does not regard these forms even as 
varieties, but unites them all under the one designation M. messor. 

90. Chasmagnathus (Paragrapsus) laevis, Dana. 

A male and female from Port Jackson, 0-7 fins, (one numbered 
104), are referred here. They differ somewhat from the New- 
Zealand examples which I suppose belong to this species, in the 
British-Museum collection, in having but very few or no yellow 
spots on the surface of the carapace. In the New-Zealand examples 
(Soiverby), and others without definite locality in the Museum col- 
lection, both carapace and legs are plentifully mottled with yellow, 
and the front is perhaps a trifle more rounded at its lateral angles ; 
but in other particulars the specimens are so nearly alike that I do 
not venture to regard them as belonging to distinct species. 

Mr. Kingsley, in his " Synopsis of the Grapsidae " above referred to 
(p. 222), has referred to the synonyms of this species. He unites 
the genera Chasmagnathus aud Paragrapsus, and the distinctions 
between the two are certainly very slight ; but it may be convenient 
to reserve the name Paragrapsus as a subgeneric designation, at 
least, for the species with less convex body and broader less deflexed 
front, which, in what may be regarded as the typical Chasmagnathi 
(e. g. C. convexus and C. granulatus), resembles that of Helice tridens 
in being strongly curved downward, with an arcuated anterior 
margin that does not project in the middle line over the antennulary 
region. 

The range of C. la>vis, as far as at present ascertained, is restricted 
to the north and south-eastern shores of Australia and the New- 
Zealand coasts. 

91. Sesarma bidens, De Haan ? 

Port Curtis, 7-9 fms. (No. 85). Two specimens (males). 

These examples are referred with little hesitation to S. bidens, 

* Proc. Acad Nat. ?ci. Philad. p. 190 (1880). 



CRUSTACEA. 



247 



although the beaded row of granules on the upper margin of the 
mobile finger is much less distinctly marked than in the specimen 
figured by De Haan. 

Several species of this genus have been described agreeing with 
S. bidens in the bidentate lateral margins of the carapace, and in 
having two small oblique pectinated ridges on the upper surface of 
the palm. Of these, I regard S. lividum and S. guttatum, A. M.- 
Edwards *, as very doubtfully distinct. 

S. dussumieri, M.-Edwards t, from Bombay, is very briefly cha- 
racterized ; but as the words " pouce subcrenele " occur in the de- 
scription, it may be that our specimens belong to it. 

There are specimens that I refer, at least provisionally, to this 
species in the collection of the Museum from the Philippine Islands 
(Cuming, Veitch), Koo-Keang-San (H.M.S. ' Samarang '), Malaysian 
Seas without locality (Dr. P. Bleelcer), and New Hebrides (J. Macgil- 
livray). This latter example does not differ appreciably from the 
figure of 8. lividum, A. M.-Edw., founded on a New-Caledonian 
example (vide N". Arch. Mus. H. N. ix. p. 303, pi. xvi. fig 2, 1873). 
This, as M. de Man has shown, is a species ranging throughout the 
Oriental region. 

There are, besides, in the collection two very small specimens of 
a species of this geuus belonging to the section having a carapace 
with entire lateral margins, which I will not venture to determine. 
The larger, a female, is from Port Jackson (0-5 fins.), the smaller, 
a male, from Port Curtis. It cannot, I think, be identified with 
Sesarma eryihrodactyla, Hess, from Sydney zj:, in which the outer 
border of the mobile finger is ribbed, and the inner provided with 
two larger and several smaller teeth, &c. 



92. Pinnotheres villosulus. 

? Pinnotheres villosulus, Guerin-Meneville, Or. in Voyage de la Co- 
guille, Zool. ii. p. 13 (1S30) ; Icon. R'egne Animal, Cr. p. 7, pi. iv. 
fig. 6 (1829-44). 

? Pinnotheres villosus, M.-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 3, Zool. xx. 
p. 218, pi. xi. fig. 8 (1853). 

A female in Dr. Coppinger's collection, obtained at Warrior Reef, 
Torres Straits, agrees in nearly all particulars with M. Guerin's 
description based on specimens from Timor, and the maxillipede is 
almost exactly of the form delineated by Milne-Edwards. Guerin, 
however, describes the front as emarginate, whereas in the specimen 
I have before me it is triangulate and deflexed. In the slight out- 
line sketch of the front and antennae in his ' Iconographie ' the 
rostrum appears, however, to be triangulate and bent down between 
the oblique antennules just as in Dr. Coppinger's specimen. I prefer, 
therefore, to refer the latter provisionally to Guerin-Meneville's 
species rather than to incur the risk of adding needlessly to the 

* N. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. v. Bulletin, pp. 25, 26 (1869). 

t Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 3. Zool. xx. p. 185 (1853). 

J Arclriv. Mus. Hist. Nat. p. 151, pi. vi. fig. 10 (1865). 



248 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

synonyms by giving a new designation to a female example and one 
so doubtfully distinct. I sbould add, however, that in Dr. Cop- 
pinger's specimen there is scarcely any trace of pubescence on the 
middle part of the dorsal surface of the carapace, which is probably 
worn smooth by abrasion. 

Two females received in the second collection from the same 
locality, 1G fms. (No. 137), are of larger size, uniformly tomcntose, 
and the maxillipedc (in one specimen examined) is less distinctly 
truncated at its distal end ; they cannot, however, be regarded as 
belonging to a distinct species. 

93. Mycteris longicarpus, Latr. 

Port Molle ; four specimens (two males and two females) were 
obtained on tbe beach (No. 95). 

Specimens are in the British-Museum collection from PortEssing- 
ton (J. Gould); Nicol Bay, N.W. Australia (M. du Boulay); Sydney; 
Port Jackson (Antarctic Expedition) ; Swan River (Bring) ; Tasmania 
(B. Gunn); and others without special locality. Also from New 
Guinea (liev. W. Y. Turner): Billiton Island (Marquis of Tweeddale); 
Timor Laut (H. 0. Forbes) ; Philippines, Negros (Cuming) ; and 
China seas (Swirihoe). 

It is recorded by M. A. Milne-Edwards from New Caledonia. 

I think it is very doubtful whether Mycteris brevidactylus, Stimp- 
son *, from the Loo-choo Islands, can be regarded as distinct from 
this species. 

Of the closely allied Mycteris platycheles, M. -Edwards, there are 
specimens in the British-Museum collection from Broken Bay 
(J. Macgillivray, H.M.S. ' Battlesuake '), Tasmania (Dring, Litvt. A. 
Smith), and others without special indication of locality. "With 
this latter species, Mycteris subverrucatus of White f and Kinahan + 
is identical. 

94. Halicarcinus ovatus, Stimpson. 

Port Jackson, 0-7 fms. (No. 104). Four specimens, two males 
and two females. 

In the 'Catalogue of New-Zealand Crustacea,' p. 49 (1876), I 
united this form with Halicarcinus planatus (Eabr.) ; but after a 
closer examination of a larger series of Australian specimens, I was 
inclined to think that it might after all be distinctly characterized by 
relatively larger and more closely approximated frontal lobes which 
are less hairy above. Accordingly the citation of this species was 
not included among the synonymical references to H. planatus in 
my notice of that species in the Report on the Crustacea of Ker- 
guelen Island §. 

* Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. p. 99 (1858). 

+ List Crust. Brit. Mas. p. 34 (1847). 

\ Journ. Roy. Dublin Soc. i. p. 123 (1858). 

§ Phil. Trans, clxviii. p. 201 (1879). 



CRUSTACEA. 219 

The differences in the form of the frontal lobes between the two 
species are, I may add, well shown in Targioni-Tozetti's figures 
(vide ' Crostacei della Magenta,' pp. 173, 17<i, pi. x. figs. 4 & 5, 
1877). 

All the specimens of this genus from the Magellan Straits, Falk- 
land, Kerguclen, and Auckland Islands, and New Zealand in the 
collection of the Museum belong to //. planatus. 

Of //. ovatus there are specimens in the collection of tho British 
Museum from reefs on the N.E. coast of Australia (Saumarez) and 
Port Jackson ( Cuming). I believe a very small specimen from King 
George's Sound, S.W. Australia (/•'. M. Bqyner, H.M.S. 'Herald'), 
also belongs here. Mr. Ilaswell (Cat. p. 114) mentions tho oc- 
currence of Halicarcinus planatus, which he refers to the genus 
Hymenosoma, at Port Western ; but as he merely quotes the 
description and synonyms as given in my New-Zealand Catalogue, 
I cannot be certain whether his specimens belong to H. 2^ ana -tus 
or //. ovatus. 

95. Leucosia ocellata, Bell. 

A female example was obtained in the Arafura Sea at 32-36 fms. 
(Xo. 1G0). 

There are besides in the Museum collection only the specimen re- 
ferred to by Bell as from " Eastern Australia." which was obtained 
at Cape Capricorn, on the Queensland coast (J. Macyillivray, H.M.S. 
' Rattlesnake '), and one without special locality collected by F. M. 
Eayner (H.M.S. 'Herald 7 ). 

Mr. Haswell records this species from Keppel Bay, Queensland. 

96. Leucosia whitei. 

Leucosia whitei, Bell, Trans. Linn. Soc. xxi. p. 289, pi. xxxi. fig. 2 
(1855) ; Cat. Leucosiidat Brit. Mus. p. 9 (1855) ; Haswell, 1'roc. 
Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, p. 45 (1880) ; Cat. Austr. Crust, p. 118 
(1882). 

? Leucosia cheverti, Haswell, t. c. p. 47, pi. v. fig. 2 (1880) ; Cata- 
logue, p. 120 (1882), var. 

A specimen from Flinders, Clairmont, N.E. Australia, dredged in 
11 fms. (No. 108), in the first collection, belongs here, and one from 
Prince of Wales Channel, 9 fms. (No. 157), second collection. Mr. 
Haswell records it from Princess Charlotte Bay, Cape Grenville, and 
Brook Island. 

I think that L. cheverti, Haswell, can scarcely be regarded as 
more than a variety of L. whitei ; it is distinguished, according to 
its author, by the form of the front, which is obscurely (not dis- 
tinctly) tridentate, and by the absence of granules on the hepatic 
regions. The hepatic granules, however, vary in number in the 
specimens (four in number) in the Museum collection, and in one 
are very obscurely marked. In two specimens from Shark Bay, 
W. Australia (F. M. Bayner, H.M.S. 'Herald'), which I think 



250 



COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 



must be referred to the variety cheverti, not only are the hepatic 
granules entirely absent, but also the front has not the faintest 
trace of trilobation. 

97. Leucosia craniolaris, var. laevimana. (Plate XXVI. fig. A.) 

I propose thus to designate, at least provisionally, a female speci- 
men obtained in 10 fms. at Friday Island, Torres Straits (No. 153), 
which is distinguished from the very numerous examples of 
L. craniolaris in the Museum collection by the absence of a series 
of granules on the inner margin of the palms of the chelipedes. 
The carapace is narrower than is usual in L. craniolaris, very 
polished and shining, and has two white spots on either side of the 
The notch in the anterior margin of the thoracic 



gastric region. 



sinus is less distinct than is usual in L. craniolaris. A second 
specimen from Torres Straits, in the Museum collection, resembles 
Dr. Coppinger's example in its narrow rhomboidal carapace, but the 
inner margins of the chelipedes are distinctly granulated. 

Specimens of Leucosia craniolaris are in the British Museum from 
Tranquebar(07(Z Collection); Ceylon (E. W. II. Holdsworth) ; Penang 
(Dr. Cantor) : Borneo and Chinese seas (coll. H.M.S. ' Samarang'); 
Formosa (Matthew Dickson) ; Hong-Kong (Dr. W. A. Harland and 
W. Stimjjson). 

98. Myra carinata, Bell. 

Flinders, Clairmont, N.E. Australia. A fine male dredged in 
11 fms. (No. 108) seems to be referable to this species, which has 
been recorded by Mr. Haswell * from Cape Grenville. 

Specimens are in the British-Museum collection from the Celebes, 
Macassar (coll. Dr. Bleel-er), Philippines (Cuming), and Hong- 
Kong (Dr. W. A. Harland). 

These differ slightly among themselves in certain points, as e. g. 
the relative narrowness of the carapace, prominence of the inner 
and upper orbital angles, and length of the posterior spines, charac- 
ters that may be of some importance ; but large series are needed to 
determine with certainty the distinctions between the very variable 
species of this genus. 

99. Myra affinis, Bell. 

Four specimens are referred here from Port Denison, 4 fms. (Nos. 
Ill, 122), first collection, and a larger female from Thursday Island, 
3-4 fms., second collection (No. 177), which, like the examples men- 
tioned by Mr. Haswell from Cape Grenville and New South AVales, 
have a more or less distinct median longitudinal carina on the 
carapace. 

Of M. ajjinis there are specimens in the British-Museum collec- 
tion from the Philippine Islands, Masbate, Zebu (Cuming), and from 
the Eastern seas (11. M.S. ' Samarang') without special locality. 

* ' Catalogue,' p. 121 (1882). 



CRUSTACEA. 251 

The larger specimen closely resembles the specimens referred to 
M. ajjinis in the Museum collection, and scarcely differs from M. mam- 
millaris except in the (relatively) somewhat longer, more acute 
median spine of the posterior margin, and shorter chelipedes ; and I 
think it probable that a larger series would demonstrate the necessity 
of uniting the two species. The younger examples may be distin- 
guished from those referred to M. australis by their narrower cara- 
pace, and the longer, more acute, and non-recurved posterior marginal 
spines. 

100. Myra mammillaris, Bell. 

An adult male is in the collection from Port Denison, 4 fms. 
(No. 111). 

There are in the Museum collection specimens from Adelaide, 
S. Australia (purchased), and others without special locality. 



101. Myra australis, I/asicell? 

Myra mammillaris (young), Miers, Trans. Linn. Soc. ser 2, Zool. i. 

p. 239, pi. xxxviii. figs. 25-27 (1877). 
F Myra australis, Ilasicell, Proc. Linn. Soc. X. S. W. iv. p. 50, pi. v. 

fig. 3 (1880); Catalogue, p. 122 (1882). 

Three specimens are referred doubtfully to this form from Port 
Molle, 14 fms. (No. 93), and one from Port Denison, 4 fms. (Wo. 122) 
(first collection); also a male from Thursday Island, 3-4 fms. 
(No. 177), two females from the same locality, 4-5 fms. (No. 165), 
(to the back of one of which is attached a fine specimen of a species 
of Acetabular ia), and two males from Prince of Wales Channel, 
obtained at 7 fms. (No. 142) and 9 fms. (No. 157). 

In some of the specimens I have examined the carapace is much 
more evenly granulated than in others, and they also differ in the 
more or less recurved posterior median spine and the greater or 
lesser dilatation of the intestinal region ; in some females the post- 
abdomen is comparatively narrow, whereas in others it covers the 
whole of the sternal surface. Although some of the larger spe- 
cimens approach nearly in their characters to M. mammillaris, yet, 
as all may be distinguished by their more orbiculate carapace, more 
acutely-angulated pterygostomian regions, the more or less recurved 
posterior median spine, and relatively shorter chelipedes, I prefer to 
adopt for them, at least provisionally, Mr. Haswell's specific name. 
I should add, however, that in Mr. Haswell's figure the male post- 
abdomen is represented as shorter than in our specimens, with the 
sides somewhat constricted at base of the terminal segment. 

There are specimens from Shark Bay, West Australia, in the 
Museum collection (H.M.S. '■Herald') which probably belong here, 
but in one (a female) the granulations of the carapace are very 
indistinct. 



252 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

102. Phlyxia crassipes, Bell. 

Of this species, which is said by Mr. Haswell to bo extremely 
common at Port Jackson, a very small male was dredged at that 
locality in 5-7 fms. (Xo. 104), and another, larger, male in 0-5 fms. 
(second collection). 

Besides the specimens from Port Jackson (Cuming and J. Macgil- 
livray) mentioned by Bell, the Museum possesses one from Flinders 
Island, Bass Straits (F. M. Rayner, II. M.S. 'Herald'), and others, 
without special locality, from Dr. Bowerbank and \V. A. Miles, 
Esq. 

It is of interest to note that there are two other species of this 
genus recorded from Port Jackson, and agreeing with Phlyxia cras- 
sipes in possessing a 4-lobed front, which yet appear to be distinct ; 
they are Phlyxia quadridentata*, a species recorded from Port 
Jackson by Stimpson, and Phlyxia ramsayi, Haswell (t. c. p. 127). 

103. Phlyxia lambrif oralis. 

Phlyxia lambriformis, Bell, Trans. Linn. Soc. xxi. p. 301, pi. xxxiv. 

fig. 2 (1855); Cat. Leucos. Brit. Mus. p. 17 (1855); Hasu-ell, 

Cat. Austr. Crust, p. 121 (1882). 
Phlyxia petleyi, Haswell, t. c. p. 125, pi. iii. fig. 3 (1882). 

A female was received with Dr. Coppinger's second collection 
from Prince of Wales Channel, fms. (No. 157), and four males and 
a female from Port Darwin, 7-12 fms. (mostly Xo. 173). 

There are, besides, two specimens in the British Museum from 
the ' Battlcsnake ' collection, obtained at Bass Straits, and one 
from the same collection without special locality. 

It is recorded by Mr. Haswell from Princess Charlotte Bay and 
Holborn Island near Port Denison, and also from Port Molle, Whit- 
sunday Passage (as P. petleyi). 

After a careful comparison of Mr. HaswelTs description and 
figure of P. petleyi in the Catalogue of Australian Stalk- and Sessile- 
eyed Crustacea with Prof. Bell's types of P. lambriformis in the 
Museum collection, I am unable to regard the two as distinct 
species. Prof. Bell's figure is from an adult male in which the 
rostrum, tubercles of the carapace, and teeth of the antero-lateral 
margins are all very prominent, whereas Mr. Haswell's description 
was based upon a female and smaller male. Moreover, Bell's short 
description is misleading in one or two particulars — e.g. he describes 
the carapace as carinated, whereas the keel in question extends only 
over the depressed postfrontal portion of the carapace, from the 
back of the rostrum to the gastric region. 

104. Nursia shmata, Miers. 

Of this species three specimens, a male and two females, are in 
the collection (Xo. 123), but, unfortunately, the exact locality is not 

* Ebalia quadridentata, Gray, Zool. Miscell. ii. p. 40 (1831). 



CRUSTACEA. 253 

known. In the smallest (immature) female the postabdomen is 
relatively narrow, and does not, as in the adult, cover the whole of 
the sternal surface. 

Nursia abbn viata, Bell, must be added to the list of the Australian 
species of this family, since the specimens in the British-Museum 
collection are from Moreton Bay, and were purchased with the types 
of N. sinuata from the same locality. 

105. Nursilia dentata, Bell. 

In the first collection is a female from Flinders, Clairmont, X.E. 
Australia, 11 fms. (Xo. 108), and in the second an adult female and 
two smaller males from the Arafura Sea, 32-36 fms. (Xo. 1G0). 
These do not differ from the type (a female, without special indica- 
tion of locality, from the ; Samarang ' collection) in the British 
Museum, except in the somewhat more prominent spines and mar- 
ginal teeth of the carapace. 

Mr. Haswell mentions the occurrence of this species at the Fitzroy 
Islands. 

There is in the collection of the British Museum a female from 

the Fiji Islands, Matuka (H.M.S. 'Herald'), in which the small 

| spines or tubercles of the gastric, hepatic, and branchial regions are 

i nearly obliterated, as are also the lobes or teeth of the lateral 

margins. 

In the final consignment of the collections of H.M.S. ' Alert ' is a 
specimen from the Seychelles. Hence this species is evidently dis- 
1 tributed throughout the Oriental region. 

106. Iphiculus spongiosus, Adams § While. 

A small male was dredged in the Arafura Sea, 32-36 fms. 

(Xo. 160), which agrees with the larger specimens from the Philip- 

I pine Islands, Corregidor (Ciiniinr/), and another specimen without 

I definite locality, from the ; Samarang ' collection, in the British 

Museum. 

Prof. Bell is certainly right in classing this genus with the 
i Leucosiidae, and in stating that it has no near affinities with the 
Parthenopida?, as supposed by Adams and "White. 



107. Arcania pulcherrima, Haswell. 

Arcania septemspinosa, Bell, Trans. Linn. Soc. xxi. p. 310, pi. xxxiv. 

fig. 7 (1855); Cat. Leucos. Brit. Mus. p. 21 (1855). 
Arcania pulcherrima, Hasiccll, I'ruc. Linn. Soc. K. S. Wales, iv. p. 58, 

pi. vi. fig. 4 (1880) ; Cat. Av.str. Crust, p. 131 (1882). 

An adult female from Prince of "Wales Channel, !< fms. (Xo. 157), 
and a smaller male from the Arafura Sea, 32-36 fms. (Xo. 160), are 
referred here. 

A comparison of Mr. Harwell's description and figure of A. pul- 



254 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANE8TA. 

cherrima, from Darnley Island, with .Bell's type of A. septemspinosa 
(which is registered as from Borneo, and is not, as Bell states, of 
unknown locality) in the Museum collection establishes the identity 
of the two species. There is in reality no median posterior mar- 
ginal spine in A. septemspinosa, the one shown in the figure (and 
made much too prominent) being the posterior spine or tubercle of 
the median longitudinal dorsal series, which is situated above the 
posterior margin. Hence the name septemspinosa is inappropriate 
for this species ; and as, moreover, the same specific description is 
used in the genus Iphis, which, as I have already noticed*, is 
scarcely distinct from Arcania, I prefer to retain Mr. Haswell's 
specific name. 

108. Lithadia? sculpta, Hasivell. 

A male of this veiy interesting little species was dredged in the 
Arafura Sea at 32-36 fms. (No. 160), whore so many other remark- 
able species were obtained. A dried female is in the British Museum, 
from the collection of H.M.S. ' Samarang,' but without any special 
indication of locality. Mr. Haswell's types were from the Fitzroy 
Islands. 

109. Oreophorus reticulatus, Adams <$f White. 

An adult female from Thursday Island, 4-5 fms. (No. 165), and 
a smaller specimen of the same sex from Friday Island, 10 fms. 
(No. 153), seem to belong to this species. 

The specimens in the British-Museum collection are from the 
Straits of Sunda {H.M.S. ' Samarang') and Philippines (Cuming). 

From 0. frontalis this variable species may, it would appear, 
always be distinguished by its very much less prominent and non- 
emarginate front. 

110. Oreophorus frontalis. (Plate XXVI. fig. B.) 

The carapace is transverse and laterally produced at the branchial 
regions over the bases of the ambulatory legs ; the margins of 
the carapace at this part form a distinct angle with the antero- 
lateral margins. The front is very prominent, and divided by a 
very shallow median notch into two rounded lobes ; it is uniformly 
granulated above. The surface of the carapace (seen under a suffi- 
cient magnifying-power) is granulated, the granules most numerous 
towards the posterior and postero-lateral margins, and, where not 
granulated, it is closely and finely punctulated ; the hepatic regions 
are separated from the adjoining parts by a well-defined semicircular 
suture, the branchial regions near to the middle bine are strongly 
convex. There is a prominent triangular acute lobe on the pterygo- 
stomian regions. All the postabdominal segments appear to be 
distinct, the postabdomen, sternal surface, and inferior parts of the 
carapace generally being granulated ; a more prominent tubercle 

* Vide Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, v. p. 317 (1880). 



CRUSTACEA. 255 

exists on the fifth segment ; the terminal segment is much narrower 
than the preceding, acute and constricted at base. The eyes are 
placed in very small orbits ; the antcnnules lie in oblique fossettes ; 
the bases of the antennae are almost completely fused with the sur- 
rounding parts of the carapace (in the single specimen examined), 
and scarcely any traco remains of a flagellum. The merus-joint of 
the outer maxillipedes is triangulate, and shorter than the preceding ; 
the exognath has its outer margin straight, and, although robust, is 
narrower than the ischium of the endognath, it does not reach to 
the extremity of the merus-joint. The chelipedes are subequal and 
of moderate length, with the joints granulated, but otherwise un- 
armed ; merus trigonous ; carpus very short ; palm externally rather 
convex, with an angulated prominence on its inner surface, shorter 
than the fingers, which externally are longitudinally sulcated, meet 
along their inner margins when closed (these margins being minutely 
denticulated), and are concave internally toward and somewhat 
incurved at the tips. The ambulatory legs (which are partially 
concealed beneath the carapace) have all the joints strongly gra- 
nulated ; the dactyle slender, and longer than the preceding joints. 
The colour (in spirit) of the single specimen is nearly white. Length 
not quite 3 lines (6 millim.), breadth nearly 4 lines (8 millim.). 

The single specimen was collected at Port Molle, 5-12 fms. 
(No. 118), and is a male, the first, I believe, recorded of this genus. 

The very prominent front seems to distinguish this species from 
all hitherto recorded, except Oreophorus petrceus*, from New 
Caledonia, which is only distinguished by the much shorter, 
more dilated immobile fingers of the chelipedes, and by having the 
lateral margins of the carapace marked by three closed fissures, 
whereas in 0. frontalis there are but two, which meet behind and 
circumscribe the hepatic region. There are two specimens that 
probably belong to 0. petrceus in the collection of the Museum, from 
Shark Bay, W. Australia (F. M. Eayner, H.M.S. 'Herald'). These 
forms are certainly intermediate between Oreophorus and Tlos, but 
seem to me to have more affinity with the former genus, since in 
Tlos muriger. Ad. & White (the typical species), the front is not at 
all prominent, and its margin, with the antero-lateral margins of 
the carapace, is dorsally reflexed. 

In the elongated fingers it resembles 0. rugosvs, Stimpson, as 
figured by A. Milne-Edwards t, from the Loochoo Islands and Cochin 
China, which, however, has a much less prominent front and the 
carapace more coarsely punctulated, and is without the hepatic 
sulcus. Mr. Haswell (Cat. p. 130) records 0. rugosvs from Port 
Denison : but as his description is merely abbreviated from that of 
Milne-Edwards, I am unable to say whether the specimens there 
collected afford any basis for uniting 0. rugosus and 0. frontalis. 

* Tlos pftr (ens, A. M. -Edwards, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. x. p. 51, pi. iii. 
fig. 1 (1874). 

t Ann. Soc. Entom. France, ser. 4, t. p. 152, pi. vi. fig. 3 (1865). 



256 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

111. Matuta victrix (Fair.). 

Two males are in the collection from the Percy Islands, Queens- 
land, 0-5 fms. (No. 91). 

Of this common species specimens are in the British-Museum 
collection from Torres Straits (J. B. Juices), and Shark Bay (F. 
M. Rayner, H.M.S. 'Herald'). Also from the Red Sea, Zanzibar 
(Dr. Kirk); Pondicherry, Indian Ocean (Gen. ffardwicke) ; Madras 
(India Mas. coll.); Ceylon (E. W. H. Holdsworth) ; Penang (India 
Mas. coll.): Celebes, Macassar, Bali, and Batjan (coll. Dr. Bleeker); 
Borneo (Admiral/;/ ). 

Of the very distinct variety crebrepunctata, Miers, there are 
specimens from Japan (Leyden coll.), Fiji Islands, Vanua Levu (F. 
M. Rayner), and Mallicollo, New Hebrides ("FT. Wykeham Perry). 

112. Matuta inermis. (Plate XXVI. fig. C.) 

I must, at least provisionally, thus designate a female from 
Albany Island, 3-4 fms., two small males from Thursday 
Island, 3-1 fms. (No. 177), three from Prince of "Wales Channel, 
7 fms. (No. 169), and four collected in Torres Straits at 10 fms. 
(No. 158), also four specimens (of which three are very small, 
and the fourth, a male, but little larger) from the ' Herald ' col- 
lection (F. M. Rayner), without definite locality, in the British- 
Museum collection. In all of these specimens the carapace is rather 
longer than broad, proportionately longer and narrower than in other 
species of the genus; the tubercles of the carapace are arranged nearly 
as in M. banksii, which this species further resembles in having the 
anterior half of the carapace coarsely and distinctly granulated. The 
long lateral marginal spines, however, which exist in every other 
species of Matuta are in M. inermis obsolete and represented merely 
by a small tubercle. The interrupted ridge on the middle of the 
outer surface of the palm is parallel with the inferior margin, and 
the outer surface of the mobile finger presents scarcely any trace of 
a longitudinal ridge (fig. c). Hence this species is to be referred to 
my second section (B) of the genus. The chelipedes differ, however, 
from those of M. banksii and other species in having the carpus 
distinctly granulated, and in having no spine, but only a tubercle, 
at the proximal end of the ridge on the exterior surface of the palm, 
&c. (see the figure). Length of the specimen from Albany Island 
about 10 lines (21 millim.), breadth about 9| (20 millim.). The male 
above referred to is somewhat smaller. In only a few of the speci- 
mens is any trace of coloration to be seen ; and in these examples the 
markings are in the form of largish patches or blotches, sometimes 
defined by darker marginal lines, and in some of the spirit-specimens 
there are longitudinal waved lines on the posterior regions. 

Xo reference was made to this species in my " Monograph of the 
genus Matuta," * because the few specimens then before me were 

* Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, Zool. i. p. 243 (1877). 



CBWTACEA. 257 

■without locality, and being also of very small size, I was uncer- 
tain whether to regard them as belonging at all to this genus, and 
if so, whether they might not represent an immature condition of 
one of the known species. This, I am inclined to think, cannot be 
possible, since there are one or two Matuto in the collection no 
larger than M. inermis, in which nevertheless the lateral spines are 
distinctly developed and the carapace of the normal width. In 
the obsolescence of the lateral spines M. im rmis resembles the genus 
I'niptosoma ; but in the form of the chelipedes and of the dactyli of 
the swimming-legs and in the mouth-organs it is altogether a Matuta. 

113. Calappa hepatica (Linn.). 

An adult male was obtained near Clairmont on a coral-reef 
(No. 151). 

Specimens are in the British-Museum collection from the following 
Australian localities : — Trinity Day, N.E. Australia (J. Macgillivray, 
H.M.S. 'Rattlesnake'), also from Bramble Key and West Hill (J. 
B. Jakes). Hess records it from Sydney. 

I have already * referred to the extended geographical range of 
this common species, which is more generally known by Fabricius's 
designation C. tuberculata. 



*&- 



114. Dorippe dorsipes. 

Cancer dorsipes. Linn. Mus. Lud. Ulrica;, p. 452 (1764); Syst. Nat. 
ed. xii. p. 10-53 ( 1706), not of Rumpliius, Fahriciu ■. or Herbst. 

Cancer frascone, Herbst, Naturg. Krabben etc. i. p. 102, pi. xi. fig. 70 
(1790). 

? Cancer quadridens, Fabrieius, Ent. Syst. ii. p. 404 (1793). 

Dorippe quadridens, Fabr. Ent. Syst. Svppl. p. 301 ( 1798) ; De Haan, 
Faun. Japon., Crust, p. 121, pi. xxxi. fig. 3 (1841) ; White, List 
Cr. Frit. Mus. p. 54 (1-47) ; Stimpson, Fr. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil. 
p. 103 (1858). 

Dorippe atropos and D. nodulosa, Lamarck, Syst. Anim. sans Vert. 
v. p. 245 (1818). 

Dorippe quadridentatn, M.-Ediv. Hist, Nat. Crust, ii. p. 157 (T- 
MilgendorfjMonatsh, AJtad. Wissensch. Berlin, p. 812 (1878); Has- 
ted, Cat. Austr. Crust, p. 137 (1882). 

To this species are referred a male from Port Molle, 14 fms. (Xo. 
93); another from Port Denison, 4 fms. : a female from Flinders, 
Clairmont, X.E. Australia, 11 fms. : and a small male in ven im- 
perfect condition from Thursday Island, 4—6 fms. (Xo. 130), in 
which the carapace is narrower than usual. All of the above from the 
first collection. In the second collection, three small specimens from 
the Arafura Sea, 32-36 fms. (Xo. 160), probably belong here. 
Another very small example from Friday Island, 10 fms. (Xo. 153), 
which has the carapace glabrous, but tuberculated nearly as in D. 
dorsipes, I cannot assign with certainty to any species. 

* Phil. Trans, clxviii. p. 491 (1879). 



258 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

I designate this common species (which is usually referred to 
under the Fabrician name quadridens or quadridentata) D. dorsipes, 
because Linmeus's somewhat detailed description in the ' Museum 
Ludovicse Ulricas ' agrees with it excellently in almost every par- 
ticular, and more especially as regards the disposition of the spines 
on the postabdominal segments of the male, where, however, it 
must be noted that there is usually a tubercle on the first postabdo- 
minal segment, which is described by Linnaeus as " inermis." In the 
female there arc between the larger spines or tubercles of the post- 
abdominal segments several smaller spinules. If this species be not 
truly D. dorsipes of Linnaeus, it would appear (as Hilgendorf notes) 
that Herbst's name of D. frascone has still priority over the Fabrician 
designation. 

Of this species there are specimens in the British-Museum collec- 
tion from several localities on the North-eastern coast of Australia, 
e. g., Torres Straits (J. B. Juices), Dunk Island (J. Macgillivray, 
H.M.S. ' Rattlesnake '), and near Cumberland Island (J. Macgilli- 
vray) ; also a small specimen from Shark Bay, W. Australia (F. 
M. Rayner, H.M.S. ' Herald '), in which the eye-peduncles are rela- 
tively much longer, probably belongs here. There are, besides, 
specimens in the Museum collection from the Indian Ocean (Hard- 
wicJce); Ceylou (E. W. H. HoldswortJi); Philippine Islands {Cuming); 
Japan (Leyden collection) ; and China seas (K. Sivinhoe). 

There are in the Museum collection two specimens from Shanghai, 
which have the carapace and ambulatory legs much more tomentose, 
the median spines of the front less prominent, and the right-hand 
chela (in the male) considerably developed, with the palm swollen 
and vertically very deep ; they are probably only old and large speci- 
mens of this species. 

Tbree female specimens from China only differ in the remarkable 
breadth of the carapace at the branchial regions, and the larger size 
of some of the wart-like tubercles of the dorsal surface, and are 
probably not distinct. A specimen from Canton Province (Dr. Caii- 
tor) approaches in the lesser width of the carapace ordinary females 
of D. dorsipes. In all of these the postabdomen is deficient. 

Finally, two specimens from Zebu, Philippines (Cuming), which 
White has referred to D. callida, Fabr., only differ in the slender 
legs and in the obsolescence of the tubercles of the carapace, whose 
surface, however, is uneven and elevated where these tubercles 
ordinarily exist. They may be distinct or only a variety of D. 
dorsipes. 



115. Dorippe australiensis. (Plate XXYI. fig. D.) 

I thus designate a small example obtained at Port Dcnison, 4 fins. ; 
also two specimens from Moreton Bay (purchased), and four from 
the Australian coast (Dr. BowerbanJc), but without any special in- 
dication of locality, in the British-Museum collection. 

This form is evidently very nearly allied to D. gramdata, De 



CRUSTACEA. 259 

Haan, from the Japanese seas*, but differs from his description 
and figure, and from a Japanese specimen in the Museum collec- 
tion, in the following characters: — The carapace is somewhat more 
depressed, and granulated only toward the sides, the gastric and 
cardiac regions being smooth ; the second and third legs are naked, 
the merus-joints much slenderer and less compressed than in I), gra- 
nulate,, and smooth, not granulated ; t lie folio wing joint is bicarinated 
as in B. granulate, but the carinae are not granulated. In the 
single male example of B. granulate I have seen, the palm of the 
larger (right) chelipede is granulated on its outer surface, in D.aus- 
trali nsis it is smooth. These observations and the figure < d) of the 
chela are based on adult examples received from Dr. Bowerbank, as 
the specimen received from Dr. Coppinger is very small and is, more- 
over, a female. This species is also very nearly allied to D. astute, 
Fabricius; but in specimens referred to the latter from the Indian 
Ocean and the Philippines, in the Museum collection, the carapace is 
smooth and narrower, the legs slender, and the carpus-joint in the 
second and third pairs not longitudinally bicarinated. In D. sima, 
M.-Edw., on the contrary, the second and third legs are much more 
robust, and there is a strong spine at the inner suborbital angle, 
which is wanting in the three species above mentioned. 



AXOMUBA. 
1. Cryptodromia lateralis. 

PDromia lateralis, Gray, Zool. Miscell. p. 40 (1831). 

Dromia verrucosipes, finite, List Crust. Brit. Mm. p. 55 (1847). 




p. 139 (1882). 

A male from Port Jackson, 5-7 fms. (Xo. 104), is referred to this 
species. Specimens from the same locality are in the British-Museum 
collection (Antarctic Expedition and J. Brazier). Other Australian 
localities indicated by specimens in the British Museum are : — 
Kicol Bay (M. duBovJay); Brisbane ( Cuming); Tasmania (Cuming, 
Bonald Gunn) ; Bass Straits (J. Macgillivray, H.M.S. ' Battlesnal. 
Fremantle (Dr. Bowerbank); King George's Sound, West Australia 
(F. 31. Ray ner, BZ.M.S. ' Herald ') ; also from Japan, Madjica- 
Sima (H.M.S. 'Samarang'), Philippine Islands, Bohol (Cuming), 
and Xew Zealand. 

This species is without doubt the Cryptodromia lateralis of 
Heller ; and Dr. Gray's short diagnosis also agrees with our speci- 
mens so far as it serves ; but he does not mention one of the most 
salient characteristics of the species — the nodosities of the chelipedes 
and ambulatory legs. In certain of the specimens, however, these 
prominences are much less apparent, and the longitudinal carinas of 

* In Siebold, Fauna Japonica, Crust, p. 122, pi. xxxi fig. 2 (sima), 1841 

s2 



260 COLLECTIONS EB01I MELANESIA. 

the penultimate and antepenultimate joints of the ambulatory legs 
are nioro distinct. 



2. Petalornera pulchra. (Plate XXYII. fig. A.) 

Carapace somewhat oblong-oval, and a little longer than broad, 
moderately convex and granulated ; its anterior parts are rather 
thinly pubescent, the front in its median portion is nearly vertically 
deflexed (see fig. a) ; the lateral frontal lobes are prominent, in a 
dorsal view triangulate, and are separated from one another by a 
deeply concave interspace. The upper orbital margin is thin, pro- 
minent, and entire ; there is a small notch at the outer angle ; the 
sides of the carapace are armed with three small teeth placed in an 
oblique series, the anterior of which is situated upon the subhepatic 
region : the carapace in front of these teeth is somewhat coarsely 
granulated. Distinct longitudinal ridges exist on the endostome or 
palate. The sternal sulci in the female are remote from one another, 
and terminate in tubercles which are situated a little behind the 
bases of the second pair of legs (see fig. a). The eyes are of 
moderate length, corneas distinct ; the peduncles of the antennas are 
rather robust ; the second joint somewhat longer than the first or 
the third. The m eras-joint of the outer maxillipedes is about as 
long as the ischium, truncated at its distal end, and without any 
notch at its antero-external angle where the next joint articulates 
with it. The chelipedes are subequal ; the merus has its upper 
margin produced into a high arched crest, its inner surface is smooth 
and polished, its outer pubescent, the inner and lower margin is 
sharp-edged and entire ; the wrist and palm are also slightly cris- 
tated above, and have their outer surfaces granulated and pubescent ; 
the wrist has two larger tubercles or prominences at its distal end ; 
the granules on the palm disposed in six longitudinal series ; fingers 
somewhat shorter than the palm and meeting along their regularly 
serrated inner edges when closed, excavate and naked at the apices. 
The ambulatory legs are pubescent and moderately robust ; the 
merus-joint of the first pair has its upper margin produced (as in the 
chelipedes) into a high arched crest, in the next pair this joint is 
not specially dilated and its upper margin is straight : the last two 
legs terminate in a small curved claw, but the penultimate joint has 
no terminal spiniform process. Colour (in spirit) greyish or cine- 
reous. Length of carapace nearly | inch (19 millim.), breadth 
8 1 lines (18 millim). 

The females were obtained in Prince of Wales Channel, 7-9 fms. 

This species is distinguished from P. granulata, iStimpson, the 
type of the genus, from Kajosima, Japan, by the absence of a dis- 
tinct supraocular tooth, and by the non-cristated merus-joint of the 
third pair of legs, &c. It cannot be confounded with any of the 
Australian Dromice described by Mr. Haswell (Catal. pp. 139-141). 



CRUSTACEA. 261 

PARATYMOLUS, Miers. 

The affinity of Paratymolus, and particularly of the later described 
species P. latipes, Haswell, and P. scxspinosm, Miers, with Telmessus 
is pointed out by Mr. Haswell, and is undeniable, notwithstanding 
the very differently shaped carapace of Telmessxs, and the fact that 
in that genus the basal antennal joint has its outer margin produced 
into a broad triangulate lobe which enters the inner orbital hiatus. 
The affinities of Paratymolus with Homola are also very evident, 
and I have already referred to them. In P. jpubesct ns and P. bitu- 
berculatus the distal margin of the merus-joint of the outer maxilli- 
pedes is somewhat rounded as in certain Inachidae, to which family 
this genus further approximates in its slender basal antennal joint. 
Whether the genus Paratymolus bo associated with Telmessus or not, 
its affinities are, I think, with the Maioid An'omura, to which also 
Homola belongs, rather than with tho Corystidse. I retain this 
genus therefore for the present near the Dromiida?, where also 
Haswell keeps it. 

3. Paratymolus bituberculatus, Haswell, var. gracilis. 

A male is in the collection, from Prince of Wales Channel, 
7-9 fms., which is thus designated with some hesitation. The prin- 
cipal character distinguishing P. bituberculatus from P. pubescens is 
to be found in the subtriangulate chela, the upper distal end of 
which is produced into a more or less prominent tooth ; the teeth on 
the posterior margins of the merus and palm, which are very 
distinctly indicated in Mr. HaswelPs figure, exist in Dr. Coppinger's 
specimen only as small tuberculiform setigerous prominences ; and, 
moreover, the spine in front of the principal hepatic spine, which 
exists in the type specimens of P. pubescens and of P. bituberculatus, 
is wanting in the example from Prince of Wales Channel, which 
should not improbably be separated as a distinct species. 

A mutilated female, in which both chelipedes are deficient, from 
Thursday Island, 3-4 fms. (No. 177), greatly resembles the type of 
P. pubescens, Miers *, from Matoya, in the form of the carapace and 
number and disposition of its spines and tubercles, differing only in 
the somewhat less prominent rostrum, and may perhaps belong to 
that species. 

4. Paratymolus sexspinosus. (Plate XXVII. fig. B.) 

This form is a near ally of the Paratymolus latijpes described by 
Mr. Haswell, but differs in the following particulars : — The lobes of 
the rostrum are blunter, and the median notch much smaller ; the 
antero-lateral margins of the carapace are armed with only three 
spines or teeth, including the prreocular spine, tho postocular being 
deficient; the chelipedes and ambulatory legs in the specimens 
examined (which, however, are females) are slenderer ; tho merus- 

* Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 45, pi. ii. fig. 6 (1879). 



262 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

joints of the chelipedes have three or four granules or spinules on 
the posterior, but none on the anterior margin, and the palm is 
without either granules or spinules ; the ambulatory legs are much 
less dilated and compressed than in Mr. HaswelFs figure*. 

From Paratymolus pubescens and P. bitubcrculatus this form is 
distinguished not merely by the different shape and tuberculation of 
the carapace, but also by the shorter eye-peduncles and second 
antennal joint, and by the more dilated last joint of the peduncle 
of the antennae, and the more distinctly operculiform maxillipedes, 
which are altogether of the Maioid type, with nearly quadrate 
merus-joints (see fig. 6). The legs also are more robust. Colour 
(in spirit) light yellowish brown. Length of carapace of an adult 
female with ova nearly 3| lines (7 millim.), greatest breadth nearly 
3 lines (6 millim.) ; length of chelipede about 3^ lines (7 millim.), of 
second ambulatory leg about 5 lines (11 millim.). 

Three specimens (females) are in the collection from Friday Island, 
10 fms. (No. 153). The distinctions between the two forms above 
enumerated are, I think, too marked to be due to sex. The sex of 
Mr. HaswelFs types from Port Denison and Port Jackson is not 
stated, but the figure of the postabdomen nearly resembles that of 
our adult female P. seccspinosus. 

5. Diogenes rectimaims. (Plate XXVII. fig. C.) 

The carapace is depressed, with the sides in front of the branchial 
regions uneven and with a few hairs ; the lateral margins armed 
with three or four spinules ; the frontal margin broadly sinuated, 
with scarcely any trace of a median prominence, but with distinct 
lateral spinules, situated between the bases of the eye-peduucles and 
antenna? ; the branchial regions are but little dilated ; the rostral 
scale is linear, acute, and reaches nearly to the apices of the oph- 
thalmic scales, which are broadly ovate, with three or four minute 
denticules at their distal ends. The postabdomen is clothed with 
longish hairs, and has four filamentous appendages on its left side, 
its fifth and sixth segments are protected by dorsal calcareous plates ; 
the terminal segment is slightly transverse, divided by a median 
notch into two rounded lobes, which are ciliated and spinidose on 
the margins. The eye-peduncles are nearly as long as the transverse 
width of the frontal margin of the carapace, much shorter than the 
antennal peduncles, with the cornea; not dilated. The penultimate 
joint of the peduncle of the slender antennules reaches just beyond 
the apex of the eye-peduncles ; the antepenultimate joint of the 
peduncle of the antennae is prolonged into a spine, which reaches 
nearly to the apex of the following joint ; this spine is armed on its 
inner margin with a series of smaller spinules, and there is a smaller 
spine on its outer side at base ; the terminal peduncular joint reaches 
beyond the eye-peduucles ; the joints of the flagella are fringed 
below with long flexible hairs. The outer and lower margin of the 



* Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. b, v. p. 303, pi. \\i. figs. 3-5 (1S80). 



I 



CRUSTACEA. 263 

trigonous merus-joint of the larger (left) chelipede is armed with 
three or four spinules at its distal extremity : the carpus is but 
little shorter than the palm and granulated externally, the granules 
on the upper margin increasing in size to the distal end, where they 
are spinuliform : the palm also is externally granulated and pubes- 
cent ; the lower margin is in a straight line with the lower margin 
of the immobile finger, and is armed with several much larger acute 
spinules; a few somewhat large granules exist also at the base of the 
palm, and others are arranged in a longitudinal series along the outer 
surface parallel to the upper margin, and also along the upper margin 
of the palm and of the dactyl, which is about as long as the palm, flat- 
tened externally, and fitting closely against the lower finger, having 
on its inner margin near the base a rounded lobe, which is received 
into a corresponding cavity in the inner margin of the lower finger. 
The smaller chelipede has the slender wrist and hand clothed with 
yellowish hairs ; the wrist armed above with small spinules arranged 
in two longitudinal series. The second and third ambulatory legs are 
slender and thinly pubescent, with the dactyli arcuated and rather 
longer than the foregoing joints. The fourth and fifth legs are sub- 
chelate, the small dactyl impinging against the broad spongy pad 
which terminates the penultimate joint. The filamentary appendages 
of the postabdomen are clothed with long hairs. The left uropod only 
is perfect ; it has the inner ramus larger than the outer. The colour 
is whitish, with faint indications of pink upon the legs. Length of 
the carapace about 4 lines (nearly 9 millim.), of the left chelipede 
about 9 lines (19 millim.), of the third ambulatory leg about 11 lines 
(23 millim.). 

The single example in Dr. Coppinger's collection is from Prince 
of Wales Channel, 7 fms. (No. 169). 

This species scarcely differs from D.spinulimarms, Ifiers, except in 
the longer slenderer rostrum, denticulated ophthalmic scales, and in 
having the lower margin of the immobile finger in a straight line 
with the lower margin of the palm (fig. c), whereas in the typical 
D. spimdimanus the lower finger is bent downward and the oph- 
thalmic scales subentire. In D. penicillatus the eyes are much 
shorter, there is a mediau rostral spine, and the left chela has a 
double series of spinules above. 

It may be distinguished from the species of Diogenes included in 
Mr. Haswell's Australian Catalogue (pp. 156, 157) as follows : — 
From D. miles, Fabr., by the much less spinulose chelipedes and 
shorter tarsi of the ambulatory legs ; from D. custos, Fabr., by the 
narrower, non-denticulated, rostriform appendage ; from D. c/ranu- 
latus, Miers, by the very different form and armature of the larger 
(left) chelipede, &c. ; and from D. senex, Heller, by the shorter 
rostrum and eye-peduncles, which latter do not reach to the end of 
the peduncles of the antenna?, the different spinulation of the palms 
of the chelipedes, &c. 



264 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

6. Pagurus inibricatus, M.-Edw. 

A specimen which I believe to be an adult male is referred here 
from Thursday Island, 3-4 fms. (No. 145), an adult female from the 
same locality and depth (No. 175), and a smaller male from Prince of 
Wales Channel, 9 fms. (No. 157). 

Specimens also are in the British-Museum collection from Shark 
Bay, W. Australia (Bayner, H.M.S. 'Herald'). 

The smaller examples agree very well with Hilne-Edwards's brief 
description*. As, however, the animal increases in size, small 
granules or prominences are developed upon the anterior margins of 
the flattened tubercles or scales of the outer surface of the left 
chelipede, which in the male from Thursday Island are large enough 
to give it a uniformly granulated appearance. 

7. Pagurus hessii. (Plate XXVIII. fig. A.) 

Carapace depressed, with a few hairs on the sides near the front, 
the cervical suture distinctly defined ; the branchial regions but 
moderately dilated on the sides ; with no median rostral tooth, but 
with the lateral frontal teeth (situated just outside of the bases of 
the eye-peduncles) triangulate and subacute; lateral margins with- 
out spines. Ophthalmic segment, between the eyes, completely 
uncovered. Terminal postabdominal segment divided by a median 
notch into two unequal rounded lobes. Eye-peduncles robust, in 
the adult shorter than the width of the front, with the cornea? 
considerably dilated ; their basal scales with a rounded lobe on their 
outer margins, and with their apices subtruncated and armed with 
two or three spinules. The peduncles of the antennules in the adult 
scarcely reach to the end of the eye-peduncles ; the antepenultimate 
and penultimate joints of the peduncles of the antennae each bear a 
small spinule above, besides the longer aciculum which projects from 
the dorsal surface of the penultimate joint, which has one or two 
smaller spinules on its inner margin; the joints of the antennal 
flagella are almost naked. The coxa? of the outer maxillipedes and 
chelipedes are almost contiguous. The chelipedes are nearly equal 
and of moderate size ; the merus-joints trigonous, the margins (in 
the adult) armed with a few spinules toward the distal extremity ; 
upper and outer surface of the wrists scantily hairy and spinulose, 
the spinules arranged in three longitudinal series ; palms rather 
turgid, about as long as the fingers, spinulose and hairy, the spinules 
smaller and more crowded below, larger and more distinctly longi- 
tudinally seriate on the upper and outer margins ; fingers spinulose 
and hairy, with subexcavate dark corneous tips, and opening some- 
what obliquely. The last three joints of the first and second ambu- 
latory legs are hairy and spinulose above; the terminal joints slender, 
longer than the preceding, and externally longitudinally canaliculated 
on the inner surface, bearing a series of oblique sulci which are 
bordered with hairs. Both the fourth and fifth legs are chelate ; 

* Ann. !?ci. Nat. si-r. 3, Zool. x. p. 61 (1848). 



CRUSTACEA. 265 

the dactyli well developed and impinging against the produced 
scabrous infero-distal lobe of the preceding joint. The postabdomen 
(in the female) has on its left side three appendages, articulated 
with as many membranaceous dorsal plates, and each terminating 
in four filaments or flagella, which are clothed with long hairs. The 
ore-pods on one side are imperfect, their rami are margined with 
rather long hairs ; the segment with which they are articulated has 
a longitudinal groove on its dorsal surface. The coloration (which 
is probably faded in both the specimens examined) is yellowish or 
whitish, with very faint pink reticulations in the larger specimen ; 
the chelae are pink, the eye-peduncles bordered on the sides with 
broad longitudinal bands of brownish pink; the under and inner 
surfaces of the last two joints of the second and third legs arc of 
the same colour. The length of the carapace (in the larger speci- 
men) is about 1 inch 5 lines (37 millim.), the length of the third 
(right) leg exceeds 3| inches (90 millim.); but the specimen being 
dried, its exact dimensions cannot be given. 

Of this species a rather small adult female was taken in the 
Arafura Sea, 32-36 fms. (No. 160). A much larger female, in mu- 
tilated condition, wanting the postabdomen, is among the Banksian 
specimens in the British-Museum collection, from which the descrip- 
tion is mainly taken. 

This species resembles Clibanarius, and differs from most species 
pf Pagurus in the subequal spinulose chelipedes ; in the structure 
of the ophthalmic segment of the eyes, the absence of a rostrum, 
and in other points it is a true Pagurus. In P. plat y thorax, Stm., a 
species with equal chelipedes, the chelae and legs are not spinulose. 

The Pagurus minutus, Hess (vide Haswell, Cat. p. 156), from 
Sydney, is too briefly described for certain identification, but seems 
to be distinguished from P. rubrovittatus by the shorter antennal 
appendages and tuberculated non-spinuliferous chelipedes. 

8. Clibanarius taBniatus. 

Pagurus clibanarius, Quoy fy Gaimard in Voy. de V TJranie, Zoohgie, 

Crust, p. 529, pi. lxxviii. fig. 1 (1824). 
Pagurus tamiatus, M.-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 3, Zool. x. p. 62 

(1848). 
Clibauarius tamiatus, Stimjjson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phi/ad. p. 235 

(1858). 

A single male was obtained at Port Molle, inhabiting a shell of a 
species of Purpura. Another specimen, presenting a precisely 
similar system of coloration, is in the British-Museum collection 
from Shark Bay (F. M. llayner, H.M.S. 'Herald 7 ). 

These specimens agree with the figure of Quoy and Gaimard, and 
differ from the specimens referred to G. vulgaris in the collection of 
the British Museum, in having the carapace (as well as the ambu- 
latory legs) marked with longitudinal pale lines bordered with red : 
in the specimens referred to P. vulgaris this coloration does not exist 
upon the carapace; the eye-peduncles are somewhat longer and 



266 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

slenderer, the chelae less swollen toward the base, and armed above 
with stronger spinules, which are white, and contrast strongly with 
the red ground- colour of the palms. It is possible, but I do not 
think it probable, that this species is a variety of C. vulgaris ; the 
figure of Quoy and Gaimard was originally cited by M.-Edwards as 
synonymous with that species ; nor can I be certain that the distinc- 
tions mentioned exist in M. -Edwards's C. vulgaris, not having seen 
the types. 

Another very small specimen of this genus is in the collection from 
Port Molle (No. 118), which can scarcely be referred with certainty 
to any species. 

9. Eupagunis compressipes. (Plate XXVIII. fig. B.) 

The carapace is nearly smooth, moderately dilated at the branchial 
regions, with the cervical suture very distinctly defined ; the frontal 
margin between the eyes is very little prominent, and there is no 
median rostriform projection, and but two small triangular teeth 
on the frontal margin, situate one on the outer side of each eye- 
peduncle. The eye-peduncles are shorter than the carapace is wide 
in front, robust, and have the corneas somewhat dilated ; their 
basal scales are dilated at base, narrow, subacute, and entire at 
apex, with the margins ciliated but not denticulated. Autennulary 
flagella very short. The bases of the antennas bear a short spine on 
their outer margins, which does not reach halfway to the apex of the 
eye-peduncles ; articulated with the dilated base of this is a longer 
spine, which is serrated on its inner margin, and prolonged above 
the bases of the antennas nearly to the end of the eye-peduncles, on 
the inner side and at the base of which is a small spinule. The 
joints of the flagella of the antennas are setose. The outer maxilli- 
pedes are remote from one another at their bases, and the inner 
margins of the ischium-joints are denticulated. The legs are pubes- 
cent ; the right chelipede is more robust, but little longer than the 
left ; the outer margins of the merus-joints in both chelipedes are 
spinulose toward the distal extremities, the carpus spinulose on its 
inner margin and on its upper surface ; the hand in the larger 
chelipede is narrow-ovate, and very obscurely spinulose on the 
margins and in the middle of its outer surface, the spinules or 
granules nearly concealed by the pubescence ; the fingers are rather 
shorter than the palm, denticulated on their inner margins, acute at 
their apices, and have between them no hiatus when closed ; the 
smaller (left) hand is similar, but slenderer. The first and second 
ambulatory legs have the joints, except the dactyli, somewhat dilated 
and compressed, the merus-joints with a scries of spinules on their 
anterior margins ; the dactyli longer than the preceding joints, 
slender, somewhat compressed and curved, but not contorted. The 
acute infero-distal angle of the penultimate joint of the fourth legs is 
produced halfway along the inferior margin of the dactylus. The 
fifth legs are subchelate, and the chelce densely hairy. The male 
postabdomen (as well as the female) bears several pairs of filiform 



CRUSTACEA. 267 

appendages ; the uropoda are asymmetrical ; the terminal segment 
is rather deeply notched at its distal end, the lobes denticulated. 
Colour (in spirit) a very light orange-pink. Length of carapace of 
male about 3| lines (nearly 8 millim.), of right chelipede about. (>.', 
lines (14 millim.), of second ambulatory leg about 10 lines (21 
millim.). 

Two specimens were collected at Port Denison, 4 fms. (Xo. 111). 
The larger is a male, the smaller a female with ova. 

/-J. compressipes resembles E. tricarinatus^ Stimpson, from Japan, 
and E. acantTiolepis, Stm., from Port Jackson *, in the absence of a 
rostrum, but is distinguished from both by the nearly smooth cheke 
and the more dilated joints of the first and second ambulatory leo-s, 
and from the latter also by the somewhat dilated corneae of the eyes, 
the non-caualiculate carpi of the chelipedcs, &c. 

10. Eupagurus kirkii. (Plate XXVIII. fig. C.) 

In this little species the carapace is scantily hairy, with the 
branchial regions moderately dilated, without any indication of a 
rostrum, and without lateral teeth, and rounded off at the antero- 
lateral angles. The terminal postabdominal segment has its margins 
minutely spinulose, is rounded on the sides, and without a median 
notch. The eye-peduncles are slender, and about as long as the 
width of the frontal margin ; corneae small and not dilated ; oph- 
thalmic scales small, entire, with subacute apices. The basal 
antennal joint is very short, and has a very small spinule on its 
outer margin ; the dorsal aciculum of the following joint is very 
slender, and reaches very nearly to the apex of the eye-peduncles ; 
the flagella nearly naked. The merus-joints of the chelipedes have 
a small spinule at the distal ends of their upper margins ; the wrists 
are hairy, and spinulose above, with a series of more prominent 
spinules along the inner and upper margins ; the larger (right) chela 
is ovate, scantily hairy, rather swollen within, externally nearly flat, 
with a series of small spinules along its upper and lower margins 
and with some obscurely indicated granules on its outer surface : the 
fingers are shorter than the palm, and have between them a small 
hiatus at base when closed ; the lower is granulated externally ; both 
are spinulose on their outer, aud toothed on their inner margins. 
The second and third legs are of moderate length, hairy and smooth 
without spines or tubercles ; the dactyli a trifle shorter than the 
preceding joints ; the fourth legs are short and imperfectly sub- 
chelate (the infero-distal lobe of the penultimate joint bein°- but 
little developed) ; the fifth legs apparently not subchelate, the 
dactyli clothed with long hairs. The uropoda are, as usual, asym- 
metrical ; the rami with a scabrous pad on their outer surfaces. 
Colour (in spirit) pinkish white. Length of carapace about 3^ lines 
(about 7-5 millim.), of larger chelipede about 6| lines (131 millim.), 
of left ambulatory leg of first pair about 7 lines (15 millim.). 

A single male was obtained in the Arafura Sea (32-36 fms.). 
* Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. p. 251 (1858). 



268 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

From most of its congeners this species is distinguished by the 
absence of a distinct rostrum, and the form and armature of the 
larger chelipede ; the latter character will distinguish it from E. 
tricarinatus and E. acantholepis, Stimpson, from Japan and Port 
Jackson, species in which the rostrum is absent. From the fore- 
going species it is at once distinguished by the longer, slenderer 
eye-peduncles with shorter basal scales, the form of the chelae, 
slenderer ambulatory legs, &c. 

11. Petrolisthes japonicus (De Haan), var. inerrnis, Haswell. 

Port Molle (No. 103), several specimens obtained on the beach 
between tide-marks ; Port Curtis, 7-11 fms. (So. 85), several 
specimens. 

Other specimens are in the collection of the British Museum from 
Facing Island, Port Curtis (J. Macgillivray, H.M.S. 'Rattlesnake'); 
and a small example from Shark Bay, W. Australia (/' T . M. Rayner, 
H.M.S. ' Herald '), probably belongs here. 

This species is closely allied to the well-known New-Zealand 
P. elongatus, M.-Edwards, but the chelipedes have a longer, slenderer 
wrist, and the palm is slenderer and its outer margin is straight, not 
arcuated. The variety inerrnis is distinguished by Mr. Haswell by 
having two spines near the distal end of the posterior margin of the 
wrist, not three as in P. elongatus. De Haan in his description of 
P. japonicus mentions three, but figures two only. The wrist is even 
longer and the palm more roughened above than in the Australian 
specimens ; and the second pair of legs only has the merus-joint 
bispinulose at apex. 

The Japanese species Petrolisthes pidchripes, designated by White 
Porcellana pidchripes (List Cr. Brit. Mus. p. 129, 1847), of which the 
type, from the Madjica-Sima group, is in the collection of the British 
Museum, is closely allied to the foregoing ; but the chelipedes have 
a short thick carpus, which is much shorter than the cephalothorax, 
and has three teeth on its posterior margin ; the distal end of the 
merus-joints of both second and third ambulatory legs is unarmed. 

12. Petrolisthes lamarckii (Leach ). 

Here are referred several specimens found on the beach at Flinders 
Island, and one obtained between tide-marks at Port Molle (No. 103). 
These examples are of small size ; the front is triangulate, somewhat 
deHexed, sinuated on the margins, concave in the middle line above, 
narrowed to the apex, which is rounded ; there is a very distinct 
postocular spine on the lateral margins of the carapace; the chelipedes 
arc closely granulated above ; the arm has a blunt tooth at the distal 
end of its inner margin; the inner margin of the wrist has three 
triangular, not very distant teeth, which decrease in size from the 
first to the last ; at the distal end of the posterior margin are three 
small spines. Colour reddish or yellowish ; the first and second 
ambulatory legs (where the coloration is best preserved) have the 



CRUSTACEA. 269 

carpus and penultimate joints alternately banded with yellow and 
red. 

The type of Leach's P. lamarckii (from Australia) in the Museum 
collection has lost its chelipedes; hence the identification is not 
certain ; but the carapace in all respects agrees with the specimens 
described above, and there exists a distinct postocular spine on the 
lateral margins. 

The type specimens of P. asiaticus, from the Mauritius, are of 
larger size, but scarcely differ except in having the anterior margins 
of the wrists armed with more distant, but relatively smaller teeth, 
and in having the distal ends of the merus-joints of the first and 
second ambulatory legs more distinctly denticulated. Specimens 
apparently belonging to this form are in the Museum collection 
from various islands of the Pacific and Malaysian seas ; and I think 
it very probable that it should be united with P. lamarckii. I 
may note here that the specimen recently figured by Eichters* as 
P. asiaticus, Leach (and by him retained in the genus Porcellana), 
has a more distinctly truncated median frontal lobe, and only two 
teeth on the posterior margin of the arm of the chelipede, and may 
perhaps belong to a distinct species. 

13. Petrolisthes haswelli. (Plate XXIX. fig. A.) 

Carapace flattened, longer than broad, and marked with faint 
transverse striae, which are bordered with short hairs ; the lateral 
margins are cristated, the carinas extending from the outer orbital 
angles to about the middle of the branchial regions ; the front is 
subtriangulate, with the apex rounded and concave above, the 
margins somewhat sinuated : the outer orbital angle is not very 
prominent, behind it there is a spine on the hepatic region ; the upper 
orbital margins are entire. The eyes are short and thick. There 
is a prominent tooth or lobe upon the antepenultimate joint of the 
peduncle of the antennae, whose flagella are very long and naked. 
The chelipedes are moderately robust, the merus or arm very short, 
with a prominent lobe at the distal end of its inner margin : the 
carpus is flattened above, its upper surface tuberculated, the tubercles, 
which in the middle fine are generally larger, are flattened and 
bordered with short hairs ; its anterior margin armed with four or 
five unequal teeth, whose margins are themselves generally denticu- 
lated; the posterior margin armed with three spines at its distal 
end ; palm and fingers closely tuberculated on their outer surface, 
the tubercles bordered with short hairs, and merging toward the 
upper margin into longitudinal stria? ; the lower margin of the 
palm is straight and subcristated : fingers shorter than the palm, 
meeting along their inner edges, and incurved at the tips. Ambu- 
latory legs slightly hairy, with the merus-joint moderately dilated 
and compressed, without spinules or teeth, except one or two small 
denticles at the distal end of the lower margin; the following joints 

* In Mobius, Beitr. zur Meeresfauna der Insel Mauritius &c. Decapoda. 
p. 159, pi. xvii. fig. 13 (I860). 



270 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

are slender ; dactyli short, terminating in a small claw. Colour (in 
the spirit-specimen) pale reddish yellow, punctulated with darker 
red. Length nearly 7 lines (14 millim.), breadth a little over 6 lines 
(13 millim.) ; length of chelipede about 1-L inch (34 millim.). 

An adult female is in the collection from Thursday Island, obtained 
on the beach (No. 167). 

There is also in the Museum collection a female from Port Curtis, 
Facing Island, two examples from Torres Straits (J. B. Juices), and 
two from the ' Samarang ' collection, of which one is from Koo- 
Keang-San. 

The three distinct spines on the posterior margin of the arm seem 
to distinguish this form from the P. bellis of Heller, from the 
Nicobars — a species, however, which is only briefly characterized. 

It is evidently very nearly allied to Petrolisthes rugosus (M.- 
Edwards), to which are referred specimens in the British-Museum 
collection from Karachi {Karachi Museum) and North Australia 
(Dr. J. B. Else//), which species, however, has the carapace and 
chelipedes covered with well-defined pilifcrous crests, and the teeth 
of the anterior margins of the wrists much more regular in form 
and disposition. 



14. Petrolisthes aniralipes. (Plate XXIX. fig. B.) 

Petrolisthes annulipes, White, List Crust. Brit. Mus. p. 63 (1847), 
descript. nulla. 

Carapace moderately convex, scarcely longer than broad, its upper 
surface and also that of the chelipedes transversely striated ; the 
stria) imbricated and fringed on the anterior margins with close-set 
short seta? ; the front is subtriangulate, moderately prominent, 
slightly concave above, with the apex rounded or subtruncated, and 
the margins usually minutely spinulose ; there is a spine on the 
upper margin of the orbit just in front of the eye-peduncles ; the 
sides of the carapace are armed with about six spines, the first of 
which (when present) is situated just posterior to the outer orbital 
angle, the second a little behind it, the third a little within the 
margin on the front of the branchial region, and the other three on 
the sides of the branchial region and close to one another. The 
first exposed joint of the antennae is armed with a spine (see fig. b). 
The ischium- and merus-joints of the outer maxillipedes are trans- 
versely striated and setose, like the carapace ; the last three joints 
fringed on their inner margins with very long hairs. The merus- 
joint of the chelipedes is armed with a denticulated lobe at the 
distal end of its inner margin ; the carpus or wrist has five denti- 
culated teeth on its anterior margin, and three or four spines on its 
posterior margin ; the palm is armed with a series of minute spi- 
nulcs on its outer or posterior margin ; the fingers meet along their 
inner edges, and have their tips incurved and acute. The ambulatory 
legs are somewhat hairy, the merus-joints in the first three pairs 
transversely striated and setose, and armed with spinules on their 



CRUSTACEA. 271 

anterior margins ; in the first two pairs there is also a small spinule 
at the distal end of the posterior margin. Ground-colour yellowish ; 
the transverse imbrications of the carapace and legs are red ; the 
carpus- and merus-joints of the ambulatory legs are also banded with 
red. Length and breadth of the carapace of the largest specimen 
(a female with ova) a little over 4 lines (9 millim.), of chelipede, 
when extended, 9| lines (20 millim.). 

Two adult females and three males (one very small) are in the 
first collection from Port Denison, 4 fms. (Nos. Ill, 122), and a 
small male from Port Molle, 5-12 fms. (No. 118) ; in the second 
collection is an adult female from Prince of Wales Channel, 7 fms. 
(No. 109), and two small specimens from Thursday Island, 4-5 fms. 
(No. 165). 

The description is taken from the largest female ; in the smallest 
specimen the anterior margin of the front is minutely denticulated. 
There are in the British-Museum collection three specimens ob- 
tained off Cape Capricorn (15 fms.). White's typical specimen is 
from the Philippine Islands, Corregidor (Cuming). 

In the last consignment received from H.M.S. ' Alert ' are speci- 
mens from the Seychelles. 

This species cannot, I think, be confounded with any of the 
numerous Oriental forms described by Milne-Edwards, Dana, Stimp- 
son, and Heller. 

It is evidently nearly allied to P. scabricula, Dana *, from the 
Sooloo Sea, and to P. vrilitaris, Heller t, from the Nicobars, in both 
of which the spinulation of the carapace is different and the palms 
of the chelipedes externally pubescent. In P. scabricula the series 
of spines along the posterior margin of the wrist seem to extend 
along its whole length ; and Heller makes no mention of the pro- 
minent spine on the upper margin of the orbit in his description of 
P. militaris, which in P. annulipes seems to occupy the position of 
the obtuse-lateral frontal lobes mentioned in his description. 

Mr. Haswell (Catalogue, p. 146) refers certain specimens collected 
at Port Denison to the Petrolisthes clentatus of M.-Edwards + ; but as 
he only cites M. -Edwards's verj r short diagnosis and adds nothing 
respecting the Australian specimens, I am unable to say whether 
they are distinguishable from the species I have designated P. has- 
welli or from P. annulipes. M.-Edwards's types were from Java, and 
seem to be distinguished from the Australian species by having the 
posterior margin of the carpus of the chelipedes " dentele en scie." 

15. Petrolisthes? corallicola (Haswell)? (Plate XXIX. fig. C.) 

? Porcellana corallicola, Haswell, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, vi. 
p. 759 (1881) ; Cat. Austr. Crust, p. 150 (1882). 

Carapace much longer than broad, the gastric and hepatic regions 

* U.S. Expl. Exp. xiii. Crust, i. p. 424, pi. xxvi. fig. 13 (1852). 
t Crust, in Eeise cler Novara, p. 75 (1865). 
% Hist. Nat. Crust, ii. p. 251 (1837). 



272 COLLECTIONS EKOM MELANESIA. 

defined by very distinct sulci, and the whole of its upper surface, 
except near the posterior margin, very uneven ; the front is deeply 
concave in the middle line, and its median interantennulary portion 
much deflcxed, spinulose, the spinules of unequal length ; its lateral 
margin armed with about seven spinules, and the protogastric lobes 
also spinulose ; the peduncles of the antennae are without spinules. 
The merus-joint of the outer maxillipedcs fits into a deep notch in 
the anterior margin of the preceding joint, and is itself excavated 
at its distal end. The single chelipede present in the unique ex- 
ample before me has a spinulose lobe or tooth at the distal end of 
the inner margin of the arm ; the wrist and palm are flattened on 
the upper surfece, which is armed with tubercles arranged in longi- 
tudinal series, the tubercles themselves for the most part minutely 
spinulose ; the inner margin of the wrist is armed with three or 
four spines at its base, and beyond with smaller spinules ; the 
posterior margin is armed with about seven spines ; there are two 
spines at the distal end of the inner margin of the palm., and its 
outer margin is spinulose and pubescent ; the fingers meet closely 
along their inner margins, which are entire, and their outer mar- 
gins are spinulose. The first pair of ambulatory legs have the ante- 
rior margins of the merus, carpus, and propus armed with a few 
distant spinules, which are almost wholly absent from the same 
joints in the following legs. Colour whitish. The single specimen 
examined is a female : the carapace measures nearly 3 lines (6 mil- 
lim.) in length and 2k (5 millim.) in breadth ; the chelipede, when 
extended as far as its conformation will allow, about 5 lines (11 
millim.). 

The single specimen was obtained at Port Molle, between tide- 
marks (No. 103), with Petrolisthes japonicus. The description given 
above will show that our specimen differs from Mr. Haswell's type 
in the more uneven carapace with more numerous lateral marginal 
spinules, non-pubescent posterior margin of the wrist of the cheli-« 
pede, and in having two spines (not mentioned by Mr. Haswell) at 
the distal end of the anterior margin of the palm (see fig. c). 
If distinct, I would propose to designate this species P. dorsalis. 
It seems, upon the whole, to have more affinity with the genus 
Petrolisthes than with PorceUana, on which account I refer it, 
although with some hesitation, to that genus. 



16. Polyonyx obesulus. (Plate XXIX. fig. D.) 

PorceUana obesula, White, List Crust. Brit. Mus. p. 130 (1847), de- 
script, nulla. 

I refer to this species, though somewhat doubtfully, a female 
obtained from Port Denison, 4 fms. (No. 122), also one from Prince 
of Wales Channel, 7 fms. (No. Hi9), one from West Island, 7 fms., 
and one from Port Darwin, 12 fms. These examples resemble the 
three specimens in tho P>ritish- Museum collection, and differ from 



CRUSTACEA. 



273 






1 



Dana's description of his P. biunguiculatus *, in having a distinctly 
trilobate front, the middle lobe of which is broad, subacute, or 
rounded, and not much more prominent than the lateral lobes ; 
whereas in P. biunguiculatus, to which species specimens from the 
Gulf of Suez (B. Mac Andrew) appear to belong, the median lobe is 
very prominent and acute and the Literal lobes obsolete. The spe- 
cimens referred to P. biunguiculatus also differ from P. obesulus in 
having the outer surface of the palms of the chelipedcs much more 
close!}' punctulated. The ccphalothorax is narrowest in the smallest- 
sized specimens ; and in the female from Port Denison (which is 
one of the largest examples I have seen) is much broader than in 
the others ; but I cannot regard this character by itself as of specific 
importance. 

I am inclined to doubt whether the genus Polyonyx is distinct 
from Megalobrachium. Stimpson merely distinguishes the latter 
on account of the absence of the prominent accessory claw, which 
gives to the dactvli of the species of Polyonyx a biunguiculate 
appearance. The type of Megalobrachium (J/, granuliferum, Stm.) 
is from the West Indies : but Stimpson refers the P. macrochelis, 
Gibbes, from Carolina, to the genus Polyonyx. The other species of 
the latter genus are Oriental in habitat. 

Specimens are referred to P. biunguiculatus by Mr. Haswell from 
Holborn Island, Port Denison, by whom also this species is retained 
in the genus Porcdlana (vide Cat. p. 147). 



17. Pachycheles pulchellus {Hasivell). (Plate XXX. fig. A.) 

Porcellana nulchella, Haswell, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, vi. p. 758 
(1881) ; Cat. Austr. Crust, p. 148 (1882). 

As Mr. Haswelfs description is very brief, I append the following 
from specimens received from Dr. Coppinger : — 

The carapace is smooth, rather convex, rounded on the sides, and 
hence somewhat orbiculate in outline, faintly striated on the sides 
at the back of the branchial regions. The front is rather broad, and 
in a dorsal view its margin appears straight ; in an anterior view it 
is seen to be bisinuated, with a broadly rounded but very slightly 
prominent median lobe. The orbital and lateral margins of the 
carapace are entire. The first exposed joint of the peduncle of the 
antennae is shorter than the following joint, and has sometimes a 
small blunt prominence on its inner margin ; the third joint is 
short; the flagellum somewhat elongated, with the joints almost 
naked. The ischium of the outer maxillipedes has a spine at it.3 
outer distal angle ; the next joint has a prominent lobe on its 
inner margin ; the three following joints are robust. The chelipedes 
are robust, but not so broadly dilated as in most species of this 
genus ; the merus or arm is very short : wrist with broad low pro- 
minences disposed in longitudinal series on its upper surface, and 

* Vide U.S. Explor. Exped. xiii., Crust, i. p. 411, pi. xxvi. fig. 1 (1852). 



274' COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

with two or three strong triangular teeth on its inner margin ; palm 
about as long as the wrist, and with the lower finger almost trian- 
gulate in shape ; the outer surface of the palm is divided by four 
sulci into five longitudinal, smooth, rounded ridges, including the 
rather less prominent line or ridge along the lower margin of the 
palm ; the fingers are smooth, scarcely denticulated on their inner 
margins, incurved at the tips, and have between them (when closed) 
a more or less distiuct hiatus ; the first to third ambulatory legs 
have the joints (except the last) armed with small tubercles or 
prominences on their upper margins ; the dactyli have several 
spinules on their lower margins. The colour (of spirit-specimens) 
is white, faintly tinged or spotted with pink. Length 2| lines 
(5 millim.) ; breadth a little over 2| lines (nearly 6 millim.). 

Two specimens (male and female) are in the first collection — one 
obtained at Port Molle, 5-12 fms. (No. 118), and the other at 
Albany Island, 3-4 fms. In the second collection are eight speci- 
mens (male and female) obtained at Thursday Island in 3-4 fms. 
(No. 177), 4-5 fms. (No. 165). Mr. Haswell records it also from 
Holborn Island. 

This species cannot be confounded with any of the species of 
Pachycheles mentioned by Dr. Stimpson in his very useful Synopsis 
of the Anomura * ; and in its slenderer chelipedes approaches Por- 
cellana, to which genus Mr. Haswell refers it. 

In two specimens from Prince of Wales Channel, 7 fms. (Xos. 
142, 169), which are probably not distinct, the chelipedes are more 
unequal and smoother. One example has the left chelipede much 
enlarged, the ridges on the palm separated by wide interspaces, and 
the fingers strongly arcuated. 

18. Porcellana nitida, Haswell, var. rotundifrons. 
(Plate XXX. fig. P.) 

Carapace smooth, shining, everywhere striated ; the striae short 
and interrupted. The front is rather prominent, transverse, and 
very obscurely 3-lobed ; the median lobe very broad and rounded ; 
the lateral lobes (or inner orbital angles) also rounded and small. 
Behind the outer orbital angle, which is dentiform, is a second acute 
tooth, and behind this a rounded prominence ; there is a small tooth 
on the subhepatic region. The basal joint of the antenna; is very 
short, the second and third longer, and the fourth very short ; the 
flagellum naked : the ischium-joint of the outer maxillipedes has a 
spine on its outer margin ; the inner margin of the merus is pro- 
duced into a thin lobe at base, the following joint is robust. The 
chelipedes are robust and elongated, the joints are smooth; the 
arm and wrist have their inner margins cristiform and acute and 
entire ; the arm is very short, the wrist somewhat longer ; the 
larger palm (in an adult male) is robust and considerably elongated, 
its upper margin rounded ; the fingers are shorter than the palm, 

* Proc. Acad. Nat, Sci. Philad. p. 225 (1858). 



CRUSTA< I. A. 1'7"> 

curved at tip-;, and having between them a small hiatus when 
closed : the upper or mobile finger is strongly arcuated, sometimes 
with a strong blunt tooth at base; the lower has its inner margin 
obscurely crenulated and sometimes toothed. The first three pairs 
of ambulatory legs are robust, the joints nearly naked and without 
denticles or spinulcs, except on the inferior margins of the penulti- 
mate joints, which liave two or three spinulcs at or near the distal 
extremity ; the dactyli are short, robust, and appear biunguiculate 
on account of the considerable development of the accessory spine on 
the inferior margin, behind which is another small denticle. The 
ground-colour (in spirit) is yellowish ; fche carapace and chelipedes 
are blotched with pink or marked with irregular lines of the same 
colour. Length of carapace of an adult male about 4 lines (84 
millim.), breadth about 3| lines (8 millim.) ; length of chelipede, 
when fully extended, about 8^ lines (20 millim.). 

Port Denison, 4 fins. (No. 122): a considerable number of spe- 
cimens were obtained. Specimens were also received with the 
second collection from Friday Island, 10 fms. (Xo. 1o-i), Dundas 
Straits, 17 fms. (Xo. 161), Port Darwin, 12 fms., and others dredged 
in the Arafura Sea at 132-36 fms. (Xo. 160). 

The description, except as regards coloration, is taken from an 
adult male ; the coloration is perfectly preserved in one specimen 
only, a female with ova. The larger specimens possessing both 
chelipedes are mostly of the female sex. In the females and 
smaller-sized specimens the lateral lobes of the front are often more 
acute, the palms of the chelipedes relatively shorter, the fingers 
meet along their inner edges when closed, and the upper finger has 
not the strong tooth at base, &c. 

In the robust and biunguiculate dactyli of the ambulatory legs 
this form resembles the species of Pohjonyx, but differs in the rela- 
tively longer carapace, which resembles that of other species of 
Porcellana. 

I refer it doubtfully to P. nitida *, which is very briefly de- 
scribed, and differs apparently in the triangulate form of the 
median frontal lobe, and in having an additional lateral marginal 
spine behind the outer angle of the orbit ; but as HaswelFs types 
were from Port Denison, at which locality specimens of the form 
now described were taken by Dr. Coppinger, I distinguish it merely 
as a variety. 

19. Porcellana dispar, Stimpson. (Plate XXX. fig. C.) 

Four males and two females from Port Jackson, 5-7 fms. (Xo. 
104), are referred to this species, which Mr. Haswell (Cat. p. 149) 
observes is very common at this locality. He also records it from 
Port Stephens. 

Stimpson's description agrees very well with the adult males, but 

* Vide Haswell, Catalogue, p. 148 (1882). 

t2 



276 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

he does not notice that the outer margin of the smaller chelipede 
is armed with a series of minute spinules, which are often concealed 
by the pubescence. The smaller chelipede in the adult male and 
both chelipedes in the smaller specimens have the anterior margin 
of the wrist armed with two teeth, and in the smaller specimens 
(which yet I cannot think belong to a distinct species) the frontal 
and upper orbital margins are very minutely spinulose. There is 
developed in both chelipedes a more or less distinct longitudinal 
median ridge on the upper surface of the wrist and palm, and the 
outer margin of the hand in both is armed with a series of small 
spinules, so that these specimens in many points resemble Porcellana 
ornata, Stimpson, from Hong Kong. 



20. Porcellana quadrilobata. (Plate XXX. fig. D.) 

In the single male from Port Denison, 4 fms., thus designated, the 
carapace is shaped nearly as in Porcellanella triloba, that is, it is much 
longer than broad, with the sides very slightly arcuated. The upper 
surface, when viewed under a lens of sufficient power, is seen to be 
marked with numerous rather closely-set transverse striaj. The inter- 
antennulary portion of the front, which in P. triloba is entire, is in P. 
quadrilobata divided by a median triangular notch (which, however, 
is not so deep as the lateral notches), hence the front appears 4-lobed. 
The lobes are triangular and acute ; on the inner margin of each of 
the outer lobes is a small spinule, and the inner margins of each of 
the inner lobes is minutely serrated. There is a very small tooth or 
spine at the outer orbital angle, and posterior to this the sides of the 
carapace are armed with five spines, the three posterior of which are 
placed near to one another and separated by a somewhat wider in- 
terval from the preceding tooth. On the inferior surface of the cara- 
pace, below the inferior orbital margin, there is a strong spine. The 
eyes are set on very short pedicels, and are nearly concealed within 
the orbits. The joints of the peduncles of the antennae are short (the 
flagella wanting in the single specimen examined). There is a spine 
at the distal end of the basus-joint of the outer maxillipedes ; the 
ischium-joint is somewhat dilated, scarcely at all emarginate at its 
distal end, where it is articulated with the merus, which is excavated 
at its distal extremity ; the three following joints are nioderatdy 
robust. The chelipedes are proportionately rather slender and elon- 
gated ; the merus or arm is short, its inner margin somewhat cristi- 
form, and terminating in a thin subacute lobe ; there is a spine al«o 
on the under surface of the merus ; the wrist is about as long as the 
palm, and is armed with three spines or teeth on its inner margin ; 
the hand is slightly contorted : the surface both of hand and wrist 
finely striated ; the fingers are rather shorter than the palm, meet 
along their inner edges when closed and cross at the tips, which are 
incurved ; at the bases of the inner margins of the fingers is a patch 
of hair ; the lower margin of the lower finger is armed with a series 
of small spinules. The ambulatory legs arc rather slender ; there are 
a few short stiff sttce, or mobile 6piues, at the distal end of the 



CRUSTACEA. 277 

slender penultimate joint of the first to third ambulatory legs : the 
short, curved dactyli arc armed on their lower margins with a strong 
accessory claw, posterior to which are one or two more small teeth. 
Colour (in spirit) yellowish. Length of carapace about 2h lines 
(5| millim.), breadth nearly 2 lines (4 millim.). 

This species is scarcely distinguished from the typical Porcellana 
latifrons, Stimpson, except by the somewhat different denticulation of 
the lobes of the front, and in the latter having, as it would seem, the 
posterior margin of the wrist armed, as well as the anterior, with three 
spines. The specimens described by Stimpson were from Hong Kong. 
Porcellana armata, Dana, has a much less prominent front. 

Porcellana streptochirus of White*, from the Philippines, is, I 
think, a mere variety of this species. It differs only in the somewhat 
broader carapace, in having the frontal lobes armed with more nume- 
rous spinules, and in having the under surface of the mcrus of the 
chelipedes armed with three or four spines in place of the single 
spine in P. quadrilobata ; and these characters are possibly due to 
the greater age of the specimens. 

In one of "White's specimens the wrist is tridentate, in the other it 
is subentire. 

This species, in its elongated carapace and slender chelipedes, 
establishes a transition to the genus (or subgenus) Porcellanella, the 
species of which have a prominent and tridentate front. The genera 
of the Porcellanidea stand much in need of revision ; and I may add 
that I doubt the constancy of the characters derived by Stimpson 
from the size and number of the denticulations of the dactyli of the 
ambulatory legs as generic distinctions. 

There are in the collection three small specimens from Thursday 
Island, 4—5 fms. (Xo. 165), which in many of their characters are 
closely allied to P. serratifrons, Stimpson, yet are probably distinct, 
but to which, on account of their very imperfect condition, I will 
not apply a specific designation. In one specimen the chelipede is 
probably aborted, having the palm narrow and twisted and the 
fingers abnormally developed. These specimens are further distin- 
guished from P. serratifrons by having three (not 1 or 2) spinules on 
the sides of the branchial regions, six to eight spines on the anterior, 
and two on the posterior margin of the carpus of the chelipede, &c. 
In the single specimen (a young one) possessing both chelipedes the 
lower margins of both right and left palms are spinulose. 

21. Galathea australiensis, Stimpson. (Plate XXXI. fig. A.) 

Here are referred a male from Port Denison, 4 fms. (Xo. Ill), 
and another from Port Molle, 14 fms. (Xo. 93), in the first collec- 
tion ; also a series of seven specimens from the ArafuraSea, 32-36 fms. 
(Xo. 160), in the second collection, among which are both males and 
females. Stimpson's description was from a female. In the adult 
males I have examined the palms are broader and the fingers have 
between them a hiatus when closed, and are strongly toothed on their 

* List Crust. Brit. Mus. p. 64 (1847), descript. nulla. 



278 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

inner margins near the base (the teeth themselves generally appearing 
crenulated when viewed with a lens of sufficient power), and there 
are usually one or two spinules discernible on the hepatic region. 

There are specimens in the British-Museum collection obtained 
between Cumberland Island and Slade Point, and from Port Jackson 
(J. Macgillivray, II. M.S. • Rattlesnake'), and others from Flinders 
Island and Shark Pay, W. Australia (F.M.Rayner, H.1LS. ' Herald'). 
The specimens from Flinders Island and Shark Pay have, how- 
ever, the upper surface of the wrist and palm of the chelipedes 
much more strongly and distinctly spinulose, and may possibly prove 
to be distinct. 

Mr. Haswell (Cat. p. 162) notes the possible identity of G. aus- 
traliensis with G. spinosorostris, Dana, from the Sandwich Islands, a 
species somewhat insufficiently described. He has himself briefly 
characterized a form, the distinctive characters of which may per- 
haps not be sufficient to separate it from G. australiensis. G. coral- 
licola, from Port Molle, scarcely differs from G. australiensis, except 
in the absence of the gastric spinules, for the form of the chelae and 
fingers is evidently a character liable to variation, according to the 
sex and age of the individual. 

I may note here that there is in the Museum collection a speci- 
men from the Philippines perhaps belonging to the species briefly 
characterized by Haswell under the designation G. aculeata. 

22. Galathea elegans. 

Galathea elegans, White, List Crust. Brit. Mus. p. 66 (1847), descript. 
nulla ; Crust, in Voy. H.M.S. ' Samarang,' pi. xii. fig. 7 (1848) ; 
Haswell, Cat. Austr. Crust, p. 163 (1882). 

Here is referred, although with some hesitation, a specimen 
from Albany Island, 3-4 fms., first collection, and one from 
Port Molle, 14 fms., second collection. They differ from White's 
types of this species in the British-Museum collection, from the 
Philippines, Corregidor (Cuming), and Borneo, Unsang (H.M.S. 
'Samarang'), in the smaller, more inconspicuous spinules of the 
lateral margins of the rostrum. The chelipedes are somewhat more 
elongated and slender than in a dried specimen which I take to be 
a female of White's species, the fingers relatively shorter, and the 
spinules of the carpus and penultimate joint smaller and well nigh 
concealed bv the pubescence. The coloration, as depicted in the 
figure cited, is of no value as a specific distinction, since not any 
two specimens agree exactly in their markings. In theBorueau ex- 
amples they are much broader than in the Philippine specimens, from 
one of which they are wholly absent. In the specimen from Albany 
Island they are distinguishable only on the anterior part of the post- 
abdomen. The ground-colour in nearly all is dull red. 

In the adult males of G. elegans (the type specimens of which have 
never been described) the carapace is strigose, tbe strigas ciliated, its 
lateral margins armed with 8 or 9 prominent spinules; the rostrum is 
elongated, narrow-triangular, as long, or nearly as long, as the cara- 



CRUSTACEA. 279 

pace; its lateral margin armed with about 8 spinules; tho joints of the 
chelipede3 also spiuulose and hairy : fingers rather shorter than the 
palm, minutely denticulated on their inner margins, not gaping when 
closed, with the tips incurved ; the moras- and carpus-joints of the 
first and second ambulatory legs are spinulose on their anterior mar- 
gins ; and one of the denticules of the inferior margin of the terminal 
joint is more prominent than the others. 

If the Australian specimen does not belong to G. elegans, it may 
be referable to G. longirostris, Dana*, from the l^ijis, which is very 
incompletely known, which it resembles in the minute serrnlation of 
the carapace and rostrum and the shorter fingers of the chelipcdes, 
which are not, however, less than half the length of the palms, as in 
Dana's description. 

In more than one of the specimens in tho Museum collection 

the rostrum is slightly deflexed, and I think it probable that O. de- 

Jlexifrons, Haswell (Cat. p. 1<>5), from Albany Passage (H.M.S. 

'Alert'), should be regarded merely as a marked variety of G. elegans. 



23. Mimida spinulifera. (Plate XXXI. fig. B.) 

This species is evidently nearly allied to Munida japonica, Stimp- 
son : and it will suffice here to allude to the distinctive characters 
aiid some other points not mentioned in Stimpson's description. As 
in M. japonica, the anterior part of the gastric region is armed with 
a transverse series of thirteen spinules. On the sides of the cara- 
pace, at a short distance behind the spine at the outer orbital angle, 
is usually a single small spinule (whereas Stimpson, in his clescrip- 
tiom of M. japonica, says, " Regio gastrica superficie utrinque tri- 
spinulosa "). On the front of the branchial regions, just behind the 
cervical suture, is another small spinule not mentioned by Mr. 
Stimpson. The lateral margins of the carapace have about seven 
spinules, inclusive of the outer orbital spine, which is rather 
long. 

The median spine of the rostrum (in the specimens I have exa- 
mined) is considerably more than twice the length of the lateral 
spines, and is arcuated, with scarcely any trace of lateral denticula- 
tions. The second postabdominal segment has several spinules on 
its upper surface on the anterior margin. The merus, carpus, 
and penultimate joints of the ambulatory legs are spinulose ; the 
spinules on the penultimate joints usually developed only on the 
posterior (or inferior) margins. 

Three specimens, of which one (the only one having a chelipede) 
is a male, the two others females with ova, were obtained in the 
Arafura Sea, 32-36 fms. (Xo. 1G0). 

In the specimen of M. japonica from the Corean Straits, referred 
to in my Report on Capt. St. John's collectionf, not only are the 
lateral frontal spines relatively much longer (half the length of the 

* Crust, in U.S. Explor. Exped. xiii. p. 482, pi. xxx. fig. 11 (1852). 
t Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 51 (1879). 



280 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

median spines, as in Stirapson's description), but the median spine is 
itself arcuated and very distinctly denticulated on the lateral mar- 
gins as well as on the dorsal surface, and there are two spines on 
the front of the branchial regions. Nevertheless a sufficient series of 
specimens might perhaps hereafter show the Australian to be a mere 
variety of the Japanese form. 

In the absence of the supraocular spines these species resemble 
the American genus (or subgenus) Galathodes, A. M. -Edwards*, but 
the cornea? of the eyes are considerably dilated, and the dactyli of 
the ambulatory legs (in M. spinulifera) are not strongly spinubse. 
Of all the numerous American species of Munida described by A. 
M. -Edwards (t. c. pp. 47-52) the nearest allies to M. spinulifera are 
apparently M. iris and M. irasa, from which 31. spinulifera is dis- 
tinguished by having the first two segments of the postabdomen 
armed with several spinules &c. 



24. Mastigochirus quadrilobatus, Miers. 

Seven specimens were collected in Prince of Wales Channel, 
5-7 fms. (Xo. 150), which scarcely differ from the type from the 
Philippines in the British-Museum collection except in having the 
median frontal lobes generally somewhat more acute. A careful 
comparison of these specimens with tho (previously) unique dried 
type example shows that the number of joints in the terminal fla- 
gelliform portion of the anterior limbs (which arc imperfectly seen 
on account of the hairs with which they are thickly clothed) wa9 
understated in the original description ; instead of being ten or 
twelve, they are usually twice as numerous. 



MACEUKA. 

1. Gebia carinicauda, Stimpson. 

Two females are in the collection from the beach at Thursday 
Island (Xo. 167). Another in the British Museum was collected 
by Mr. MacFarlane on the shores of one of the islands in Torres 
Straits. Stimpson's types were from Hong Kong. These specimens 
agree very well with Stimpson's description, except that the upper 
margins of the dactyli of the anterior legs can scarcely be de- 
scribed as carinated. The spinules of the front are almost com- 
pletely concealed by the pubescence, but are distinctly visible in a 
lateral view. 

In a smaller specimen, also a female and from the same locality, 
the spinules mentioned by Stimpson as existing above the genital 
apertures in the third pair of legs (and which are very distinct in 
the larger examples in the ' Alert ' collection) are not developed. 

* Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. viii. p. 53 (1880). 



CRUSTACEA. 281 

G. carinicauda is nearly allied to, and may prove to be identical 
with, G. Mrtifrons, While, which Mr. Haswell (Cat. p. 1G4) men- 
tions as commonly occurring in sponges at Port Jackson ; but in tho 
latter species the spine of the lower margin of the hand (which exists 
in adult examples of G. carinicauda) is absent. I may add that in 
the type specimen of G. hirtifrons the bases of the second, as well as 
of the third, pair of legs bear a spinule. 

2. Gebiopsis darwinii. (Plate XXXII. fig. A.) 

The carapace is vertically deep and laterally compressed (as in 
Gebiopsis nitidus, A. M.-Edw.) ; its sides converge very slightly to 
the front, which has four median spines on its anterior margin, ar- 
ranged nearly iu a semicircle, and are equidistant, and behind this 
the lateral margins are denticulated. The carapace is densely 
pubescent above in front, and its dorsal surface is bordered anteriorly 
by a suture, which is continued backward nearly as far as the cer- 
vical suture, which is deep and well defined. The segments of the 
postabdomen are nearly smooth, but clothed witli a few hairs ; the 
terminal segment slightly transverse, with the posterior margin 
straight and unarmed. The eyes, which have very short and thick 
peduncles, are well nigh concealed beneath the front in a dorsal view. 
The antcnnules are short, the peduncles scarcely reaching beyond 
the front, and each bearing twosubequalflagella. The antennae are 
little longer than the carapace ; the slender peduncles reach some- 
what beyond the front ; the penultimate and terminal joints are 
short, and clothed above with long hairs ; the flagella of the an- 
tennas terminate in a pencil of hairs, and the several joints also boar 
a few setae. The chelipedes are subequal and moderately robust ; 
the merus-joints unarmed and somewhat hairy ; the hairs longest 
and most abundant along the inferior margins ; the wrists are short, 
thinly clothed with hair, and having a few minute spinules along 
their upper margins, of which the anterior one is the most promi- 
nent ; the palms longer than broad, somewhat turgid, rounded above 
and below, and thinly clothed with hair, which is arranged iu dis- 
tant longitudinal lines ; the fingers are hairy, much shorter than the 
palms, thickened at base, dentated on their inner margins, with their 
apices slightly crossed when closed, the upper much curved. The 
second legs have the under margins of the merus-joints densely 
fringed with hair, and the last three joints are also hairy ; the 
penultimate joint louger than tho preceding, moderately dilated and 
compressed ; dactyli shorter than the preceding joint ; the third legs 
are similar to the second, but the mcrus is less hairy below, and the 
propus is shorter ; the fourth and fifth legs are much shorter and 
slenderer than the foregoing, and the last three joints are more or 
less hairy, the hairs thickest along the inferior margins of the pro- 
pus. The rami of the uropoda are broad, with the distal margins 
straight ; they about reach to the distal end of the terminal seg- 
ment of the postabdomen. Colour (in spirit) yellowish white. The 
length of the largest specimen does not exceed 9 lines (19 millim.). 



282 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

Seven specimens were collected at Port Darwin at 12 fms (in- 
cluding both sexes) ; two or three are females with ova. In the 
last collection from H.M.S. ' Alert ' specimens from Singapore 
are apparently not specifically distinguishable, although presenting 
some slight distinctions. 

From Gebiopsis nitidus, A. M.-Edwards *, from the Cape Verds 
(the type of the genus), this species is distinguished by the somewhat 
different form of the rostrum, the existence of a spine on the 
carpus of the chelipedes, the much shorter antennulary and antennal 
peduncles, etc. 

A male from Freraantle, S.W. Australia (Dr. J. S. Boiverbank), 
differs in the form of the rostrum, which is anteriorly deflexed ; its 
margins armed with ten spines in front of the first of the denticules 
of the sides of the head ; of these, four (of which two are longer) are 
arranged in a semicircle in front, and three, posterior to them, on 
each side. I would propose to designate this, if specifically distinct, 
G. bowerbciitLii. 

The genus Gebiopsis scarcely differs from Gebia, except in the 
greater development of the lower finger of the chelipedes (which 
thus are perfectly chelate), and is probably to be regarded as a sub- 
genus. 

J3. Axius plectrorhynchus, Strdkl. 

I am somewhat uncertain of the identity of the specimen in the 
' Alert ' collection with Strahl's type from Luzon, and therefore 
subjoin the following description : — 

The carapace and postabdomen are somewhat membranaceous in 
texture, as in most species of the genus. The cephalothorax is ver- 
tically deep and laterally compressed; the carapace is smooth, 
without spines, and has the cervical suture distinctly marked. The 
rostrum is prominent and narrow, concave above between the eyes ; 
it is produced somewhat behind them, and is armed on the lateral 
margins with five or six teeth ; at the base of the rostrum, in the 
median dorsal line, the carapace rises into an abrupt prominence ; 
both the gastric and cardiac regions are distinctly defined. The 
postabdominal segments are smooth, the first very small, the rest 
nearly of equal length ; the lateral margins of the second to sixth 
segments are nearly straight, entire, and are not produced into spines 
at either the antero-lateral or postero-lateral angles ; the terminal 
segment is quadrate, very little broader than long, a little broader 
in its proximal than in its distal half, and has its posterior margin 
straight. The eyes are of moderate length and thickness, and have 
distinct black corneas ; the antennules are of moderate length, their 
antepenultimate joints longer than the two following, which are 
subequal ; the two flagella are of equal thickness, with naked joints. 
The antennas are shorter than the animal, the antepenultimate joint 
of the peduncle shorter than the following, and armed beneath with 
a small spinule ; the penultimate joint longer than the last joint ; the 

* Nouv. Arehiv. Mus. Hist. Nat. iv. p. 63, pi. xviii. figs. 4-7 (1868). 



CBT7STAI EA. 283 

joints of the flagella almost naked. The scale at hase of the an- 
tennae is acuminate at its distal cud, and lid ween it and the peduncle 
is a strong spine, which is apparently articulated with the ante- 
penultimate peduncular joint. The outer maxillipedes are subpcdi- 
form, and the joints are hairy on their inner margins. The anterior 
legs are wanting in the single specimen I have seen ; the three 
following legs have the joints somewhat compressed ; the merus and 
carpus in the second legs are somewhat dilated and fringed helow 
with long hairs, the palm forming with the dactyl a perfect chela, 
the fingers of which are acute and meet along the inner edges ; 
the following legs are not suhehelate ; the palm in the third pair 
is ovate, fringed with short stiff hairs below and on the sides, 
dactyl very short ; in the fourth pair tho palm is somewhat slen- 
derer and more elongated, more thickly clothed towards its distal 
end with plumose hairs ; the fifth legs are shorter and comparatively 
slender and feeble. The postabdominal appendages are biramose, 
the inner larger than the outer branch. Tho rami of the uropoda 
are somewhat indurated and considerably dilated ; their distal mar- 
gins are straight, ciliated, and minutely spinulose, and they reach 
to the end of the terminal segment of the post abdomen. Colour 
(in spirit) whitish. Length about 1 inch 44 lines (35 millim.). 

The single example collected, which is, I think, a male, was ob- 
tained on the beach between tide-marks at Port Molle (No. 103), 
and is in very imperfect condition. 

Although the anterior legs are wanting in this specimen, there can, 
I think,, be no doubt of its generic position. 

4. Thalassina anomala (Herbst). 

To this species probably belongs a female of rather small size 
from Thursday Island, obtained in the mangrove-swamps (No. 124). 

In this specimen the chelipedes are of nearly etpial size, and both 
chelae are as slender and as much elongated as is the smaller chela 
in the adult T. anomala, and are strongly spinulose on their upper 
margins. 

The examination of this specimen induces me to regard certain small 
examples (of both sexes) from Borneo, Singapore, and the Indian 
Ocean which I formerly * referred to T. anomala, and which have 
a more broadly triangulate rostrum, and the upper margins of the 
wrists and hands of the chelipedes armed with much smaller spinules 
along their upper margins, as probably referable to a distinct species. 
"White's T. taljpa, however, is, as I have already stated, probably a 
young T. anomala. 

To the localities mentioned in my paper referred to above is to be 
added Nicol Bay, N.W. Australia, whence the Museum possesses a 
small mutilated example (M. clu Boulay). 

Perhaps the species described by Hess t from Sydney as T. max- 
ima is to be regarded merely as a variety of T. anomala. 

* Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, v. p. 377 (1880). 

t Archiv f. ISaturgeschichte, xxxi. p. 163, pi. vii. fig. 18 (1865). 



284 COLLECTIONS FkOAT MELANESIA. 

5. Alpheus edwardsii. 

Athanasus edwardsii, Audouin, Explie. planches de Savigny , Descript. 

de VJEgypte, At/a*, pi. x. tig. 1 (1S09). 
Alpheus heterochelis, Say, Jburn. Acad. Xat. Sci. Philad. i. p. 243 

(1818): M.-Edw. Hist. Nat. Cru.it. ii. p. 356 (1837); De Kay, 

Crustacea in Zool. New York Fauna, p. 26 (l v 44) ; Gibbes, Proc. 

Amer. Assoc. Advanc. Sci. p. 196 (1850) ; Kingslcy, Bull. U.S. 

Geol. ami Geogr. Survey, iv. (No. 1) p. 194 (1*77) ; Smith, Trans. 

Conn. Acad. Sci. ii. pp. 23, 39 (1869); Lockington, Ann. 4" Mag. 

Nat. Hist. ser. 5. i. p. 475 (1878). 
P Alpheus armillatus, M.-Edw. Hist. Nat. Crust, ii. p. 475 (1837). 
Alpheus neptuuus, triton, rhode, and amphitrite, White, List Crust. 

Brit. Mus. p. 74 (1647), descr. nulla. 
Alpheus doris, White, t. c. p. 75 (1847), descr. nulla. 
Alpheus avarus, De JIaan [nee Fabricius), Crust, in Fauna Japonica, 

p. 179, pi. xlv. fig. 3 (1849), Alpheus bisincisus on plate. 
Alpheus edwardsii, Dana {nee Milne-Edwards), Crust, in U.S. Ex- 

plor. E.iped. xiii. p. 342, pi. xxxiv. rig. 2 (1852) ? ; Heller, Sitzungsb. 

der Akad. Wissensch. Wien, math.-nat. Klasse, xliv. (i.) p. 207 

(1862) ; Norman, Ann. Sf May. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, ii. p. 174 ( 1868) ; 

Miers, Or. in Zool. 'Erebus ' and 'Terror,'' p. 4, pi. iv. iig. 3 (1874), 

A. neptunus ou plate ; Hilgendorf, Monatsb. Akad. Berlin, p. 830 

(1878). 
Alpheus edwardsii, var. leviusculus, Dana, t. c. p. 543, pi. xxxiv. 

fig. 3 (1852). 
Alpheus strenuus, Dana, t.c. p. 545, pi. xxxiv. tig. 2 (1852) ; Miers, 

t. c. p. 5, pi. iv. rig. 2 (1874), A. doris on plate ; Monatsb. Akad. 

Berlin, p. 831 (1678). 
? Alpheus paeificus, Dana, t. c. p. 544, pi. xxxiv. fig. 5 (1852), var. ? 
Halopsyehe lutaria, Saussure, Tie v. Zool. p. 100 (18-57). 
Alpheus lutarius, Saussure, Mem. Soc. Phys. et Hist. Nat, Geneve, 

xiv. p. 401, pi. iii. fig. 24 (1858) ; von Martens, Arch. f. Naturg. 

xxxviii. p. 139 ( 1872). 
Alpheus hisineisus {De Haan), Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Set. 

Philad. p. 30 (1660) : Miers, Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 53 (1879). 
Alpheus crassimanus, Heller, Reise der Novara, Crust, p. 107, pi. x. 

tig. 2 (1865), var. ? 
? Alpheus bispinosus, Streets, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. p. 242 

(1878). 
Alpheus edward-ii and A. strenuus, De 31an, Notes from the Leyden 

Museum, xxi. p. 105 (1881). 

As the very common and widely distributed species which is here 
referred to the Alpheus edwardsii of Audouin has been designated 
by many different specific names, it may be useful to point out its 
most salient characters, more especially as Savigny's excellent figure, 
by which alone the species may be easily identified, is not accom- 
panied by any description. The rostrum is short, acute, and arises 
from the front margin of the carapace ; on either side of it, between 
the front and supraocular arches, a longitudinal depression extends 
back on the dorsal surface of the carapace for a short distance, so 
that the dorsal surface is slightly earinated. The second (exposed) 
joint of the antennules is longer than the first. The basal scale of 
the outer antenna) scarcely reaches beyond the peduncle, and is 



CRUSTACEA. 285 

without or has only a rudimentary spine at hase ; it narrows some- 
what to its apex, which has a small spinule at its outer angle. Tho 
larger ehelipede (which may be either the right or left) has a mas- 
sive hand, which is rounded at its proximal cud, notched above and 
toothed below, just behind the bases of the fingers ; on the outer 
and inner surface of the palm, just below the incision in the upper 
margin, is an irregular shallow depression, that on the inner surface 
being somewhat of a triangulate and that on the outer surface of a 
quadrangulate shape : an impressed line, which forms the posterior 
margin of the depression of the inner surface, passes obliquely down- 
ward to the lower and proximal margin, aud upward over the 
rounded superior margin, whence it is prolonged in a nearly straight 
line along the upper and outer surface to the rounded base of the 
iipper margin ; this line is sometimes nearly obsolete ; the mobile 
finger is rounded and subcarinated above, and is armed on its inner 
margin near the base with a very prominent rounded tooth or lobe, 
which fits into a deep pit in the lower (immobile) finger ; the smaller 
chela is slender (in the typical form), without notches, teeth, or 
sulci ; the second joint of the carpus of the second leg is usually a 
little shorter than tho first, the three last joints short, the fifth a 
little longer than the fourth. 

In some specimens the lobe or tooth immediately behind the 
notch on the upper and lower margins of the large chela is rounded 
or subacute, in others it is acute. 

Eight specimens (males and females) are in the first collection 
from Port Curtis, 0-11 fms. (No. 92), one (male) from Tort Molle 
beach (No. 95), and two females from Port Denison, 4 fms. (No. Ill); 
a small specimen (No. 123) is without special indication of locality. 
In the second collection are two small specimens from Thursday 
Island, 4-5 fms., a female from Dundas Straits, 17 fms. (No. 161), 
and an adult female from the beach at Port Darwin (No. 176). 

There are, besides, specimens in the British-Museum collec- 
tion from other localities as follows : — North Australia (Dr. J. R. 
Elsey), Port Essington and Rockhampton (Godeffroy Museum 
as A. breuirostris, M.-E.). Also from the lied Sea (Dr. 0. 
Heller); Gulf of Suez (R. Mac Andrew) ; Egypt (J. Burton); 
Zanzibar (Dr. Kirk) ; Seychelles (Dr. E. P. Wright) ; Karachi 
(Karachi Museum) ; Ceylon (E. W. H. Holdsworih) ; Indian Ocean, 
Philippine Islands, Bohol (Cuming); Japan, Katsura (Capt. U. C. 
St. John, R.N., the specimens I formerly designated A. bisincisus, 
De Haan) ; New Hebrides (J. Macgillivray) ; Fiji Islands, Nairai 
(H.M.S. i Herald'); Samoa Islands, Upolu (Rev. S. J. Whit- 
mee); Tahiti (Mus. Godeffroy, as A. pacifieus, Dana); Sandwich 
Islands (W. H. Pease). Specimens from the island of Trinidad 
(R. J. Lechmere Guppy) and the west coast of Central America 
(Capt. Dow) seem to be scarcely specifically distinguishable *. 
The males may be distinguished from the females by the form of 

* The series of specimens iu the British-Museum collection, extensive though 
it be, does not fully exhibit the ascertained range of this species. According to 



286 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

the smaller chela of the first pair of legs. In the females the 
fingers are slender, straight, and acute, and scantily pubescent ; in the 
males the dactyl is relatively broader, subspatulate in form ; toward 
the distal extremity the lateral margins are closely and densely 
fringed with hairs, which pass in an oblique line over the sides of 
this joint, and meet on its dorsal surface immediately behind its 
acute apex. Among the males the form of this (the smaller) chela 
is subject to considerable variation ; sometimes (as in Dr. Heller's 
Red-Sea specimen in the Museum collection) it is, as stated above, 
smooth and entire, without notches or sulci, but it often exhibits a 
gradual approach in form to the larger chela in having the upper 
margins more or less distinctly notched, and even occasionally in 
exhibiting traces of distinct depressions on the outer and inner sur- 
face. As the two varieties appear to pass into one another by almost 
insensible gradations, I have not ventured to distinguish them by 
name. Of this latter form there are specimens from the Gulf of 
Suez, Karachi, Samoa, and Shark Bay, West Australia (F. .17. 
Rayner, H.M.S. ' Herald '), in the Museum collection. Among the 
Shark-Bay specimens (preserved dry) in the Museum collection 
one, which is apparently a female, has a slight indentation on the 
lower margin of the smaller chela. 

Specimens from China (Gen. Hardwicke) in the Museum collection 
are further distinguished by having a small spinule on either side of 
the mobile finger at the distal end of the upper margin of each chela. 
These have been designated by White A. chiragricus, M.-Edw., 
whether rightly or not I cannot determine. 

In certain specimens I have observed that the interocular portion 
of the rostrum is somewhat elevated and subcarinated, as in the form 
from the Nicobars designated A. crassimanus by Heller*, which may 
perhaps be a mere variety of A. edwardsii. Dr. Heller notes a diffe- 
rence in the form of the smaller chelipede in A. crassimanus exactly 
resembling that I have described above as occurring in A. edwardsii. 
This character, I may add, seems to be alluded to by Hilgendorf f 
in his remarks upon A. strenuus ; but if so, that author was not 
aware of its being a mere sexual distinction, but apparently sup- 
posed it to be a good specific character. It is also mentioned by De 
Man, who, although regarding A. strenuus and A. crassimanus as 
distinct species, regards the difference in the form of the smaller 
hand as probably sexual +. 

In the British-Museum collection are specimens of what appears 
to be a distinct but closely-allied species from the Fiji Islands, 
Totoya {H.M.S. 'Herald'), and Sandwich Islands ( IF". H. Pease), 



S. I. Smith (;". c.) it ranges from N. Carolina southward to the Abrolhos (Brazil), 
and Lockingcon mentions its occurrence on the Lower Californian coast and at 
Realejo on the west coast of Nicaragua (as A. hetcrochelis) ; Dr. F. Richters 
records it from the Mauritius. 

* Keise der Novara, Crustacea, p. 107, pi. x. fig. 2 (1865). 

t Monatsber. der Aiad. Wissensch. Berlin, p. 831 (1878). 

J ' Kotes from the Leyden Museum,' xxv. p. 105 (1881). 



CBTTSTACI.V. 2^7 

which is distinguished by having a small but well-developed spinule 
on the outer side of the antennal scale at base, and the fingers of 
the smaller chelipede slender, arcuated, considerably longer than 
the palm, thickly clothed with long hair on Hair inner margins, and 
having between them an interspace when closed. In the adult the 
fingers are sometimes elongated to a remarkable degree, three times 
as long as the palm in one specimen. This form I propose to 
designate Alpheus gracilidigitus. 

Crangon monopodiinn, Bosc *, is very possibly this or an allied 
species. As, however, it is impossible to identify that author's brief 
description and rude figure as given in his second edition (1830) with 
any species with certainty, and as his designation has never been 
adopted by any subsequent writer. I prefer to retain Audouin's name 
A. edwardsii, about which there is no uncertainty and which has 
been used by several authors of repute. I have never seen the first 
edition of Bosc's work. 

Both the Alpheus edwardsii, as described by Dana from Cape- 
Yerd specimens, and the A. pacijicus, Dana, from the Sandwich 
Islands, differ in having the second joint of the carpus of the second 
pair of legs much shorter than the first joint, but are probably mere 
varieties of the typical A. edwardsii. 

The species I described from the Samoa Islands as A. lineifer t is 
allied to A edwardsii, but may be distinguished by the smoother 
chelipede and the existence of a well-developed spine on the outer 
side of the peduncles of the antenna?. It may perhaps be the young 
of Alpheus parvirostris, Dana, from the Balabac Straits ; but the first 
joint of the carpus of the second pair of legs is relatively shorter, 
and the large chela of the first pair relatively narrower and more 
elongated than in Dana's figure. 



6. Alpheus obesomanus, Dana. 

A small example from Port Molle, 5-12 fms. (Xo. 118), is re- 
ferred to this species. 

Several small specimens are in the British-Museum collection from 
Ovalau, Fijis (H.JI.S. '■Herald'). Dana's types were also from the 
Fiji Islands. Dr. F. Bichters has recently recorded this species 
from the Mauritius (Isle des Fouquets). 

This species is remarkable on account of the turgid form of the 
larger chelipede and the great elongation of the second carpal joint 
of the second pair of legs. 



7. Alpheus gracilipes, Stimpson. 

I thus designate a specimen from Port Molle, obtained on the 
beach (Xo. 05), and another small example from Flinders Island, 

* Hist. Nat. Crust, ii. p. 96, pi. xiii. fig. 2 (1802). 
t Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, xyi. p. 343 (187o). 



288 



COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 



which differ from the specimen doubtfully referred to A. gracilipes, 
from Capt. St. John's Corean collection, in the British Museum* 
only in having the inferior margins of the merus-joint of the larger 
chelipede distinctly serrated and its upper margin bluntly angulated 
at the distal end, whereas in the Corean specimen the inferior mar- 
gins are nearly smooth and the upper margin ends in a distinct 
spine. A specimen from Ceylon (E. W. H. Holdsworth) is somewhat 
intermediate in these characters. Nothing is said regarding the 
form of this joint by Stimpson in his original description. I may 
add that both the Japanese and Australian specimens differ from 
Stimpson's description, founded on examples from Tahiti, in having 
the first joint of the carpus a little shorter than the second. 



8. Alpheus minor, var. neptunus. 

Alpheus minus, Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. i. p. 245 (1818) ; 

M.-Edwards, Hist. Nat. Crust, ii. p. 35G ( l<-34) ; Be Kay, Zool. 

Neiv York Fauna, Crust, p. 26 (1844) ; White, List Crust. Brit. 

Mus. p. 75 (1847) ; Gibbes, Proc. Amer. Assoc. Advanc. Sei. p. 196 

(1851); Kmysley, Bull. U.S. Geol. Survey, p. 190 (1878). 
P Alpheus formosus, Gibbes, t. c. p. 196 (1851). 
Alpheus neptunus, Dana, U.S. Expl. Exp. xiii. Cr. i. p. 553, pi. xxxv. 

fig. 5 (1852) ; Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. p. 31 (I860), 

var. 
Alpheus charon, Heller, Sitz. Ahad. Wissenseh. Wien, xliv. i. p. 272, 

pi. iii. figs. 21, 22 (1862 J ; Crust, in Reise der Novara, p. 107 

(1865), var. 
Alpheus minor, Lockinyton, Ann. § May. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, i. p. 472 

(1878). 

Three specimens, of which two are females with ova, were ob- 
tained at Thursday Island, 4-5 fms. (No. 165). 

A small specimen is in the British-Museum collection from Port 
Jackson, between Bell's Head and Goat Island (J. Brazier). 

To this species also are referred specimens from the Gulf of 
Suez (R. MacAndrew), Karachi (Karachi Museum), and Ceylon 
(E. W. H. Holdsivorth), besides three specimens presented by T. 
Say, and therefore of typical value, from East Florida. 

Dana's types were from the Sooloo Sea, and Stimpson records it 
from Ousima and Hong Kong. 

I can find nothing, either in the descriptions of authors or in the 
specimens I have examined, to warrant the specific separation of the 
Oriental from the American species. The ocular spines and rostrum 
are, however, somewhat shorter and more triangulate in the Floridan 
examples than in the Oriental form ; and as Kingsley notes a similar 
distinction between specimens occurring on the Eastern and Western 
American coasts, I retain Dana's name for the Oriental variety. On 
the American coasts it is recorded by Kingsley from North Carolina 
to the Bermudas on the east, and at Pearl Islands Bay, off Panama, 
on the west. 

* Vide Troc. Zool. Soc. p. 55 (1879). 






CKU8TACEA. 289 

b. Alpheus comatularum, Iluswell. 

Since Mr. Haswell's description of this species is brief, it may be 
of service to subjoin the following, which was drawn up before his 
Catalogue came to hand : — 

The body is smooth ; carapace with the sides nearly straight and 
the antero-lateral angles appearing right angles in a dorsal view. 
The rostrum is very long, reaching nearly to the end of the peduncles 
of the antennules, vertically compressed and acute ; it has a dorsal 
keel, which is prolonged backward to the gastric region of tbo 
carapace, which is rather convex ; the supraocular spines are long and 
acute, but not half as long as the rostrum. The lateral margins of 
the second to sixth segments of the postabdomen terminate in small 
spines in the males ; in the females the third to sixth segments are 
laterally acute; in the males the first, and in the females the first 
and second segments have their lateral margins broadly rounded. 
The terminal segment is about twice as long as broad, with four 
spines on its upper surface (two on either side of the middle line) 
and four at its distal end (two on cither side of a slightly prominent 
median lobe). The eyes are completely concealed beneath the cara- 
pace ; the penultimate and antepenultimate joints of the antcnnulary 
peduncles are of about equal length, the last joint a little shorter ; 
the longer of t he two flagella is about as long as the carapace, with 
ciliated joints ; outside of the peduncles is a flattened spine, which 
reaches to the middle of the penultimate peduncular joint. The 
terminal joint of the peduncle of the antennas is much elongated, 
the preceding joint very short; the flagella robust and hardly as 
long as the body ; the basal scale is shorter than the peduncle, bi- 
partite at its distal end, the outer lobe spiniform and acute ; there 
is a small external basal spine, below which is another larger spine. 
The larger chelepide (either the right or left) has a slender merus- 
joint, which is armed with a small spinule at the distal end of its 
upper margin : the carpus (in both) is extremely short, armed above 
and below with a strong spine ; palm subcylindrical, elongated, 
smooth, without notches, rounded above and below, with a small 
spinule at the distal end of its upper margin ; fingers each with a 
blunt rounded tooth on its inner margin, the upper dilated laterally, 
compressed and carinated above. In the smaller chelipede the palm 
is slender, the fingers incurved at the tips, the dactyl much longer 
than the lower finger and strongly arcuated. In the second legs 
the last joint of the carpus is slightly longer than the three prece- 
ding joints (which are very short) ; the following legs are mode- 
rately robust, and terminate in small curved claws. The rami of 
the uropoda are rounded, ciliated, and very minutely granulated at 
the distal ends, the outer somewhat the larger ; their basal portions 
ire armed with a spine above. Colour (in spirit) yellowish or 
;>inkish ; an adult female with ova is a deep brown-pink. Length 
)f an adult female nearly 1 inch 2 lines (30 millim.), of its large 
helipede about 9| lines (20 millim.) ; the males are somewhat 
mailer. 






290 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

Two females were obtained at Albany Island, 3-4 fms., whence 
also it is recorded by Mr. Haswell, and a small male at Warrior 
Reef (first collection) ; also an adult male from Prince of Wales 
Channel, 7-9 fms., and three from Thursday Island, 4-5 fms. (No. 165), 
from the second collection. 

Specimens are in the British-Museum collection from Ceylon 
(E. W. H. Holdsworih), and I have also seen examples from Singa- 
pore (in the collection of A. 0. Walker, Esq.). 

The remarkable development of the rostrum and orbital spines 
and the form of the antennal scale serve to distinguish this species. 
According to Mr. Haswell (Cat. p. 189), whose description of 
this and several other of his new species was based on specimens 
obtained by H.M.S. ' Alert,' it is invariably found clinging to the 
arms of a species of Comatulid, to which its markings give it a 
general resemblance. The carapace is marked with longitudinal 
stripes of brownish purple, with a narrow median white line, which 
is continued on the first two postabdominal segments ; at the sides 
are three short white markings, the abdomen has broad brownish- 
purple and narrow white lines, bases of antenna} purple, longitudinal 
stripes of purple on the ambulatory legs ; large hand marked with 
longitudinal lines of light brown, bordered by narrow darker 
bands. 

10. Alpheus villosus, M.-Edw. 

An adult example is in the collection from Warrior Reef ( first 
collection), and two specimens (one of small size) from Thursday 
Island, 3-4 fms. (No. 177), in the second collection. 

A female with ova from the Australian coast (without special 
indication of locality) is in the Museum from the collection of Dr. 
J. S. Bowerbank. 

To the characters given by Milne-Edwards I may add that there 
exists a small spinule on the outer margin of the first exposed joint 
of the antennulary peduncles. The larger chela is vertically very 
deep at its base, but narrows towards the fingers ; the smaller one 
is pubescent, but without sulci or spinules ; the fingers quite as 
long as the palm. 



11. Pontonia (Conchodytes) tridacnae, Peters. 

A large series of specimens was obtained at Warrior Reef, at 
from 10-16 fms. (No. 137), together with specimens of Pinnothere- 
vUlosulus, which inhabited " pearl-shells ;" whether the Pontotm 
tridacnw had the same habitat is stated to be uncertain. Bv far tin 
greater number of the specimens collected were females with ova 
In the full-sized examples the second pair of legs are verv mucl 
larger and more robust than in the specimen figured by Dana (tin 
only one he had seen), having the palm robust and elongaL.i 
rounded above and below, and the fingers less than half the lengtl 
of tho palm, the mobile finger strongly carinated above, with a toot 



CRUSTACEA. 291 

or lobe on its inner margin, which fits into a cavity between two 
smaller teeth on the inner margin of the lower finger. These cha- 
racters are, however, less marked in specimens in which the second 
lcps are less developed, and there are one or two examples in which 
the chelae scarcely differ in form and proportions from Dana's figure ; 
hence I have not ventured to regard the species as distinct. 

A specimen, dried and very imperfect, which probably belongs to 
this species, is in the British-Museum collection from Keppel Island, 
Port Curtis, obtained within the shell of a live Pinna (•/. Macgilli- 
vray, H.M.S. 'Rattlesnake'), others from the collection of H.M.S. 
'Herald,' from the interior of Tridaena (without indication of 
locality), and others from Matuka and Ngau {H.M.S. 'Herah/'). 
In all the specimens from the ' Herald ' collection the second pair 
of chelipedes are less developed, as in Dana's figure of this species, 
which was based on a specimen from Tutuila, in the Samoan or 
Navigator group (Crust. U.S. Expl. Exp. xiii. p. 571, pi. xxxvii. 
fig. 1, 1852). 

It appears very doubtful whether the P. maculata, Stimpson*, 
from Tridacnce obtained at Bonin, can be regarded as distinct from 
P. tridaoKP, from which it is only distinguished by Stimpson by 
its elongated form and slenderer rostrum ; the rostrum is, how- 
ever, described as reaching only to the penultimate joint of the 
antennulary peduncles (and hence shorter than is usual in P. tri- 
daena) and truncated at apex. 

The genus Conchodj/tes, established for this species by Dr. Peters, 
can, I think, scarcely be regarded as generically distinct from 
Pontonia ; but the name may perhaps be conveniently retained as a 
subgeneric designation for P. tridaena'. and the allied species. Dr. 
Hilgendorf, who had the opportunity of examining Dr. Peters's 
type, distinguishes it from Pontonia merely by the shorter antennal 
flagellum t ; but the flagellum in P. macrophthahna (which Dr. Peters 
himself supposes to belong to Conchoch/tes) is represented as being 
much longer. (See M.-Edwards, Atlas in Cuvier's ' Regne Animal,' 
Crustaces, pi. lii. fig. 3.) 



12. Harpilius inermis. (Plate XXXII. fig. B.) 

Body not compressed, smooth, and dorsally rounded, and without 
spines either on the carapace or postabdomen. Rostrum spiniform, 
rounded and smooth above, longer than the eye-peduncles, rather 
broad at base, appearing acute at apex in a dorsal view, without 
spinules or teeth on its upper or lower margins ; it is laterally 
somewhat compressed, and in a lateral view its apex is rounded. 
The terminal postabdominal segment is rounded above, but narrows 
considerably towards its distal end, which bears several seta? ; the 
lateral margins are unarmed. The eye-peduncles project laterally 
and are of moderate size ; the antennulary peduncles project slightly 

* Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. p. 38 (1860). 
t Sitzungsb. der Akad. Wissenech. Berlin, p. 835 (1878). 

TJ 2 



292 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

beyond the rostrum and bear two flagella, whereof one is consider- 
ably thickened and is bipartite at its extremity ; the antennal 
peduncles are short, with the last joint longer than the preceding ; 
their basal scales ovate, much longer than the peduncles, and with- 
out spinules ; rounded and ciliated at the distal ends ; the flagella 
are shorter than the animal, with the joints nearly naked ; the two 
last joints of the outer maxillipedes are slender, setose, and to- 
gether little longer than the antepenultimate joint, which, like the 
preceding, is moderately dilated. The anterior legs are slender, with 
the wrist elongated and about twice as long as the palm and fingers 
taken together; the second cbebpedes, although larger tb an the pre- 
ceding, are yet slenderer than in many allied forms; the joints are 
without spines ; the right leg a very little more robust than the left ; 
the merus or arm about as long as the ischium and little longer 
than the carpus, which is rounded above and below and not half as 
long as the palm ; the palm is smooth, rounded above and below, 
very slightly compressed ; the fingers rather more than half the 
length of the palm, with thin inner edges, incurved and acute at the 
tips, and each armed with a tooth near the base on the inner margin, 
that of the dactyl being the larger ; in the left chelipede the teeth 
are not developed. The three following legs are slender, unarmed, 
and terminate in a small simple curved claw. The uropoda reach a 
little beyond the distal end of the terminal postabdominal segment ; 
their bases are armed above with a spine ; the rami are ovate and 
ciliated, the outer a little broader than the inner. Colour (in spirit) 
light yellowish. Length of the single specimen (a female) about 
10 lines (21 millim.), of second chelipede about 7 lines (15 millim.). 

The second specimen was found in the interior of a shell of a 
species of Pinna, obtained on the coral-reefs at Port Molle, and 
bears ova. 

This species in its general appearance and in many details, as in 
the edentulous rostrum, ovate antennal scales, and the form of the 
chelipedes, bears a striking resemblance to Anchistia aurantiaca, 
Dana*,' from the Fijis, but differs in the form of the outer maxilli- 
pedes and of the dactyli of the ambulatory legs, in which it rather 
resembles Harpilius. As this is the only spirit-specimen, I have 
not ventured to dissect the buccal organs to ascertain the absence 
of a mandibular palpus ; but there can, I think, be little doubt that 
this species is rightly placed with Harpilius and Anchistia. 

There is in the British-Museum collection a dried example from 
Shark Bay, W. Australia (F. M. Rapier, H.M.S. 'Herald'), which 
probably belongs here. This specimen also was found in the interior 
of a Pinna-shell. 

Another closely allied species exists in the Museum collection, 
represented by a single dried specimen from the interior of Tridacna 
(H.M.S. ' Herald'), without precise indication of locality, which 
differs in the form of the rostrum (which appears acute in a lateral 
view), and in having a spine on the anterior margin of the carapace 

* U.S. Expl. Exp. xiii. Or. i. p. 581, pi. xxxviii. fig. 2 (1852). 



CRTT8TAGEA. 293 

above the scale of the external antennae, which is armed with a 
spinule at its antcro-extcrnal angle. This 1 propose to designate 
2/. spinulifi rus. 

13. Anchistia petitthouarsi, Audouin? 

The carapace, with its rostrum, is shaped nearly as in Palcemon; 
the terminal postabdominal segment is narrow, with four spines on 
its upper surface, placed close to the lateral margins, and terminates 
in two long mobile spines and three smaller spines. There is a 
supraorbital spinule situated on each side of the rostrum, between 
it and the eyes and just behind the anterior margin of the carapace, 
also an antennal spine outside of the eyes, and one (the branchio- 
Btegal?) placed below the eyes and behind the anterior margin. 
The rostrum is longer than the peduncles of the antennae, nearly 
straight, has six teeth on its upper and four on its lower margin, 
and is bidentate at apex ; the last tooth of the series is situated in 
the median dorsal line of the carapace behind the anterior margin. 
The eyes are, as in Leander, of moderate size and project laterally. 
The antennules have the antepenultimate (?) joint of the peduncles 
dilated, laminate, and vertically compressed, with a small spinule 
at its antero-external angle ; the two following joints are short and 
slender and terminate in two flagella, of which the thicker is shortly 
bifid at its apex, the other is broken. The antennal scale is much 
elongated, narrow, nearly reaching to the apex of the thicker an- 
tcnnulary flagellum, and completely concealing (in a dorsal view) 
the peduncles of the antenna3 ; it is ciliated on its inner margin and 
at its apex, and has a spinule at its antero-internal angle : the an- 
tennal flagellum is about as long as the animal. The outer maxil- 
lipedes are subpediform, with the antepenultimate but little thicker 
than the last two joints, the penultimate longer than the last joint. 
The anterior legs (or chelipedes) are very slender, with the wrist as 
long as the palm and fingers together : the second legs are slender, 
but thicker than the preceding ; merus-joint with a small spine at 
the distal end of its inferior margin ; the wrist, which is little 
longer than the palm, is also armed with a spine at its distal ex- 
tremity : the palm is very slender, nearly terete, and about as long 
i as the fingers ; these latter are without teeth on the inner margins, 
and have the tips slightly incurved. The ambulator)- legs are 
slender and clothed with a few distant hairs ; the penultimate 
joints very long ; the dactyli slender, styliform, nearly straight, and 
not half as long as the preceding joints. The bases of the uropoda 
have a small spinule at the distal end of the outer margin, and there 
jare two subterminal spinules on the outer margin of each outer 

ramus; the rami are subovate (as usual) and ciliated at the distal 
xt remity and along the inner margins ; the outer somewhat broader 

bhan the inner ramus. Colour (in spirit) whitish. Length nearly 

LO lines (21 millim.). 
The unique specimen (a female with ova) was obtained at Port 

Molle on the beach (No. 98). 



294 COLLECTIONS FKOM MELANESIA. 

I regard the Anchistia grandis of Stimpson, from Ousima*, as 
synonymous with Anchistia petitthouarsi. 

The differences in the proportions of the second legs in our speci- 
men and that described by Mr. Stimpson may perhaps be due to 
sex. Stimpson does not mention the number of the teeth (if any) 
on the inferior margin of the rostrum in his example ; but as he 
says "A. ensifronti affinis," it may be presumed that, as in Dana's 
species, there are three teeth on the inferior margin of tho rostrum, 
and also that there is, as in' that species, a supraocular spine. 

Anchistia incequimana of Heller is, according to Kossmannf, also 
synonymous with A. petitthouarsi. It is remarkable that neither in 
the figure of Savigny, nor in Heller's long description of A. incequi- 
mana in the ' Beitrage zur Crustaceen-Fauna des rothen Meeres,' 
can I find any indication of the supraocular spine ; so that our spe- 
cimen may after all belong to a distinct species. 

14. Coralliocaris ? tridentata. (Plate XXXII. fig. C.) 

The body is rounded above and not compressed : the anterior 
margin of the carapace bears a strong spine outside of the eye- 
peduncles and above the basal antennal scale. The rostrum is short, 
not reaching to the end of the peduncles, and has three spiniform 
teeth on its upper margin ; its lower margin is entire ; the apex curves 
gently upward and is acute. The segments of the postabdomen 
are without spinules ; the terminal segment has four small mobile 
spinules on its upper surface near the lateral margins, and the 
somewhat rounded apex is tipped with a few short setae. The eyes 
are rather short, robust, and reach about halfway to the apex of 
the rostrum. The antepenultimate joint of the peduncles of the 
antennules is about as long as the two following taken together ; 
these are short and of equal length ; the longer flagellum is broken 
in the single specimen examined, the shorter is slightly bipartite at 
its distal end. The basal antennal scales are shorter than the 
peduncles of the antennules, rounded and ciliated at the distal ends, 
and with a very small spinule on the outer margin. The ante- 
penultimate joint of the outer maxillipedes is very little longer and 
broader than the penultimate joint, which about equals the terminal 
joint in length. The anterior legs (the left only is perfect) are very 
slender ; the wrist much exceeds the hand in length, the slender 
palm about equals the fingers. Of the second legs also only the 
left is perfect ; this limb has the joints smooth and unarmed, the 
merus longer than the carpus, which is less than half the length of 
the palm, which is much shrivelled, but its lower margin appears to 
have been carinated ; the fingers are less than half the length of 
the palm, acute at their apices, and without teeth on their inner 
margins. The third legs are robust, with the merus and penulti- 
mate joints compressed ; the dactyl minute, curved, and with a 
minute tooth on the lower margin. The following legs are imperfect. 

* Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. p. 39 (1860). 

t Zool. Ergebn. Reis. roth. Meer. ii. p. 83 (1880). 



CRUSTACEA. 295 

The rami of the uropoda are somewhat longer than the terminal 
segment, ovate, the outer somewhat broader than the inner. Colour 
(in spirit) purplish brown. Length about 7£ lines (16 millim.). 

The single specimen, a female with ova, was obtained at Thursday- 
Island, 4-6 fms. (No. 130), and is in very imperfect condition, the 
right chelipede of the first and second pair and most of the ambula- 
tory legs being deficient. Nevertheless the species may be distin- 
guished from all described by Dana, Heller, or Stimpson by the 
different dentition of the rostrum. On account of the minute dactyl 
with its inferior tooth I refer this species to Coralliocaris ; but it 
differs from the typical species in the slenderer maxillipedes and 
shorter antennal scales. 



15. Palaeinon (Leander) intermedins, Stimpson. 

Three specimens, two of which are females with ova, were obtained 
at Port Jackson, 0-5 fms. (first collection). Stimpson's specimens 
were also from Port Jackson. 

Specimens are in the British-Museum collection from King 
George's Sound, S.W. Australia, and from Ovalau, Fiji group 
(F. M. Rayner, H.M.S. ' Herald '), and also from Tasmania. 

This species usually has eight teeth above and five below, ex- 
clusive of the subapical tooth on the rostrum, and more rarely seven 
above and four below, as stated by Stimpson. The apex is usually, 
but not invariably, bidentate ; in one of the specimens from Port 
Molle the subapical tooth is placed further back on the dorsal 
surface of the rostrum, which thus appears simple at its apex. 
There is a small spiue at the base of the antennal peduncles outside 
of the antennal scale. 

I regard the Palcemon (Leander) serenus of Heller*, from Sydney, 
as very probably a mere variety of P. intermedins. Mr. Haswell 
(Cat. p. 195) retains the two species as distinct ; but he appears to 
have seen no specimens, and his translated descriptions are in- 
accurate as regards the second pair of legs in both species. 

16. Sicyonia ocellata, Stimpson. 

A small specimen is in the second collection, from Thursday 
Island, 1-5 fms. (No. 165), which agrees with Stimpson's descrip- 
tion and the specimens in the British-Museum collection from Ceylon 
and Hong Kong. To this species also belongs, I think, the Sicyonia 
briefly characterized by Mr. Haswell, but without specific name, 
from Port Jackson (vide Cat. p. 205). 

17. Penseus granulosus, Haswell. 

A small male from Port Darwin, 12 fms. (first collection), belongs 
here, and also, I think, a male specimen from Thursday Island, 

* ' fteise der Novara,' Crust, p. 110, pi. x. fig. 5 (1S65). 



296 COLLECTIONS PROM MELANESIA. 

4-6 fms., in Dr. Coppinger's second collection (No. 130), which has 
the terminal postahdominal segment broken. 

These specimens, although males, have a distinct dorsal carina on 
the carapace, in this particular agreeing with Mr. Haswell's descrip- 
tion of the female and differing from the specimens he regards as 
the males of this species. 

P. granulosus comes very near to P. monoceros, Fabricius, which 
species, however, has no lateral spines on the margins of the terminal 
segment. 

18. Penaeus velutinus, Dana. 

Here are referred two specimens (one of which is an adult male) 
from Port Darwin, 12 fms. ; a specimen from Albany Island, 3-4 
fms. ; and a small example from Thursday Island, 4-5 fms. 

For remarks upon the specific characters and geographical range 
of this widely-distributed species, I may refer to my paper on 
Crustacea from the coast of Senegambia * and memoir on the 
Penseideaf. 

I may add that in P. velutinus there are present an antennal 
and hepatic spine, and a third spine (the branchiostogal ?) situated 
on the anterior margin of the carapace below the eye-peduncles ; 
also usually a minute supraorbital spinule or denticle, or a notch 
indicative of its position, in the anterior margin. 



19. Penaeus batei. (Plate XXXII. fig. D.) 

The carapace and postabdomen are covered with a very short 
close pubescence as in P. velutinus. The carapace has scarcely any 
traces of sulci, and has a well-developed antennal and a small 
hepatic spine ; also a very small pterygostomian spine or spinule. 
The rostrum scarcely reaches beyond the ends of the peduncles of 
the antennules ; it is scarcely prolonged at all backward as a median 
longitudinal dorsal crest : its distal extremity curves slightly up- 
ward and is acute ; its lower margin is entire ; its upper margin is 
armed with two teeth placed just in front of the anterior margin of 
the carapace ; behind these, on the gastric region of the carapace, is 
a rudimentary tooth. The third to sixth segments of the post- 
abdomen are carinated in the dorsal median line ; the carina on the 
sixth segment ends in a small spinule on the posterior margin of 
this segment. The terminal segment is slightly longer than the 
preceding, narrow, longitudinally carinated above, and terminates in 
a strong spine, on either side of which are three lateral spines, of 
which those nearest to the distal extremity are smaller and placed 
immediately above the preceding. The e) r es are large, much more 
dilated than their short peduncles. The terminal joint of the 
peduncles of the antennules is shorter than the preceding ; the 
flagclla subequal and very short, not so long as the peduncles. The 

* Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, viii. p. 367 (1881). 
t Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 304 (187S). 



CRUSTACEA. 297 

peduncles of the antenmo are very short, completely concealed 
beneath the large basal scales, which reach slightly beyond the an- 
tcnnal peduncles, narrow to their apices, and have a small spinule 
at the distal ends of their outer margins. The outer maxillipedes 
are rather robust and elongated, reaching, when thrown forward, 
almost to the apices of the antennal scales. The first legs are much 
shorter than the following, with the joints compressed, the dactyli 
acute, and the basus and ischium-joints have each a small spine at 
the distal ends of their inner margins; the second and third cheli- 
pedes are slender (the hasus-joinl of the second legs bears a small 
spine) ; the third are longer than the second ; the fourth legs are 
slender and rarely as long as the third ; the fifth are imperfect. 
The rami of the uropoda are narrow, and reach about to the end of 
the terminal segment ; the outer has the lateral margins nearly 
parallel ; in the inner ramus they converge very slightly to the 
rounded extremity. Colour (in spirit) purplish beneath the cinereous 
pubescence. Length about '2 inches 1U lines (7- millim.). 

The unique example (a female) was obtained at Albany Island in 
3-4 fms. 

The palpi of the mandibles arc two-jointed ; the joints flattened, 
dilated, and ciliated, as in Pectus. 

As the specimen is unique, I have not been able to make a com- 
plete examination of the branchiae; but I think (as in the true 
l'enai as restricted by Mr. Spence Bate) no true podobranchiae are 
present, but merely the epipoditic appendages or " mastibranchiae " 
as he denominates them *. 

There are, besides, in the collection from Port Denison a speci- 
men closely allied to Pasiphcea and to Leptochela, Stimpson ; and 
another crustacean, perhaps belonging to the Penaeidea, which, being 
in very mutilated condition, cannot be described in detail, and 
which I leave for the present undetermined. 

* Vide Spence Bate " On the Penrcidea," Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, viii. 
p. 174(1881). 

In this recent memoir on the Penseidea several new genera and not a 
few new species have been very briefly characterized, to none of which, I 
believe, can our new form be referred. The descriptions, however, are in- 
sufficient. From HemipeiKBUs, which this species resembles in its short and few- 
toothed rostrum, it differs in the structure of the flagella of the antennules. 

Mr. Spence Bate includes in the very insufficiently defined genus Pencsopsis the 
P. styliferus, M. -Edwards, with which he apparently considers P. dobsoni, Miers, 
to be identical. He has strangely overlooked an important distinction, twice 
mentioned by me in my paper (vide Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, pp. 305, 307), 
namely the absence of lateral marginal spimiles on the terminal postabdominal 
segment. They are absent, I may add, alike in the female and in Prof. 
Wood-Mason's small male. The existence of these in P. styliferus is mentioned 
by Milne-Edwards in his original description of that species, and they are 
present also in a specimen referred to P. styliferus in the British-Museum 
collection. 



298 COLLECTIONS FKOII MELANESIA. 

STOMATOPODA. 

1. Squilla nepa, Latr. 

A small male is in the collection from Port Darwin, 7-12 fms. 
(No. 173). 

For remarks on the geographical distribution, and an enumera- 
tion of localities whence the British-Museum collection possesses 
examples of this common and widely-distributed species, I may 
refer to my revision of the group*. 

Since its publication specimens have been added to the National 
Collection from W. Borneo f. 

2. Gonodactylus chiragra (Fair.). 

Two small males are in the collection from Port Alolle (beach, 
No. 98) in the first collection, and one from the beach at Thursday 
Island (No. 167) in the second collection, of larger size. 

Since I referred to the distribution of G. chiragra in 1880, spe- 
cimens both of this species and of G. graphurus have been added to 
the collection from various Malayasian localities J ; and of G. chira- 
gra also from Ceylon {Dr. W. Ondaatje). 

Dr. Kossmann§ confidently identifies this very common species 
with the Cancer falcatus of Forskal ||, whose name, having priority 
over that of Fabricius, would displace the almost universally 
adopted designation G. chiragra, if the identification be correct. 
But I am inclined to think that ForskaTs description may not im- 
probably have been based upon a specimen of the almost equally 
common G. graphurus; tho words (used of the terminal segment) 
" in medio scuti gibbus, elatus, hemisphasricus, carinis longitudi- 
nalibus, convexis, pone mucronatis numero quinque " will apply 
better to the latter form, on the supposition that Forskal overlooked 
the small outermost pair of lateral prominences ; in G. chiragra but 
three dorsal carinas are distinctly developed, and these, in the adult 
at least, are not mucronate. Under these circumstances it will be 
better, perhaps, to retain the accepted designations than to run the 
risk of further unnecessarily complicating the synonyms by applying 
ForskaTs doubtful name to either species. 

3. G-onodactylus graphurus, White (ined.), Miers. 

Specimens of this widely distributed species, which appears to be 
very abundant on the N.E. Australian coasts, are in the collection 

* Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, v. pp. 25, 118, 120 (1880). 
t Vide ' Annals,' t. c. pp. 458, 45!). 
\ Vide ' Annals,' t. c. p. 459. 

£ Blalacostraca, in ' Zool. Ergebn. einer Eeise in Kiistengeb. cles roth. Meeres,' 
p 100(1880). 

|| ' Descriptiones Animalium,' &c. p. 96 (1775). 



CRUSTACEA. 299 

from Port Molle, obtained on tho beach (No. 92), at 5-15 fms. 
(No. 1 IS), and 14 i'ms. | No. 93). Some of tbese (No. 95) arc adult 
males of large size. Also a small female from Port Denison, 
4 fms. (No. 111). All of the above are from Dr. Coppinger's first 
collection. Also a small male from Clairmont Island (No. 151), 
and two specimens from Thursday Island — a female from tbe beach 
(Xo. 107) and a male from a depth of 4-5 fms. (No. 105) — in the 
second collection. 



ISOPODA. 

1. Ligia gaudichaudii, var. australiensis, Dana? 

Here are somewhat doubtfully referred several specimens obtained 
on the beach above high-water mark at Port Molle. Dana's 
brief diagnosis was based on imperfect specimens in which both the 
antennas and uropoda are wanting; and as Mr. Haswell had seen 
no specimens of this species, and therefore adds nothing to our 
knowledge about it in his Catalogue, the following description may 
be useful : — 

The body is oblong-oval, moderately convex, but little laterally 
dilated. The head is transverse, with its anterior margin convexly 
rounded, without any median rostriform point, its upper surface 
granulated and transversely sulcated, one of the sulci running 
parallel to the posterior margin, and others bordering the posterior 
margin of the eyes. The segments of the thorax are rather in- 
distinctly granulated above ; the postero-lateral angles of the first 
segment are nearly right angles, those of the second and third 
slightly more acute, those of the fourth to seventh segments acute and 
posteriorly prolonged, yet not to so great a degree as in some species 
of the genus. The segments of the postabdomen are nearly smooth 
above in the middle line, but granulated on the sides, and have as 
usual the postero-lateral angles acute and produced ; the postero- 
lateral angles of the penultimate segment scarcely reach more than 
halfway to the apex of the corresponding angle of the terminal 
segment. The terminal segment is longer than the preceding ; 
the posterior margin has a very slight median prominence, and a 
rather deep notch close to the postero-lateral spine ; the margin 
of the notch, although sometimes slightly sinuated, is not dentated 
as in L. gaudichaudii; the postero-lateral spine is short and scarcely 
reaches beyond the level of the posterior margin. The eyes are 
very large, black. The minute antennules are not visible in a dorsal 
view. The antennas are shorter than the animal, and have the 
penultimate and terminal joints of the antennas slender and elon- 
gated, the terminal longer than the preceding joint ; the three pre- 
ceding joints are robust and much shorter ; the flagellum composed 
of 26-30 joints ; the joints of the legs are clothed with short stiff 
setce, which are most abundant on the inferior margins of the four 
last joints ; below the terminal claw is a second small subterminal 
one on all the legs. The terminal joint of the stem of the uropoda 



300 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

is somewhat elongated, trigonous, and has a small spinule at its 
distal end : the rami arc subequal and longer than the base, yet not 
greatly elongated as in some species. The colour (in spirit) is yel- 
lowish, usually closely and somewhat irregularly punctulated with 
black. Length of the largest example about 8 lines (17 millim.) ; 
breadth nearly 3.4 lines (7 millim.). 

These specimens very nearly resemble examples referred to L.gau- 
dichaudii from Madjica-Sima in the Museum collection ; but the 
body is less distinctly granulated, and the granulations do not gene- 
rally extend over the median dorsal line of the postabdominal seg- 
ments, and the notches of the terminal segment are not distinctly 
toothed. In one specimen, however, I have observed a continuous 
line of granules bordering the posterior margins of the postabdominal 
segments. 

In the uncertainty that exists regarding the true nomenclature of 
not a few species of this genus, I prefer to retain the name of aus- 
traliensis as a designation for this variety. Mr. Thomson* has de- 
scribed a species from Dunedin, New Zealand (L. quadrata), which is 
evidently nearly allied to the L. australiensis, but may, perhaps, be 
distinguished by the less prominent postero-lateral angles of the last 
I ostabdominal segment, which is described as " subquadrate, with 
the angles hardly projecting." 

2. Ceratothoa imbricata. 

Oniscus imbricatus, Fabr. Mantissa Insect, i. p. 241 (1787). 

Cvniothoa imbricata, Fabr. Ent. Syst. ii. p. 503 (1793) ; Suppl. p. 301 
(1798). 

Cymothoa banksii, Leach, Diet. Set. Nat. xii. p. 353 (1818) ; Bes- 
marest, Consul. Crust, p. 309 (1825) ; M.-Edwards, Hist. Nat. 
Crust, iii. p. 273 (1840) ; Heller, Eeise tier Novara, Crust, p. 148 
(1865). 

Cymothoa trigonocephala, M.-Edwards (nee Leach ?), Ann. Set. Nit. 
ser. 2, iii. pi. xiv. tigs. 1, 2 (1835) ; Crust, in Guv. Rec/ne Animal, 
pi. lxv. fig. 2 ; Hist. Nat. Crust, iii. p. 272 (1840), var. ; GuSrin, 
Icon. Crust. Eigne Animal, pi. xxix. tig. 2 (after Milne-Edwards ). 

Ceratothoa trigonocephala, Heller, Novara Crust, p. 148 (1865) ; 
Thomson, Trans. New-Zeal. lust. xi. p. 233 (1879), var.; Hasivell, 
Cat. Austr. Crust, p. 282 (1882), after M.-Edwards. 

? Cvmothoa approximans, White, t. c. p. 110 (1847). 
Ceratothoa banksii, Miers, Cat. New-Zeal. Crust, p. 135 (1876). 

A small specimen, presenting no distinctive external sexual cha- 
racters, is in the collection from Port Jackson, 0-5 fins. It is un- 
doubtedly identical with a somewhat larger specimen from the same 
locality in the British-Museum collection, taken 4 ' from the mouth of a 
bream." The type example of C. banksii (thus designated in the hand- 
writing of Dr. Leach) is of larger size, and is said to have been obtained 
in the Xew-Zealand seas ; it presents no distinctions which can be 
regarded as of specific importance, and the description which I have 

* Trans. New-Zeal. Inst. xi. p. 232 (1879). 






CRUSTACEA. 301 

already given of it in the * Catalogue of New-Zealand Crustacea' 
will apply equally well to the smaller Australian examples, except 
that iu these latter the eyes are distinct and dark-coloured, the 
antero-lateral prolongations of the first thoracic segment (in the 
smallest specimen especially) somewhai narrower at base, and the 
posterior margin of the terminal postabdominal segment somewhat 
arcuated*. 

The type of Fabricius's Cymothoa imbricate is also in the British- 
Museum collection (from the collection of Sir J. Banks), and I am 
enabled to identify Leach's species with it with tolerable certainty. 
The slight notch in the terminal segment mentioned by Fabricius is, 
I think, merely due to an accident. As White referred Fabricius's 
Cymothoa imbricata to the genus Nerocila, and the type, when my 
New-Zealand Catalogue was published, had not been placed in the 
general collection of the Museum, I did not then suspect its identity 
with G. banksii. The species in the New-Zealand Catalogue (p. 107) 
which I designated, after White, Nerocila imbricata must be called 
Nerocila macleayii, White having previously used this name for it 
(vide Dieffenb. toy. Xew Zealand, ii. p. 2HS, 1SI3). 

It is not improbable that the original C. trigonocephala, Leach, 
must also be regarded as synonymous with this species ; neverthe- 
less, as the type specimens (which are dried and without definite 
locality) present certain slight distinctive characters, as (e. g.) the 
head is narrower, more distinctly triangulate, with straight sides, 
and the anterior thoracic segment proportionately longer than is 
usual in G. imbricata, I keep them provisionally distinct (cf. Ann. 
& Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, v. p. 463, 18S0). To ascertain the true 
distinctive characters of the species of this difficult group, a careful 
revision of the whole subject is needed. Milne-Ed wards's descrip- 
tion of G. trigonocephala in the ' Histoire naturelle des Crustaces ' 
seems to have been drawn up from specimens of a variety having a 
more obtuse front, and the anterior margin of the first thoracic seg- 
ment armed with a median lobe or tooth. Specimens presenting 
these characters are in the British-Museum collection from Shark 
Bay. Mr. Haswell, in his Catalogue, and Thomson (t. c.) merely 
copv M. -Edwards's description. 

I refer specimens in the Museum collection to Geratothoa imbri- 
cata from Port Essington (Harfar Hospital) ; Sydney, Murray River 
(A. E. Graven, from the mouth of a salmon-trout) ; Shark Bay, YV. 
Australia (from a species of Monacanihus) : Calcutta (designated by 
White G. approximans) ; and various other specimens without special 
indication of locality. 



3. Cirolana multidigitata, Dana. 

A small female from Albany Island belongs, I think, to this 
species. 

* The posterior margin in Leach's type is slightly rolled in through the desic- 
cation of the specimen ; it should not have been described as "nearly straight." 



302 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

The inner ramus of the uropoda is less distinctly triangulate than 
in the specimens in the British-Museum collection from the Philip- 
pines and Swan River*. The median lobe of the front is not at all 
prominent. 

Reference to this species is omitted in Mr. Haswell's Catalogue. 



4. Cirolana schiodtei. (Plate XXXIII. fig. A.) 

Body narrow-oblong, microscopically punctulated, convex and 
smooth, as in G. rossii. Head closely encased in the first segment of 
the body, transverse, with scarcely any indication of a median inter- 
antennulary rostral point, anteriorly bordered with a transverse groove 
running parallel to and just behind the anterior margin ; there is a 
similar groove bordering the posterior margin of the eyes. The 
first segment of the body is longer than the following ; the postero- 
lateral angles of the first four segments are rounded, those of the 
fifth to seventh segments are right angles. Five or six postabdo- 
minal segments are visible in a dorsal view ; the first five are very 
short, the lateral angles of the second to fourth curve backward and 
are much prolonged and acute or subacute ; the terminal segment 
is widest at base, and beyond this subtriangnlate, with the lateral 
margins converging in a gentle curve to the distal extremity, which is 
acute or subacute ; the margins in their distal half are ciliated and 
minutely serrated. The eyes, seen laterally, are oblong (as in C. 
rossii) ; they each occupy rather less than one third of the total 
length of the front margin of the head, and extend but a short dis- 
tance over its inferior surface. The antennules reach nearly to, or 
even a little beyond, the posterior margin of the head ; the joints of 
the peduncle are short, the first two slightly more dilated than the 
third, the flagellum composed of a great number of very short joints. 
The interantennal plate (" lamina frontalis ") lies between the bases 
of the antenna?, its sides diverge slightly from the base to a point 
situate between the antennules and antenna?, where it bears a strong 
tooth ; beyond this its distal e?^tremity is acute, and lies between but 
does not completely separate the antennules. The antenna? about 
reach to the posterior margins of the fifth body-segment. The 
first two joints of the peduncles are very short, the third and fourth 
somewhat longer and robust, the fifth yet longer, but slenderer than 
the preceding : the flagellum is composed of a great number of joints 
(50-65). The three posterior epimera have their postero-lateral 
angles prolonged and acute. Xone of the legs of the body are 
ancoral. The ischium- and merus-joints in the first three pairs are 
dilated and dorsally produced. The margins of the third to fifth 
joints in all the legs are clothed with stiff seta? ; the dactyli in all 
arc but slightly curved. The bases of the uropoda are prolonged 
at their inner and distal angles into a strong spine : the rami are 
ciliated on the margins and acute at their apices, the outer much 
narrower and a littlo shorter than the inner, which reach a little 

* Vide Journ. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 511, pi. xxiv. figs. 6-11 (1878). 



CRTT8TACEA. 303 

beyond the distal extremity of the terminal segment. Colour (in 
spirit) yellowish white. The length of Dr. Coppinger's largest spe- 
cimen is little over 8^ lines (18 millim.) ; but the largest example 
in the British-Museum collection is of much greater size, measuring 
not less than 1 inch 2| lines (31 millim.). 

Two specimens were dredged in the Arafura Sea, 32-36 fms. 
(Xo. 160). 

There are in the British-Museum collection several specimens 
collected in Torres Straits (J. B. Jukes). All of these appear to be 
of the male sex. The terminal segment (only) is slightly pubescent 
above. 

The mandible closely resembles that of C. hirtipes as figured by 
Milne-Edwards*, in its truncated and strongly dentated apex, sen- 
sorial appendage, and triarticulate palpus ; the maxillipede is also 
formed on a precisely similar type to that of G. hirtipes. 

The form of the interantennal plate, which somewhat resembles 
that of certain JEgce (e.g. JEga spongiophila), and of the lateral pro- 
longations of the second to fourth segments of the postabdomen at 
once distinguish this species from Girolana Tdrtvpes, M.-Edw., and 
C. rossii, Miers, and from Cirolana (Eurgdice) swainsonii, Leach, a 
Mediterranean and West- African form, to which C. schibdtei is very 
nearly allied. JEga novizealandice, Dana, and Cirolana latistylis 
and orientalis, all of them forms somewhat insufficiently described, 
appear to be distinguished by the much more rounded and less 
triangulate terminal segment, &c. C. arabica, Kossmann, to judge 
from his figures'!", is distinguished by the form of the rostrum, 
terminal segment, and interantennal plate both from this and the 
following species. 



5. Cirolana tenuistylis. (Plate XXXIII. fig. B.) 

As this species in many particulars nearly resembles the foregoing, 
it may suffice here to point out its chief distinctive characters. The 
interantennal process is narrow-linear, as in C. rossii or C. hirtipes, 
but the eyes are subquadrate or somewhat rounded, with very large 
ocelli, and each occupy less than one fourth of the total length of the 
front and lateral margins of the head, which has a more prominent 
median frontal process. The antennules have the first two joints of 
the peduncle more dilated, the second very short, the third robust, 
but less dilated than the preceding ; the last two joints of the peduncle 
of the antennas are shorter than in C. schibdtei. The third and 
fourth joints of the ambulatory legs are considerably dilated and 
margined with stiff setse. The inner ramus of the uropoda is much 
narrower than in C. schibdtei, with the sides parallel to near the 
extremity, which is subacute. The length of the largest specimen 
is about 7 lines (15 millim.). 

A single specimen, I think a male, is in the collection from Prince 

* Atlas in Eegne Animal de Cimer, Crust, pi. Ixvii. fig. 8. 

t Zool. Ergebn. Eeis. roth. Meer. ii. p. 11-1, pi. viii. figs. 7, 11 (1880). 



304 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

of Wales Channel (7-9 fms.). The antennae are imperfect. Two 
specimens, of unknown locality, are in the British Museum from the 
collection of H.M.S. ' Herald.' 

The mandible, in its broad and strongly dentated apex, closely re- 
sembles that of C. srhliii/tei. 

Cirolana latistylis, Dana, from the Balabac Straits, is very imper- 
fectly described, but appears to be distinguished from this species by 
the much broader inner ramus of the uropoda. 

(>. Cirolana lata, Haswell, var. integra. 

Three small specimens from Albany Island, 3-4 fms., are referred 
with much hesitation to this species. In the broadly ovoid form of 
the body, with its longer first thoracic segment and short post- 
abdomen, they resemble Mr. Haswell's figure and description* ; but 
the terminal postabdominal segment is less acute than in the figure, 
and thero is no tooth upon the inner edge of the inner ramus of the 
uropoda. I may add, in reference to some points that are not 
mentioned in Mr. Haswell's description, that the eyes are black and 
subquadrate, the median rostral point prominent and prolonged 
between the bases of the antennules to or nearly to the apex of 
the interantennal plate, which is nearly of the same form as in 
C. sckibdtei, but is without a superficial tooth ; the apex of the 
mandible is broad and dentated as in other species of the genus ; the 
basal joint of the antennules is large and considerably dilated ; the 
fiagellum of the antenna? (which is short and scarcely reaches beyond 
the posterior margin of the first body-segment, as in Haswell's figure) 
is 13-15-jointed. 

7. Rocinela orientalis, Schibdte 4' Meinert. 

A single female is referred here in Dr. Coppinger's collection from 
Prince of AY ales Channel, 7-9 fms., which has lost the inner ramus 
of both uropoda. 

Specimens are in the British-Museum collection from Moreton 
Bay. 

If a male and female from Ceylon (E. W..H. Holdsworth) and 
a male from the Gulf of Suez are correctly regarded as identical 
with this species (and they do not seem to differ markedly from the 
Australian examples), this must be a widely distributed Oriental 
form. A large specimen from the West-African coast (without 
special indication of locality) comes very near to this species, but 
has a more acute and prolonged front and posterior epimera, and 
differs slightly in the proportionate length of the joints of the 
antenna' and antennules, and may be distinct. Messrs. Schiudto 
and Meinert's types were from the Philippines and Calcutta. 

Mr. Haswell has described a species, Rocinela vigilans, from 
Holborn Island, near Port Denison [vide Cat. p. 285), which seems 

* Proo. Linn. 8oe. N. S. Wales, vi. p. 102, pi. iv. fig. 1 (1881); Cat. p. 286 
(1882). 



CRUSTACEA. i'.n.) 

in some of its characters to connect this genus with Cirolana ; it is at 
once distinguished from R. orientalis by the form of the eyes, which 
are confluent in the middle line of the head. Specimens are in the 
British-Museum collection from the north-eastern coast of Australia, 
but no special indication of locality remains, nor any record as to 
how they were obtained. 

In Dr. Goppinger's specimen, and in that from the Gulf of Suez, 
the front is somewhat more broadly rounded than in the figure of 
Schiddte and Meinert (Nat. Tidsskr. p. 395, pi. xiii. figs. 1-2, 1879). 
In the smaller specimens from Ceylon the antennae have a fewer 
(10-12) jointed flagellum. I doubt therefore the constancy of the 
number of the joints of the antenna! flagellum as a character for 
separating the species ; but not having examined specimens of several 
of the new forms described by Schiodte and Meinert, I will not 
express myself upon this point with certainty. 

There is in the British-Museum collection a species of JEga very 
nearly allied to &ga cyclops, Haswcll, from Port Jackson, but which 
seems to be sufficiently distinguished by having the body very coarsely 
punctulatcd, the epimera of the fourth to seventh segments only sub- 
acute and (the last excepted) scarcely prolonged beyond the posterior 
margin of the segments ; and particularly by the form of the ter- 
minal postahdominal segment, which is truncated, not rounded, at its 
distal extremity ; the outer ramus of the uropoda is ovate but not 
acute, the inner squarely truncated at its distal extremity ; the distal 
process of the peduncle extends considerably beyond the middlo of 
the inner ramus. This species, of which a single male is in the col- 
lection from King George's Sound (F. M. Rayner, H.M.S. ' Herald'), 
I propose to designate ^Er/a meinerti. In the confluent eyes 
and the form of the terminal segment it somewhat resembles 
the North-European and Arctic Alcjci crenulata, Liitken, but tho 
posterior prehensile limbs are without the cultriform process charac- 
teristic of that species and JEya ivebbii. 



8. Cymodocea longistylis. (Plate XXXIII. fig. C.) 

Convex oblong-ovate, as usual in the genus. Head and first three 
segments of the body indistinctly punctulated ; the fourth to seventh 
segments granulated, the granules arranged in two transverse series, 
and most distinct on the two posterior segments. First segment of 
the postabdomen with a transverse line of granules (like those of the 
thoracic segments, but larger) and with other granules posterior to 
it, and with a prominence on either side of the middle line on its 
posterior margin ; terminal segment also very distinctly granulated 
and somewhat hairy, and with two elevated prominences on its 
upper surface, behind which, and near to the distal extremity, is a 
much less elevated and more rounded prominence ; terminal notch 
quadrangular, and with an oblong distally truncated median lobe. 
The median frontal process is subtriangulate ; the postero-lateral 
angles of all the segments of the body are acute, except those of the 

x 



306 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

last segment, which are broadly rounded. The eyes are borne on 
the broadly rounded poster o -lateral lobes of the head. The first 
segment of the peduncle of the autennules is about twice as long a3 
broad and considerably dilated ; the second joint, which is small but 
moderately dilated, is received into a cavity at the distal end of the 
first joint ; the fiagella about 14-jointed. The peduncular joints of 
the antennae are slender ; the fiagella about 20-jointcd. The ambu- 
latory legs are very slender ; the merus, carpus, aud propus or penul- 
timate joints margined inferiorly with short stiff hairs, and, as in 
other species of the genus, the dactyli bear a small subterminal 
accessory claw. The rami of the uropoda are narrow, entire, nearly 
straight, and rather densely hairy ; the outer rather shorter than the 
inner ramus, and more acute at its distal extremity ; the inner long, 
projecting by about half its length beyond the terminal segment. 
Colour (in spirit) yellowish white. Length a little over 4 lines 
(9 millim. ). 

A single mutilated specimen was obtained on the beach at 
Thursday Island, Torres Straits, and is evidently a male, the ventral 
genital stylets being very distinctly developed. Two males are in 
the Museum collection without special locality (J. B. Jukes), and 
some specimens from Singapore received in the final consignment of 
H.M.S. ' Alert.' 

I cannot identify it with any of the Australian species of this 
genus recently described by Mr. Haswell. In the granulated seg- 
ments of the body it resembles 0. bidentata and G.coronata, Haswell, 
both obtained at Griffith's Point, Victoria, but differs in the arma- 
ture of the terminal postabdominal segment. There are specimens 
in the British-Museum collection from Bass Straits (J. Macgillivray i 
H.M.S. ' Rattlesnake ') which I refer to C. coronata, having ihe 
tubercles on the dorsal surface of the postabdomen disposed aa in 
Mr. Haswell's diagnosis, but differing in the acute inner ramus of 
the uropoda. 

C. longistylis is also very nearly allied to the European C. truncata, 
Leach, but is distinguished by the much longer and slenderer inner 
ramus of the uropoda. However, I am not sure that the examination 
of a sufficient series would not necessitate uniting the two species. 



9. Cerceis bidentata, M.-Edw., var. aspericaudata. 
(Plate XXXIII. fig. D.) 

Thus is designated with much hesitation a specimen (male) from 
Prince of Wales Channel, 7 fms. (No. 169). As Milne-Edwards's 
diagnosis is very brief, I subjoin the following description of the 
principal distinctive characters presented by the specimen before 
me : — 

The body is convex with the sides straight, and widens gradually 
to the tail. Head subtriangulate, but with the anterior margin 
rounded ; the rostral lobe is inflexed, and lies between the bases of 
the antennules ; the postero-lateral lobes, which bear the small black 






CKXJ8TACEA. 307 

eyes, are but little produced and rounded, and are received into 
rounded notches in the first segment of the body. The first body- 
segment is longer than the following ; its antero-lateral processes 
narrow, acute, and prolonged forward along the sides of the head 
beyond the eyes ; the postero-lateral angles of all the segments 
(the last, excepted) are acute, those of the last body-segment are 
rounded. The postabdomen is divided into two portions, the ante- 
rior of which is minutely punctulated and bears on each side two 
lateral sutures, indicative of coalescent segments ; the posterior 
(or terminal segment) is granulated, subtriangulate, with two low 
rounded elevations on its upper surface ; its distal extremity has a 
rather deep and narrow and somewhat triangulate notch. The 
basal joint of the peduncle of the antennules is much enlarged, 
longer than broad, its distal extremity is excavated, and its distal 
and inferior angle is prolonged into a spine which reaches nearly to 
the extremity of the following joint, which is also dilated, but 
shorter than the preceding ; the very slender flagelluru is 12-14- 
jointed ; the four exposed joints of the peduncle of the antennae are 
slender, but little more dilated than the joints of the flagellum, 
which are 14-16 in number. The fourth to sixth joints of the 
ambulatory legs are slender and margined with very short hairs. 
The rami of the uropoda are rather large and dilated, reaching 
beyond the distal end of the terminal segment, and with the 
exterior and distal angles acute and somewhat produced (especially 
in the outer ramus, which is rather the larger). Colour (in spirit) 
yellowish white, minutely speckled with black. Length nearly 
6 lines (12 millini.). 

Our specimen differs from Milne-Edwards's diagnosis in its punc- 
tulated and granulated postabdomen and the narrower notch of the 
terminal segment ; the first-mentioned i» a character which might 
possibly be overlooked on an examination with a lens of low power ; 
nevertheless this variety will perhaps prove a distinct species. 

The remarkable structure of the antennules serves, I think, to 
distinguish it generically from the typical species of Dynamene, 
which it resembles in the simply emarginate tail-segment ; but it 
may be found convenient hereafter to separate generically the 
species with a tridentate terminal postabdominal segment from 
those in which this segment is simply notched, as has been done in 
the analogous case of Cymodocea ; the examination, however, of 
further material is required to determine this question. Certain 
species with a tridentate segment closely connect this genus with 
Cymodocea. I may take this opportunity of noting that the Cymo- 
docea c/ranulata described by me in 1876* is probably not specifi- 
cally distinguishable from Cerceis tridentata, Milne-Edwards, which 
species, however, is but very briefly characterized. 

* Vide 'Catalogue New-Zealand Crustacea,' p. 114, pi. iii. fig. 5 (1876). 

x2 



308 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 



10. Cilicsea latreillei. 

Cilicfea latreillei, Leach, Diet. Sci. Nat. xii. p. 342 (1818) ; Desmarest, 

Consid. Crust, p. 296, pi. xlviii. fig. 3 (1825). 
Nsesea bidentata, Guerin, Icon. Crust. Rec/ne Animal, Atlas, pi. xxx. 

fig. 2 (1829-44). 
Sphseroma pubesceiis, M.-Edwards, Hist. Nat. Crust, iii. p. 209 

(1840), $ F 
Ntesea latreillei, M.-Edwards, Hist. Nat. Crust, iii. p. 218 (1840). 
Cyrnodocea pubescens, Haswell, Proc. Linn. Soc. N S. Wales, v. 
"p. 473, pi. xvii. fig. 1 (1881) ; Cat. Austr. Crust, p. 290 (1882). 

The following is a description of the principal distinctive charac- 
ters of this species, taken from male examples bearing Leach's label 
in the British-Museum collection : — 

The segments of the body and nropoda are covered with a very 
short stiff pubescence. The head is transverse ; the eyes are borne 
on the rounded postero-lateral lobes, which are encased in notches 
in the anterior margin of the first thoracic segment ; the median 
frontal lobe is subacute and projects between the bases of the 
antennules. The first thoracic segment is slightly longer than the 
following ; its antero-lateral processes are acute ; the postero-lateral 
rather blunt, with the posterior margins slightly hollowed out ; the 
second thoracic segment is rounded, but narrowed on the sides ; the 
third and fourth subacute, the fifth less acute, and the sixth and 
seventh broader and rounded or subtruncated. The dorsal process 
of the penultimate postabdominal segment is simple, straight, its 
apex scarcely acute ; it does not project far beyond the distal end 
of the terminal segment, which is rather more distinctly granulated 
and has on its upper surface two prominences, situated one on each 
side of the dorsal process ef the penultimate segment ; the notch in 
the middle of the posterior margin is rather deep and as broad as 
deep, and is divided by a median subtriangulate lobe. The basal 
joint of the antennules is considerably dilated, longer than broad, 
and is slightly excavated at its distal extremity, where it is arti- 
culated with the next joint. The ambulatory legs are slender ; and 
the dactyli are armed below with a small accessory claw. The inner 
ramus of the uropoda is represented by a blunt lobe or process of the 
base ; the outer ramus is straight, not greatly longer than the base, 
and usually bears a small tooth on its outer margin. Length 5 lines 
(nearly 11 millim.). 

The female scarcely differs, except in wanting the posterior dorsal 
process of the penultimate postabdominal segment, and in the sub- 
equal rami of the uropoda, the inner or immobile ramus being more 
developed, and the outer shorter in the adult, usually more acute at 
its distal extremity, and bearing, as in the male, a tooth on the 
outer margin. It presents all the appearance of a Cipnodocea. 

I have scarcely any doubt that the Cyrnodocea (or Splweromn^ 
pubescens of Milne-Edwards and Haswell are the female of this 
species. All the specimens in the considerable series before me, 
with the dorsal process of the postabdomen and rudimentary 



CEUSTACEA. 309 

inner ramus of the uropoda, have the external genital appendages 
proper to the male sex, which are not to be found on any of the 
specimens I regard as the females of t his species, several of which, 
on the contrary, carry ova. In several instances I have found the 
two forms associated in the same phial in the Museum collection. 

I refer to this species the following females in the 'Alert' collec- 
tion, which may, however, belong to the variety crassicaudata, 
Haswell : — 

An adult example from Port Jackson, 5-7 fms. (No. 104), whence 
also Mr. Haswell records it as Cymodocea pubescens ; also one from 
Thursday It-land, 4-5 fms. (No. 165). These specimens have the 
outer ramus of the uropoda acute, with a strong tooth on its outer 
margin, and closely resemble S. pubescens as described by Milne- 
Edwards. 

Smaller specimens are in the collection from Port Curtis, 7 fms., 
and Albany Island, 3-4 fms., which have the body less pubescent 
and the postabdomen more distinctly granulated, the rami of the 
uropoda somewhat shorter, the outer ramus subacute or even obtuse, 
with the tooth on its outer margin very faintly defined or obsolete. 

The rounded elevations on the upper surface of the terminal 
segment vary much in prominence in this species. In two females 
from King George's Sound, West Australia, which may belong to a 
distinct species, they are very prominent, conical, and subacute. 
An approach to this form is, however, exhibited in one of Leach's 
types (a male). 

A good series of both sexes of Ciliccea latreillei from the Australian 
seas is in the British Museum from the collection of the late 
Dr. J. S. Bowerbank. Unfortunately the exact locality has not been 
preserved. 

Mr. Thomson * has described a species of this genus (as I think) 
from Dunedin, New Zealand, under the name of Ncesea caniculata, 
which is allied to C. latreillei, but distinguished by the broadly 
truncated process of the first postabdominal segment. 



11. Cilicaea latreillei, var. crassicaudata (Hasivell). 

A male and female are in the collection from the Arafura Sea, 
32-36 fms. (No. 160), and also a male and two females without 
special indication of locality (No. 123). 

This form comes extremely near to Ciliccea latreillei, Leach, and 
must, I think, be considered a mere variety of it. It is distinguished 
by the longer, less conical median process of the penultimate post- 
abdominal segment, and the much longer outer ramus of the uro- 
poda, which is not toothed on its outer margin. 

I have observed males of the typical form in which the tooth on 
the outer margin of the outer uropod is obsolete. 

There is in the British-Museum collection a specimen from Bass 

* Trans. New-Zeal. Inst. xi. p. 234, pi. x. fig. A 7 (1879). 



310 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

Straits which appears to merit separation at least as a variety, which 
has the segments of the body, the postabdominal process, and the 
uropoda covered with a dense golden-brown pubescence ; the process 
of the penultimate postabdominal segment very long, reaching nearly 
to the extremity of the outer ramus of the uropoda, and obscurely 
emarginate at its distal extremity ; the outer ramus straight, sub- 
acute, and entire, the inner represented by a short but distinct 
process of the base ; the notch in the terminal segment deep, with a 
prominent triangulate median process. This I will designate 
C. latreUlei, var. longispina. I have observed specimens of the 
preceding variety which nearly resemble this in the form of the 
terminal notch with its median lobe. From Cillccea tenuicaudata 
and 0. crassa, Haswcll, which this form resembles in the greatly 
elongated postabdominal process, it is distinguished by wanting the 
two prominences of the terminal segment, and by the entire longer 
ramus of the uropoda. 

Ciliccea antennalis*, from Swan River, is nearly allied to Ciliccea 
latreUlei, but may be distinguished by the nearly smooth body, the 
form of the thoracic segments, which are subtruncated on the sides, 
the much wider, shallower, transverse notch of the terminal seg- 
ment, which has a very small median prominence, and the form of 
the process of the penultimate segment, which projects far beyond 
the distal end of the last segment, is vertically compressed, rounded 
at the distal end, and marked with a longitudinal median groove ; 
the median frontal process, which is indexed and lies between 
the bases of the antennules, is truncated at its distal end, where 
it is applied to the anterior margin of the labrum ; the basal joint 
of the antennules is considerably enlarged, more than twice as 
long as broad, with a small tubercle at the distal end of its upper 
margin ; the next joint, which is about half as long, terminates 
in two spines below the point of articulation with the slender 
third joint : ambulatory legs very slender ; apices of the uropoda 
subtruncated and recurved. The type (a male) measures 10 lines 
(21 millim.) from the front of the head to the end of the postabdo- 
minal process. 

The genus (or subgenus) Ciliccea, I may note in conclusion, is 
nearly allied to Ncesa, Leach, and Campecopea, Leach ; but the 
typical species of Ncesa have the last segment of the postabdomen 
simply notched (without a median process), and the penultimate seg- 
ment armed with two or three dorsal processes or spines, and in the 
typical species of Campecopea the terminal segment is entire. The 
distinctions between the sexes in this group are so marked that a 
considerable series is necessary and a careful examination, or 
distinctions which are merely sexual may easily be taken to be indi- 
cative of distinct species or even genera. 

* Nessa antennalis, White, List Crust. Brit. Mus. p. 105 (1847) (ined.). 



CRUSTACEA. 311 

12. Haswellia carnea | Easwell). 

Calyptura carnea, Haswell, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, v. p. 476, 
pi. xvii. fig. 4 (1881); Cat. Audi: Crust, p. :J02 (1882), nomen 
genericum prceoccupatum. 

A single specimen of this remarkable genus and species is in the 
collection from Port Jackson. 

The name Calyptura having been preoccupied in 1843 by Swain- 
son (in the Class Aves), I am obliged to adopt a new generic desig- 
nation for this species, and would propose to associate Mr. Haswell's 
name with a typo which is certainly one of the most interesting of 
the many new forms described by him. 

The coloration, which is described as crimson by Mr. Haswell, 
has completely disappeared in the specimen in the ' Alert ' collec- 
tion *. 



ANISOPODA. 
1. Paranthura australis, Haswell. 

A single specimen, I think a male, is in the collection from 
Dundas Straits (17 fms.). 

I may add the following to Mr. Haswell's brief description : — 
The anterior margin of the front is bisinuated on either side of the 
median lobe. The terminal segment is longer than broad, and 
narrows to its rounded apex. Of the antennules four, and of the 
antenna? five, joints are visible, besides the rudimentary flagellum. 
The carpus in all (?) the legs is produced below the inferior margin 
of the propus or penultimate joint in the form of a blunt lobe or tooth. 
These characters, which are not indicated in Mr. Haswell's descrip- 
tion and figure, render it possible that this specimen may belong 
to a distinct species. 



AMPHIPODA. 

In the determination of the Amphipoda of the ' Alert ' collection 
I have generally followed Mr. Haswell in using Mr. Spence Bate's 
classification t, rather than that more recently proposed by the late 
Axel Boeck J, since the latter author was concerned exclusively 
with north-temperate and Arctic species, and the characters of the 

* In passing from this notice of the Australian Isopods, I may observe that 
the Idotea caitdacuta, Haswell, and I. excavata, Haswell (Cat. pp. 276, 277), are 
probably identical, the former with Idotea peronii, Milne-Edwards, and the 
latter with I. ungulata, Pallas, as characterized in my recent revision of the 
group (Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool. xvi. p. 1, 1881). 

t I ide ' Catalogue of Amphipodous Crustacea in the British Museum,' 8vo 
(1862). 

\ ' De Skandinaviske og Arktiske Amphipoder ' (Christiania, 1872). 



312 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

numerous generic divisions proposed by him would doubtless require 
considerable modification in any general systematic arrangement of 
the group. Of the numerous Australian additions to this Order 
described by Haswell, but few are in the collections received from 
Dr. Coppinger. 



1. Ephippiphora kroyeri, White. 

Several small specimens from Dundas Straits, 17 fms. (No. 161), 
one from Prince of Wales Channel, 7-9 fms., and one from Port 
Denison, 4 fms. (No. 1-2), are referred to this species. They agree 
with White's much larger types in the form of the body, the coxae 
of the thoracic legs, and particularly in the great development of the 
postero-lateral lobes of the fourth coxae, in the broadly rounded 
basus-joints and somewhat dilated ischia of the three posterior legs, 
and in other points. White's examples (from Tasmania) are dried, 
and the first and second legs are now broken, as also the terminal 
segment in both specimens. In the specimens from the ' Alert ' 
collection the terminal segment is elongated, narrowing slightly 
to the distal extremity, with the sides straight, and is divided by 
a narrow median fissure ; the imperfect terminal segments in 
White's types seem to show a similar structure : in this particular 
they differ from L. nitens, Haswell, from Port Jackson. L. austra- 
liensis, Haswell, has a very close resemblance to L. kroyeri, and I 
should have considered it identical with it, were it not for the pro- 
bable difference in the form of the terminal segment, since L. austra- 
lensis is only distinguished by Haswell from L. nitens by the form 
of the eyes and the palms and fingers of the second legs. 

In the present uncertainty as to the true limits of the genera of 
this group, I refer to this species under White's original designation 
Ephippiphora. By Boeck this genus is doubtfully considered to be 
identical with his Socarnes, first described in 1870. 

Mr. Thomson* records the species from Dunedin, New Zealand 
(as Lysianassa Icroyeri) ; but as he says nothing of the form of the 
telson or terminal segment, I am not sure of the identity of his 
specimens with the true Icroyeri. 



2. Leucothoe spinicarpa, var. commensalis. 

Gammarus spinicarpus, Abildgaard, Zool. Danica, iii. p. 66, pi. cxiv. 

figs. 1-4 (1789). 
Cancer (Gammarus) articulosus, Montagu, Trans. Linn. Soc. vii. 

p. 70, pi. iv. fig. (1804). 
Leucothoe articulosa, Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. p. 358 (1815), 

et. avctoram. 
Leucothoe spinicarpa, A. Boeck, Skandinaviske og Arktiske Amphi- 

poder, p. 507, pi. xvi. fig. 5 (1870), ubi synon. 



* Trans. New-Zealand Institute, xi. p. 237 (1879). 



CRUSTAt EA. '.',]'.', 

Leucothoe ? crassimana, Kossmonn, Zool. Ergebn. einer Reiserothen 
Meeres, Malacostraca, p. I:; I, pi. xiii. figs. 9, 10 (1880). 

Leucothoe' commensalis, HasweU, Proa Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, iv. 
p. 261, pi. x. fig. 3 (1880); Cat. Atmtr. Crust, p. 248 (1882), var. 

I refer to this species a single specimen from Port Jackson, 0-5 
fms. It differs only in the greater Length of the superior antennae 
from Mr. Haswell's description of L. comm, nsalis, these exceeding 
in length the head and first four segments of the body. Lt ranges 
along the whole eastern coast of Australia, from Thursday Island in 
the north to Western Port in the south. 

Mr.Haswell describes this as being one of the commonest Amphi- 
poda of Port Jackson, where it is found within the pharynx of a 
common large tunicate, in the cavities of large sponges, and in other 
similar situations. A mutilated specimen is in the Museum collec- 
tion from this locality, received from J. Brazier, Esq. 

It is not without much hesitation that I unite L. comme nsalis 
with the European L. articulosa, yet upon comparison of the 
Australian specimens of L. commensalis with the specimens from 
Great Britain and Norway in the British-Museum collection I can 
detect no difference of specific importance. In one English speci- 
men the eyes are reddish, in another Australian example reddish 
black, and in others scarcely any trace of the pigment remains. 
There are variations in the length of the antennae and in the form 
of the antero-lateral processes of the first segment of the body, and 
also in the degree of acuteness of the apex of the carpal process of 
the second pair of legs, which, however, I cannot connect ^vith the 
geographical habitat of the individuals examined. As, however, the 
series the Museum possesses is but small, and there are in the 
national collection no specimens from localities intermediate between 
Great Britain and Australia, it may be well to consider Mr. Has- 
well's species as a variety, since there may be distinctive characters 
discoverable in the colour of the eyes, or in other minor particulars. 
The eyes in Abildgaard's original description are described as 
black. 

Kossmann's species (L. crassimana), from the lied Sea, is only 
briefly characterized, but the details figured would seem to show 
that this species is also identical with or very nearly allied to 
L. articulosa. 



3. Leucothoe brevidigitata. (Plate XXXIV. fig. A.) 

The body is smooth, dorsally rounded and laterally compressed ; 
the coxae of the first four legs deep, as in allied forms. Head small, 
with a very small median rostral lobe, its antero-lateral angles 
rounded and not much produced. The coxa? of the fourth legs are 
but little longer than the preceding, without any distinct postero- 
lateral lobe ; they are slightly overlapped by the much shorter coxae 
of the fifth legs. There is a very small acute tooth at the postero- 
lateral angles of the first tail-segment ; these angles in the second 



314 



COLLECTIONS FROU MELANESIA. 



segment are slightly acute, and in the third segment nearly a right 
angle ; the terminal segment or telson is subtriangulate, entire, 
longer than broad, with the apex subacute. The eyes are black, 
somewhat ovate in shape. The antennules scarcely equal in length 
the head and first two segments of the pereion ; they have tbree 
joints of the peduncle exposed, the first and second subequal in 
length, but the first somewhat thicker ; the third joint slenderer 
than the second and about half its length : fiagellum 13- or 14- 
jointed. The antennae have the first joint (which is only partially 
visible in a lateral view) short, subspherical, the second very short 
and not more dilated than the third and fourth, which are elon- 
gated ; the fourth a little shorter than the second ; fiagellum about 
>■ jointed. The first pair of legs (gnathopoda) have their basus- 
joints moderately dilated, with the posterior margins thin-edged 
and hairy ; ischium and merus very short : carpus considerably di- 
lated, and produced at its posterior and distal angle into a spine, 
which extends along the posterior margin of the propus and reaches 
to its distal extremity. The propus or penultimate joint is ovate, 
the dactyl minute and articulated with it at its distal extremity. 
In the second legs the carpus is very short, and produced along 
the posterior margin of the propus for less than half its length : 
the propus is subovate and large ; its posterior margin is armed 
in its distal half with a series of small granuliform teeth, against 
which the well-developed dactyl impinges. The third and fourth 
legs are small and present nothing remarkable: the fifth to seventh 
have the coxa? small, the basus-joint moderately enlarged and 
rounded posteriorly : the following joints slender and nearly naked; 
the fourth and fifth slightly produced at the posterior and distal 
angles. The three posterior pairs of tail-appendages are biramose, 
the rami lanceolate and acute ; in the posterior pair the outer is a 
little shorter than the inner ramus. Colour (in spirit) whitish. 
Length about 7-g- lines (16 millim.). 

A single specimen was obtained at Thursday Island, 4-5 fms. 
(No. 165). 

This species is distinguished from L. spinicarpa,\aT. commensalis, 
Haswell, and the closely allied species or varieties L. dierm nensis 
and L. gracilis. Haswell, by the broader, more ovate propus or palm 
and shorter dactyl of the first legs, and the more regularly and 
evenly toothed palm of the legs of the second pair. The terminal 
segment is shorter, less acute, and broader-triangulate than in the 
specimen I refer to L. commensalis. 

L. novce-Jiollandice, Haswell, from Port Jackson, is at once dis- 
tinguished by the broad truncated palm and the absence of a dactyl 
to the anterior legs, by the shorter carpal process of the second legs, 
and by other characters. Our species may be regarded as in some 
sense intermediate between the first three and the last-mentioned 
species. 

There are mutilated specimens both of L. novce-Jiollandice and 
L. brevidigitata in the Museum collection from Yaucluse Point, 
Port Jackson (./. B racier). 



CRUSTACEA. 



315 






4. Melita australis, Harwell. 

A male is in the collection from Port Jackson, 0-5 fms., a 
locality where, according to Mr. Easwell, it is very common. 

In this specimen the three anterior postabdominal segments have 
their posterior dorsal margin armed with Bis spines : the fourth with 
two spines, outside of which on each side is a small spinule ; the 
fifth is armed as the fourth, but the median spines are smaller ; the 
telson is divided nearly to its base, with the lulus acute. 

The species is very nearly allied to the Melita setipes, Dana, from 
Singapore ; but in the absence of specimens for comparison, I do 
not venture to unite the two forms. .1/. setipes has, according to 
Dana, but two teeth or lobes on the distal margin of the larger hand 
of the second legs ; M. australis has three, but the one nearest the 
daetylus is very small in the specimen I have examined. 

5. Moera ramsayi, Haswell. 

A male specimen is referred to this species from Port Jackson, 
0-5 fms., whence also Mr. Haswell records it; and also one from 
Prince of Wales Channel, 7 fms. (No. 169). The minute teeth or 
spines on the posterior margins of the first and second segments of 
the postabdomen do not extend to the postero-lateral lobes ; in the 
third segment the posterior margins are armed with spinules to or 
even beyond the postero-lateral angles. There are several small 
spinules on each side of the median dorsal spine on the posterior 
margin of the fourth and fifth segments. There is a small notch 
in the anterior margin of the palm of the smaller leg of the second 
pair, besides the small defining tooth at the postero-distal angle. 
These points, which are not mentioned in Mr. Haswell's description, 
render it possible that this specimen should be regarded as belong- 
ing to a distinct variety or species. 



6. Mcera rubromaculata (Stimpson). 

To this species are referred two imperfect specimens obtained at 
Port Molle, 5-12 fms. (No. 118), and one from Dundas Straits, 
17 fms. Mr. Haswell also records it from Ports Denison, Stephens, 
and Jackson. As in these specimens the superior antenna? are im- 
perfect and the posterior uropoda are wanting, their identification 
with Stimpson's species must remain somewhat uncertain. Accord- 
ingly it may be useful to append a description of the specimens, 
with special reference to some points which are not mentioned in 
the descriptions already given of this species. 

The body is slender ; the head not produced at its antero-lateral 
angles ; the coxse of the first segment of the body have their antero- 
lateral angles acute and produced somewhat beneath the head. The 
posterior margins of the five anterior postabdominal segments are 
armed with a series of minute spinules, which in the first and second 



316 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

segments and fourth and fifth segments exist only on the dorsal 
surface, but on the third extend down to the rounded postero-lateral 
angles ; in the second segment the posterior margin above the 
rounded postero-lateral angles is obscurely dentated. The lobes of 
the terminal segment are subconical and tipped with one or two 
setae. The eyes are oval, but very obscurely seen. The penulti- 
mate joint of the peduncles of the superior antennas is slightly longer 
and slenderer than the preceding ; the third joint, with which the 
short accessory flagellum is articulated, is very short ; the flagella 
are themselves imperfect ; the accessory flagella about 6-jointed. 
The inferior antennas are much shorter than the superior ; the first 
peduncular joint little more than half as long as the second, 'which 
is about as long as the third ; the flagella 12-14-jointed. The first 
legs are slender and feeble : the merus-joints very small, with pos- 
terior acute lobe and tooth ; the carpus resembles the propus or 
palm, having the posterior margin convex, rounded, and hairy ; the 
dactyl is a little more than half as long as the palm. The second 
legs have the carpus very short, propus considerably enlarged, longer 
than broad, its distal margin oblique, slightly arcuated, and defined 
by a small tooth : dactyl slightly arcuated, and closing against the 
distal margin of the propus. The three posterior legs are slender ; 
the margins of the fourth to sixth joints with a few stiff hairs. 
The uropoda are biramose, the rami in the penultimate and ante- 
penultimate pairs subequal : the last pair are wanting in the three 
specimens I have examined. 

Another specimen from Port Jackson, 0-5 fms., which I refer 
doubtfully to this genus (it having lost the head), and which I can- 
not identify with any known species, has the body smooth and un- 
armed, the first three postabdominal segments with a small spinule 
at their postero-lateral angles ; the terminal segment has the lobes 
flattened and subacute distally. The first legs are small, with the 
carpus and propus posteriorly arcuated, the carpus little shorter 
than the propus. The second legs have the merus-joint short, but 
little produced at its postero-distal angle ; carpus transverse, dilated 
in its distal half, which equals the width of the palm at base ; palm 
longer than broad, narrower distally, with the distal margin very 
oblique, not acute, but presenting a broad surface, against which 
the strong arcuate dactyl closes, and armed with four spines or lobes 
as follows — one defining the postero-distal angle, a pair of small 
spines in front of this, and a rounded lobe below the articulation of 
the palm with the dactyl. The three posterior legs are rather 
robust, with the basus-joints not serrated ; the rnerus produced at its 
anterior and distal angle. The outer ramus of the penultimate and 
antepenultimate uropoda is slightly shorter than the inner ramus ; 
the rami of the last pair subequal, broader and slightly shorter than 
the preceding. 

This species, which may be designated provisionally M. crassimana, 
is apparently well distinguished by the form and dentition of the 
palms of the second pair of legs. 

There is also in the collection a specimen which may belong to 



CRUSTACEA. 317 

this genus or to Megamosra, from Port Jackson, 5-7 fms. (Xo. 104), 
but which, having lost both pairs of antennae and the terminal seg- 
ment, cannot be referred to any genus with certainty. It is distin- 
guished from the various species describe! 1 by Mr. Has well by tho 
great length of tho first legs, which exceed the legs of the second 
pair in length, and have the merus considerably produced at tho 
postero-distal angle, the carpus about twice as long as the propus 
and truncated at its distal end, propus posteriorly arcuated, dactyl 
about half as long as the propus : the legs of the second pair have the 
merus short, carpus more than half as long as the palm and trun- 
cated at its distal extremity ; palm or propus considerably enlarged, 
its distal margin oblique and nearly straight, defined at the postero- 
distal angle by a small spine, and with a truncated lobe or tooth 
nearer the base of the dactylus, which is strongly arcuated and 
does not reach quite to the postero-distal angle of the palm. The 
coxas of the four anterior legs are deeper than the segments with 
which they are articulated. The three posterior legs slender, with 
the basus-joints little dilated and posteriorly entire, the merus- 
joints not distally produced into lobes or teeth. The uropoda are 
biramose, the rami subequal, those of the posterior pair very small, 
not foliaceous. The segments of the body are without teeth, spines, 
or spinules. The coloration (in spirit) whitish, the body covered 
with numerous small black dots. 

In the form of the anterior legs and in the coloration it resembles 
Amphithoe setosa, Haswell, from Botany Bay, but differs in the form 
of the palm of the second leg, and, I suppose, of the posterior 
uropoda. 

7. Megamcera suensis, Haswell ? 

As Mr. HasweLTs description is very short and our specimens differ 
slightly from his figure in the form of the second legs, I append the 
following description : — Body rather robust ; head with a small 
lateral tooth behind the antero-lateral angles. Coxas of the first 
four thoracic limbs deeper than their respective body-segments, the 
first pair not much prolonged at the antero-lateral angles, which are 
rounded or subacute. The last thoracic segment and the first and 
second postabdominal segments have their posterior margins armed 
with two small dorsal spines ; the third is dorsally emarginate but 
without spines ; the fourth has its posterior and dorsal margins 
armed with two strong triangulate acute lobes or teeth. The first 
and second postabdominal segments have a small spinule at their 
postero-lateral angles ; the third segment has its postero-lateral 
angles truncated and armed with three to five teeth ; the lobes of 
the terminal segment, which are subcylindrical, are tipped with a 
few setae. The eyes are oval, black. The antennae are somewhat 
hairy ; the superior antennae are broken, but exceed the head and 
thoracic segments in length ; the basal peduncular joints are thicker 
and somewhat shorter than the second joints ; the third joints very 
short ; the slender accessory flagellum is composed of three rather 



318 COLLECTIONS FEOM MELANESIA. 

long joints, and is tipped with a pencil of hairs. The inferior an- 
tennoe slightly exceed in length the head and first five segments of 
the body ; the basal peduncular joint is very short, the second is 
slightly longer than the third joint. The first legs (gnathopoda) 
are very slender and feeble ; the merus short, unarmed ; the carpus, 
like the propus, convexly arcuated posteriorly and fringed with 
hairs ; dactyl rather less than half the length of the propus. The 
second legs have the small and slender merus armed with a posterior 
spine ; the carpus very short, transverse, and equalling the proximal 
end of the propus or palm in width ; the palms, in three specimens 
examined, are large, similar, and subequal, longer than broad, 
rounded at base, very slightly broader at the distal extremity ; the 
distal margin, against which the strong arcuate dactyl closes, has a 
wide shallow notch above the postero-distal angle of the palm, and 
above this three or four very obscure indications of teeth ; the 
infero-distal angle is not defined by a tooth or spine. The third and 
fourth legs are very slender, with the dactyli about as long as the 
preceding joints ; the three posterior legs are robust, with the basus- 
joints posteriorly serrated ; the fourth to sixth joints margined with 
long hairs ; the merus-joints widening to the distal margin, which is 
prolonged into an anterior and posterior spine, the posterior spine 
being very large ; dactyli less than half the length of the preceding 
joints. The fourth and fifth pairs of uropoda have the slender rami 
margined with short stiff hairs ; the sixth pair have the rami sub- 
foliaceous, rather narrow-ovate and not greatly elongated. Colour 
(in spirit) light brownish pink. Length (without antenna?) a little 
over -1 lines (9 millim.). 

Two specimens are in the collection from Albany Island, 3-4 fms., 
and two from Port Denison, 4 fms. (No. 122). 

In the dorsally bispinose postabdominal segments this species 
resembles Megamoera dit man nsis, Haswell, from Tasmania, but differs 
from this and all of the other Australian species of Moera and Mega- 
moera described by that author (as it appears) in the form of the 
palms of the second legs, not to speak of other characters. If our 
specimens should prove to be distinct from Megamoera mensis, 
which is only known to me by Mr. Haswell's very short diagnosis, 
I would propose to designate them M. hasiveJli. 

Mr. Thomson* has recently described a species, Megamoera fascicu- 
lata, from Dunedin Harbour and Christchurch, New Zealand, which 
is distinguished from both this and the following species by the 
non-emarginate unarmed palms of the first and second legs, the first 
pair being " quite transverse," &c. 

8. Megamoera thomsoni. (Plate XXXIV. fig. B.) 

This species is allied to the foregoing ; but the body is somewhat 
slenderer ; the posterior and dorsal margins of the thoracic and 
postabdominal segments are all of them entire, without spines or 

* Ami. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, vi. p. .3, pi. i. fig. 5 (1880). 



CRUSTACKA. 319 

notches, but the posterior and lateral margins of the third segment 
of the postabdomen are armed with a series of small spinules which 
do not extend over the dorsal surface, but reach downward to the 
postero-lateral angles ; there are also one or two small spinules or 
teeth at and near the postero-lateral angles of the first and second 
postabdominal segments ; the eyes are much narrower and (trans- 
versely) longer than in M. suh nsis, the first peduncular joint of the 
inferior antennae is somewhat longer and slenderer; the wrist and 
palm of the first legs (gnathopoda) are much more hairy ; the spine 
on the posterior surface of the merus-joint of the second legs is 
much shorter, the wrist longer, and the palm perhaps rather more 
slender and hairy, with a less distinctly defined distal notch, behind 
as well as in front of which are one or two small teeth ; the three 
posterior legs are slenderer, with the distal angles of the merus- 
joints acute but not prolonged into spines ; the rami of the posterior 
uropoda are subequal. but much longer than in Megamcera suensis 
aud less acute. Colour (in spirit) light yellowish brown. Length 
about 5 lines (11 millim.). 

A single specimen was obtained at Albany Island, 4-5 fms., with 
the preceding species ; also two from Prince of Wales Channel, 
7-! 1 fms. ; and one from Thursday Island, 4-5 fms. (Xo. 165). 

In the long rami of the posterior uropoda this species somewhat 
resembles M. mastersii, Haswell, from Port Jackson ; from which, 
however, it is distinguished by the larger narrow eyes and the 
somewhat excavated and less distinctly toothed distal margins of 
the palms of the second legs ; nor does Mr. Haswell mention the 
spinules of the third postabdominal segment, &c. 

From Mosra rubromaculata, Stimpson, it is distinguished by the 
entire non-pectinated postero-dorsal margins of the postabdominal 
segments, the narrow eyes, and the non-defined distal margin of the 
palms of the second legs. 

It is also apparently verj r nearly allied to the British Megamcera 
temiserrata and M. brevicaudata, Spence Bate, and may be enly a 
variety of one of these species ; but in M. semiserrata the eyes are 
represented as less narrow and elongated, and the dactyli of the legs 
of the second pair are serrated upon the inner distal half, and in 
M. brevicaudata the palm has the inferior margin less distinctly 
defined and more convex in its distal portion *. 

I may note, in conclusion, that Kossmann has described f two 
species, Mcera eryihrcea and M. massavensis, from the Eed Sea, 
which appear to be distinguished from all the foregoing species of 
Mcera and Megamcera by the form of the palms of the second legs. 

9. Podoceras australis, Haswell. 

Five male specimens were obtained at Port Jackson from weed 
on the ship's bottom. 

* M. semiserrata is one of several Ampkipoda which it would seem are inaccu 
rately marked in Mr. Spence Bate's Catalogue as represented in the Museum. 

+ Zool. Ergebn. einer Reise im roth. Meeres, pp. 132, 133, pi. xiv. 
figs. 1-11 (1880). 



320 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

This species is very nearly allied to the British Podocerus falcatus, 
Montagu (of which the male is figured by Sp. Bate and Wcstwood as 
P. pulchellus), and also to P. validus (Dana), from Bio de Janeiro, 
in the form of the legs of the second pair. I have not been able to 
compare it with specimens of the last-mentioned species. Prom 
P. falcatus it is apparently distinguished by the inferior antennae, 
whose flagellum (in the specimens of P. australis I have examined) 
has a very long stout basal joint which much exceeds the united 
length of the remaining joints of the flagellum ; these are two or 
three in number, very short, and diminish successively in length. 



10. Caprella aquilibra (Say). 

A good series of specimens were obtained from weed on the ship's 
bottom at Port Jackson with Podocervs australis. 

Mr. Haswell's examples (designated Q. obesa) were from Clark 
Island in the same harbour. 

All appear to be males. A conical spine, not mentioned by Mr. 
Haswell, exists on the ventral surface of the body, between the 
second pair of legs (gnathopoda). 

A female obtained with the foregoing, and which probably belongs 
to the same species, has the joints of the peduncle of the superior 
antennas less dilated and the flagellum more elongated ; the basus- 
joints of the second gnathopoda are less dilated ; but one of the 
distal teeth of the inferior margin of the palm is developed, and 
this is very indistinct. 

I may refer to Dr. Paul Mayer's recently published fine mono- 
graph of the Caprellidae * for the synonyms of this very widely dis- 
tributed species. There can be no doubt of the correctness of his 
identification of C. obesa, Haswell, with C. a>qiiilibra (Say). Say's 
specimen in the British-Museum collection, although dried and in a 
somewhat shrivelled condition, does not differ appreciably from our 
Australian examples, nor from a specimen from the Mediterranean 
(Hennah), and the dried one from Hong Kong (Harrington) in the 
Museum collection, which was identified with C. cequilibra by Mr. 
Spence Bate. Out of three (presumably) British examples in spirit 
in the Museum collection, designated C. cequilibra by Mr. Sp. Bate, 
one only belongs to this species, and this also does not differ from 
the Australian examples. 



11. Caprella attermata, Dana? (Plate XXXIV. fig. C.) 

I refer here with much hesitation a male obtained at Port Jackson 
with Caprella cequilibra. It differs from C. attenuata as figured 
by Dana and by Dr. Mayer (t. c. p. 67) in the much more robust 

* fn ' Fauna unci Flora des Golfes von Neapel,' vi. p. 45, pi. i. fig. 7, pi- ii- 
figs. 1-11, pi. iv. figs. 20-25, pi. v. figs. 10-18 (1882). 



CRUSTACEA. 321 

and shorter segments of the body and peduncular joints of the 
superior antenna), relatively longer inferior antenna?, &c, as a com- 
parison of the figures will show ; but as Mayer refers to this species 
(founded upon types from ltio do Janeiro) specimens sent to him by 
Mr. Haswell from Port Jackson, and our specimen agrees with Dana's 
figures of tho male in the denticulation of the palms of the second 
Legs and in other characteristic points, I do not venture to regard it 
as distinct. 

Caprella novce-zealandun of Kirk * comes very near this species, 
but differs in the form of the non-ciliated joints of the flagellum of 
the superior antenna), and the penultimate joint of the second legs is 
armed (apparently) with but two teeth. Both C. novce-zealandim 
and Protclla australis, which greatly resemble this species, have a 
spine or tooth on the penultimate joint of the three posterior legs, of 
which scarcely any indications exist in the specimens I refer to 
C. attenuata. 

Two other very small Oaprdlce, also obtained at Port Jackson, 
are in the collection, which I am unable to identify with certainty, 
but do not think it desirable to designate by a distinct specific 
name. 

OSTRACODA. 

The few Ostracoda collected were submitted to Dr. G. S. Brady 
for determination, who referred them to the following species : — 

1. Cypridina albo-maculata, Baird. 

The specimens collected were from Port Darwin, 12 fms., and 
Dundas Straits, 17 fms. (No. 161). The original types were from 
Western Australia, Swan Paver. 



CIRRIPEDIA. 

1. Balanus trigonus, Darwin. 

Numerous specimens (mostly small) were obtained at Port Jack- 
son, 0-5 fms. (No. 90). Darwin records it from Sydney, and 
mentions its distribution through the Malaysian seas and its oc- 
currence at New Zealand and also on the W. coast of the American 
continent. 

2. Balanus amaryllis, Darwin. 

A specimen from the beach at Port Darwin (No. 176), and 
several small specimens from Albany Island, 3-4 fms., attached 
to a shell, appear to belong to this species. In the, two largest 
specimens, however, whose opercula I have examined, the scuta 

* Trans. New-Zeal. Inst. xii. p. 393 (1879). 



322 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 



have the articular ridges somewhat reflexed. For its distribution 
see Darwin's monograph (p. 279), by whom it is recorded from 
Moreton Bay. 

3. Acasta sulcata, Lamarck, var. 

A single specimen in the collection from Albany Island, 3-4 fins., 
is very doubtfully referred to this species. It agrees generally in 
its < ters with Mr. Darwin's description, and also in 

tbe broader spur of the tergum of the operculum. In the remarkable 
r< duction of the width of the ] earino-lateral compart- 

ments i1 altogether resembles a specimen from Sydney in Mr. 
Cuming's collection (now in tbe British Museum) specially referred 
to by Mr. Darwin * ; but it differs very remarkably in the external 
armature of the parietes of the other compartments, which are 
armed with strong, outwardly-projecting, bluntly-triangulate lobes 
or teeth, one such tooth being situate on each compartment, not 
very far below the apex, except on the carina, where there are two 
teeth ; thus there are five in all. The cup-shaped basis of the shell 
is pinkish : the epidermis, which remains upon the basal half of the 
compartments, bright yellow. 

Mr. Darwin (t. c. p. 311) mentions some remarkable variations in 
the external armature of this species, but none which at all resemble 
the specimen now described. In the very closely allied A. sjiongites 
the calcareous projections of the shell are often of considerable 
size, yet not nearly so large as the teeth in the specimen from 
Albany Island, and much more numerous and irregularly distributed. 
In the specimen of A. sulcata from Sydney, with narrow-linear 
earino-lateral compartments, the walls of the shell are externally 
smooth. 

* Monograph of Cirripedia, Balanidse, p. 310 (1854). 



323 



PYCNOGONIDA. 



bt 



E. J. MIERS. 



1. Achelia lasvis, var. australiensis. (Plate XXXV. fig. A.) 

Body and legs moderately robust, the body disciform, the leg- 
bearing processes being closely approximated. Proboscis stout, sub- 
cylindrical, tapering toward its distal extremity, slightly deflexed. 
Mandibles rudimentary, 2-jointed, the terminal joint very small. 
Palpi 8-jointed ? ; ovigerous legs 10-jointed. Legs without spines, 
but with a short, blunt, conical process at tho distal end of tho 
fourth joint, and with two auxiliary claws beside the normal claw. 
As Mr. Hodge's description of Achelia Icevis (from Polperro, Corn- 
wall) is very insufficient, I append the following from the single 
Australian example I have examined : — 

The body is robust and disciform, with the leg-bearing processes 
enlarging distally and closely approximated. The cephalothoracic 
segment (viewed from above) is as long as the three following and 
is elevated on its dorsal surface, which bears the rounded oculiferous 
tubercle ; the three following segments (in a dorsal view) short and 
transverse ; the first the shortest, almost transversely linear. The 
proboscis is about as long as the body without the abdomen, ob- 
liquely deflexed, and is of a narrow ovoid shape, tapering to the 
distal extremity. The abdomen about as long as the three preceding 
segments of the body, and very slender. The mandibles are rudi- 
mentary, 2-jointed, the terminal joint about half the length of 
the preceding. The palpi are apparently 8-jointed (on one side 
evidently broken) ; the second and fourth joints subequal and rather 
long ; the first and third and the four last very short. The ovigerous 
legs 10-jointed ; the first joint very short, the second and third 
longer and subequal, the fourth and fifth yet longer and of about 
equal length, the sixth to ninth very short, and the terminal joint 
minute. The first to third joints of the legs are short, the second a 
very little longer than the first or third: the fourth, fifth, and sixth 
joints longer and of about equal length ; the fourth joint somewhat 
more dilated than either of the following, and with a slight blunt 
process at the distal end of its upper margin ; the upper surface of 
the fifth and sixth joints is slightlv uneven, but can scarcely be 

t2 



324 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

described as tuberculated ; the seventh joint is very short ; the 
eighth slightly curved and nearly as long as the sixth, the terminal 
claw about half as long as the eighth joint ; the two auxiliary claws 
placed, as usual, above the base of the principal claw. The body 
and limbs are clothed with a very short, close pubescence, and the 
joints of the limbs with scattered longer hairs ; the last three joints 
of the ovigerous legs have some rather stronger simple setae, and 
the eighth joints of the legs have each a series of three or four 
spine-like bristles on the under surface near the base. 

The single specimen, which is in very imperfect condition, is 
from Port Jackson. As no traces of the ovary could be seen, I 
think it is a male. 

This specimen resembles the British form designated A. hispida 
by Hodge * (which is probably a mere variety of A. Icevis) rather 
than the typical A. linns, as represented in that author's figures, in 
the form of the rostrum and abdomen, but the leg-bearing pro- 
cesses of the segments of the body are more closely approximated 
and the animal more densely pubescent than in either form. I do 
not observe the " circlet of little spines " at the extremity of the 
first joint of the mandibles mentioned by Hodge in his diagnosis of 
A. hispida. Bohm f refers specimens from Kerguelen Island to 
this species ; but his figure of the palpus differs markedly from the 
same limb as figured by Hodge in A. lavis. 

There are in the British-Museum collection two specimens of 
uncertain British locality, probably referable to A. lavis ; but they 
are in a very bad state of preservation, being gummed upon card- 
board, and can scarcely be identified with certainty. 

It is to be regretted that during the transference of the specimen 
from spirit to the slide on which it is mounted for the microscope, 
the eighth joint of the only perfect leg was lost; but the figure, 
•* hich was outlined while the specimen was yet in spirit, represents 
with sufficient accuracy the form of this joint. 

This species is referable to the genus Achelia as limited by Dr. 
Hoek in his recent Classification of the PycnogonidaJ. 

Dr. Anton Dohrn § has united this genus (with several others) 
with Ammothea, and the distinctions separating these genera are 
certainly very slight. I think it better, however, having only two 
species under consideration, to refer them to the genera as charac- 
terized by Hoek, his being a complete synopsis of the known 
genera and species of the group. 

2. Phoxichilidium hoekii. (Plate XXXV. fig. B.) 

Body robust, with narrow intervals between the leg-bearing 
processes at base. Proboscis cylindrical, increasing slightly in thick- 
ness to its distal extremity, inserted ventrally between the bases of 

* Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 3, xiii. p. 1 15, pL xiii. fig. 11 (18fi4\ 

1 Monatsb. der Akad. Wissenschaft. Berlin, p. 186, pi. i. fig. 5 (1879). 

J Report on the Pycnogonida ofH.M.S. 'Challenger,' p. :_'<'> (1881). 

§ ' JJie Pantopoden des Golfes ron Neapel,' p. 134 I 1881). 



PTCNOTJONIDA. W27) 

the ovigerous legs. Mandibles 2-jointed, the chelate terminal joint 
inserted not laterally, but at the distal extremity of the preceding 
joint. Ovigerous legs 10-jointed. The legs (but not the mandibles) 
are armed with strong conical spines, and bear two long auxiliary 
claws besides the normal claw. 

Length of the rostrum, a little over 2 millim. 

Length of the body (without rostrum and abdo- 
men) nearly 3 ,, 

Length of the abdomen about To „ 

Length of leg of the first pair about 21 ,, 

The body is moderately robust (as in P. Jluminense), with the leg- 
bearing processes nearly in contact at their bases ; the articulations 
of the segments of the body are discernible only on the ventral 
surface. The eephalothoracic segment is about as long as the three 
following segments taken together, and of these latter the first is a 
little shorter than the second or third. The proboscis, as in P. 
insigne, is inserted ventrally, far back between the bases of the two 
ovigerous legs, and, as in that species, is very slightly swollen at the 
base, in the middle, and at the distal extremity : the mouth is small 
and triangulate, and is margined by three slight protuberances. 
The abdomen is slender, longer than in P. insigne, and directed 
upwards. 

The oculiferous tubercle is conical, subacute, with four dark eyes. 
Immediately behind it the eephalothoracic segment is marked by a 
median longitudinal depression, extending along nearly its whole 
length. The basal joints of the mandibles are but slightly divergent 
and extend considerably beyond the front of the proboscis ; they 
have no indication of the acute process characteristic of P. insigne 
and hear the second joints, which are about half as long as the 
first, at their distal extremities ; the pincers are smooth on their 
inner surfaces. The basal joints are nearly glabrous. The second 
joints and the pincers at base are clothed with fine hairs, which 
are most abundant on the under surface of the second joint. 

The ovigerous legs are inserted on either side of the base of the 
proboscis and are 10-jointed ; the first and third joints are short, 
the second a little longer, the fourth and fifth still longer and of nearly 
equal length, but the fourth is somewhat thickened, the sixth about 
as long as the second, the seventh to tenth small, the tenth minute ; 
the last five joints are clothed with fine hairs. 

The first joint of the legs is small, nearly as long as the lateral 
process, the second more than twice as long as the first, the third 
about half as long as the second ; the fourth is about as long as the 
three preceding joints taken together ; the fifth slenderer and a 
little longer than the fourth ; the sixth also slenderer and about as 
long as the fourth ; the seventh is very short ; the eighth slightly 
curved and longer than the first, but not as long as the second joint. 
The first joint of the leg bears, at the distal extremity of its upper 
surface, one or two small conical spinules or protuberances, and at the 



326 



COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 



distal extremity of its fourth and fifth joints five protuberances, 
of which the two outermost are small, and the three inner longer, strong 
and subacute ; near the middle of the ventral surface of the fourth 
joint is a small process (as in I\ Jlimin'nse), and a series of minute 
spinules or protuberances along the upper margin of the fifth joint; 
the joints also, except perhaps the eighth, are marked with longi- 
tudinal impressed lines ; the eighth has a scries of spinules on its 
inferior surface ; besides the terminal claw there are, as already 
noted, two strong accessory claws. The first to third joints of the 
legs are scantily clothed with very short hair ; the distal protu- 
berances of the fourth joint and the fifth joints are more thickly 
clothed with longer hair, and the sixth to eighth joints again with a 
much finer, more scanty pubescence. 

Three specimens are in the collection, obtained respectively at 
Dundas Straits, 17 fms. (Xo. 161), Thursday Island, 4-5 fms. (Xo. 
165), and in Prince of Wales Channel, 7 fms. (Xo. 16!J). As in 
these specimens the thigh-joints are not specially dilated and the 
genital pores are small, I believe them to be males. 

This species resembles Phoxichilidium insigne, Hoek (t. c. p. 82, 
pi. xiv. figs. 5-7), from Bahia, in the curious distal protuberances of 
the fourth and fifth joints of the legs, but these are absent from 
the second and third joints in P. hoekii, and our species differs in 
many other most important points, as {e.g.) in the closely approxi- 
mated leg-bearing processes of the body, the terminally-placed second 
joints of the mandibles, and the more robust body and append- 
ages. The first-mentioned of these characters will also separate 
this species from P. Jluminense, Kroyer (see Hock, t. c. p. 81, 
pi. xiv. figs. 1-4), from which it is also distinguished by the 
distal protuberances of the leg-joints &c. The existence of these 
protuberances separates this species from those other species of 
Phoxichilidium described by Dr. Hoek in which the leg-bearing 
processes are more or less approximated, and from the two Austral 
species described by White* as Nymphon phasma and N. johnstonia- 
num, which Dr. Hoek has shown belong to Phoxichilidium. The 
"points" mentioned by White as occurring at the end of the oints 
in N. johnstonianum are, I may add, only short stiff seta. 

* Proc. Zool. Soc. xv. p. 125 (1847). 



327 



ALCYONARIA. 



I)T 



STUART 0. RIDLEY. 



Considerable light has already been thrown from four sources upon 
the zoology of the Alcyonaria of the northern and eastern parts of 
Australia — the districts which receive illustration from the present 
fine collection. I refer to the collection made bj Mr. F. M. Rayner 
in the ' Herald,' that made by Mr. J. B. Jukes in the u Fly, ' in those 
of the Antarctic Expedition under Sir James Ross and the present 
Sir J. Hooker, and that by the German circumnavigator}- expedi- 
tion of the ' Gazelle.' In the case of the three British expeditions, 
the Alcyonaria of chief interest were described by Dr. J. E. Gray 
in the ' Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London'*, in the 
'Annals and Magazine of Natural History'?, and in his 'Catalogue 
of the Lithophytes or Stony Corals in the collection of the British 
Museum' (London, 8vo, 1870). The specimens collected by the 
' Gazelle ' were described by Prof. T. Studer in the ' Monatsbericht 
dcr Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin ' J. Studer*s is the 
largest single contribution to the subject, and describes twenty-four 
species from Australia, but only from western and north-western 
localities. The information given by the older writers Lamarck. 
Lamouroux, Milne-Edwards and Haime is almost all open to the 
great objection of indetiniteness as to locality ; the single species 
definitely described by MM. Quoy and Gaimard as collected by tho 
' Astrolabe ' in Australia is from the south. 

The present collection contains thirty-eight species, and may be 
regarded as giving a good general insight into the character of the 
Alcyonarian fauna of the shallow waters of the north-east coast of 
Australia (coast of Queensland, up to and including Torres Straits), 
and as adding in a most important manner to our knowledge of the 
same fauna in the north-western part of this continent. I have 
inserted notes on specimens already in the collection where the 
localities were known with certainty; in particular a series receutly 
obtained by exchange from the Australian Museum, Sydney, and 
collected near Port Jackson and on the Queensland coast, has been 
of service. 

Distribution. — The number of localities investigated, and the 

* 1862, pp. 27, 31. 34 ; 1872, p. 744. 

t Ser. 3, vol. v. p. 20; ser. 4, vol. ii. p. 441, iii. p. 21. 

J 1878, p. 633. 



328 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

number of stations dredged and searched in the north-eastern dis- 
trict, together with the known ability of the distinguished collector, 
Dr. R. W. Coppinger, give an assurance that from shallow water in 
this quarter but few novelties are likely to be received in future. 
The results obtained from the northern region (from Torres Straits 
westward as far as the 130th parallel of E. longitude) are the most 
interesting, but the number of localities and stations searched here 
is relatively smaller than on the eastern side. The small number 
of Pennatulidie is partly explained by the fact that the depths 
reached by the dredge did not exceed 30 fms. in any locality but 
one, viz. Arafura Sea, where 32-30 fms. are recorded. One of the 
most important results is the acquisition of definite localities for 
some interesting forms whose exact origin was hitherto unknown 
(see Leucoella cervicormis, Mopsella textiformis). Several, however, 
described by Lamarck, Lamouroux, and Gray, probably coming from 
this region, still remain undetermined as to exact locality. The 
known range of some species has been greatly extended by this Ex- 
pedition, e. g. Nephtliya jidcesi, Muricea umbraticoides, Sip>honogorgia 
mirabilis, Acabaria japonica, whose previously known habitats were 
respectively — i. Philippine Islands; ii. N.W.Australia; iii. Red Sea; 
iv. Japan. 

In all, excluding the two Pennatulids as visitors from the deeper 
water, the shallow waters in the districts examined yielded alto- 
gether 30 species, of which 12, or one third, appear to be new to 
science, and arc, with one exception (Ecliinomuriceaindo-malaccensis), 
according to present knowledge, peculiar to these districts. Of the 
remaining species, two (Ellisdla calamus and Leucoella cervicornis) 
are not known out of Australian (N.W., N., or N.E.) seas ; while 
Muricea umbraticoides and Mopsella textiformis are known only 
from N.E. Australia and Dirk Hartog Island (W. Australia). 
Studer gives 22 other species from West and N.W. Australia 
(Dampier Island and Dirk Hartog Island), and Gray 2 other species 
from localities within these limits. Of these 24, 12 are not known 
elsewhere ; so we have a total of 23 species not as yet certainly known 
outside Australia north of the 30th parallel of latitude. 

• Of the species not confined to Australia, Spongodes florida, Echino- 
gorgia fiabellum, Ctenocella pectinata, Juncella elongata, and Subero- 
gorc/ia suberosa are generally distributed in the Indian Ocean ; 
Spongodes spinosa and Solenocaulum tortuosum extend, as at present 
determined, only to New Guinea; Telesto smiihi to the sea off Timor; 
Ncphthya julcesi goes further, to the Philippine Islands. One species, 
Acabaria japonica, extends to Japan ; two, Siphonogorgia mirabilis 
and Juncella gemmacea, to the lied Sea ; and two, those termed 
provisionally Leptogorgia fiiwilis and Plexaura miniacea, possibly to 
the AVcstern American coast. 

The systematic list which follows will show sufficiently the dis- 
tribution of the species within Australian waters. I have adopted 
the same classification of the localities as in the case of the Sponges. 

The list shows that the greater number of species (23) were 
obtained on the Queensland coast to the south-cast of Torres Straits. 



ALCYONAKIA. 



329 



while that more tropical locality only furnishes 1 1 species, of which 
4 occur also in the former district. 



Australian Distribution of Alcyonaria collected by II. M.S. ' Alert' 

on the Australian Coasts. 



Family ALCYONIID.E. 
Subfamily Alcyoniin^e. 

1. Nephtbya jukesi, Gray, var 

2. Spongodes florida, Esper . 



3. 

4. 
5. 



hemprichi ?, Klunzinger.... 

spinosa, Gray, var 

studeri, n. sp 

, var.lamor 



Subfamily Telestin.e. 

6. Telesto smithi, Gray 

Family PENNATULIDjE. 

7. Pteroides javanica, Bleeker 

8. Virgularia, sp 



Family GORGONITD^]. 
Group Primnoace^e. 

9. Muricella tenera, n. sp 

10. Muricea umbraticoides, Studer 

11. Echinomurieea indo-malaccensis, n. sp. 

12. Ecbinogorgia flabellum, Esper , 

Group EUNICEACEiE. 

13. Plexaura praslonga, u. sp 

14. - 



-, var. cinerea, nov. 



miniacea ?, Ehrenbcrg , 



Group GORGONIACE.E. 

15. Leptogorgia flexilis ?, Verrill 



3 cfi 



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1 Note. — This locality is given fide Studer, I. c. 



330 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

Australian Distribution of Alcyonaria (continued). 



16. Leptogorgia australiensis, n. sp. "1 

, var. flavotincta V 

, var. perflava J 

17. Psarnmogorgia rectangularis, n. sp. 

Group Gorgon ellace/E. 

18. Juncella juncea, Pallas 

19. gemmacea, M.-Edw. $• Haime 

20. elongata, Pallas, var 

21. - ■ fragilis, n. sp 



0? a ,g 






£ g 

3 02 
O 
02 



22. Ellisella calamus, Studer 

23. Ctenocella pectinata, Pallas . 

Group SCLEROGORGIACE.E. 

24. Suberogorgia suberosa, Pallas 



Family BRIABEID.E. 

25. Briareum, ?sp 

26. Callipodium australiense, n. sp 

27. Solanderia sp 

28. Iciligorgia orientalis, n. sp 

29. Siphonogorgia mirabilis, Klunzinger, 

var. flava, nov 

30. Solenocaulum tortuosum, Gray 

31. Leucoella cervicornis, Gray 

Family MELITH.EIDiE. 






5 S 

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£ 


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32. Melitodes albitincta, n. sp 

33. Mopsella textiformis, Lamarck 

34. clavigera, n. sp 

35. Acabaria japonica, Vcrrill 

36. - 



serrata, n. sp. 



37. Psilacabaria gracillima, n. sp. 

Family TUBIPORHXE. 

38. Tubipora bempricbi, Ehrenherg 



« * 



it 

* 
* 



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* 

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5 21® *s Igo 

:- < - —I veo 



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ft 



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1 Note. — Thi6 locality is piven./W" Studer, I. c. 



ALCYONARIA. 331 

Taxonomy. — The results of the collection in this respect are not 
less interesting than are those of the distribution. In the case of one 
family (the Melithseidae ). a structural character has for the first time 
come to light, which illustrates the existence of a similar character 
in other families of this natural bul very manifold Order: I refer to 
the occurrence of two kinds of zooids. In one case (in the same 
family) it has been found desirable to establish a new genus, and the 
number of new species is relatively large. The Melithsejdae show a 
remarkable development here. A remarkable member of the usually 
rare family Eriareidoe has been assigned by me to the genus Icili- 
gorgia, hitherto known only from the West Indies. The number of 
species of this family found here is relatively large, and includes 
some rare and very strange forms {Solenocanlu,,,, Lnu-orlla). Two 
points of general importance for the family Gorgoniidae may be con- 
sidered to have been decided by a study of the series which repre- 
sents the new species, Leptogorgia australiensis, in this collection — 
1. That colour alone cannot be taken as a character of specific im- 
portance. 2. That characters derived from the shape, depth, partial 
presence or absence of superficial grooves in the cortex, or their 
partial replacement by raised lines, as seen in dry specimens, are 
not of specific, much less of family value, as held by Dr. Gray for 
some Gorgoniidae (see Catalogue Lithoph. Brit. Mus., p. 24, Elli- 
selladce). 

Mt asurt merits and Terms employed. — The measurements of spicules 
are those of average greatest specimens of each form of spicule. 1 
have adopted Yen-ill's term verruca to signify that specialized part 
of the cortex which contains the retracted zooid. "When describing 
them I have applied the term longitudinal to the radiating spicules 
of the verruca, and horizontal to those which are circularly arranged 
with regard to its centre. 



■'O'- 



Classification. — I have followed in the main the arrangement 
adopted by Kolliker in his ' Icones Histiologicae.' 



ALCTOXIID^;. 

Alctoniisx 



The absence of both Sarcophytum and Alcyonium from the col- 
lection is perhaps due to the absence of in-shore reefs in the area 
examined. An Alcyonium was described from Port King George in 
Southern Australia by Quoy and Gaimard from the ' Astrolabe ' 
voyage ; but Lamarck's A. putridosum, from that locality, I have 
ascertained to be a siliceous Sponge. 



332 



COLLKCTIOXS FROM MELANESIA. 



NEPHTHYA, Avdouin up. Savigny. 
Ammothea, Lamarck. 

1. Nephthya (Anrmothea) jukesi, var. 
Lemnalia jukesii, Gray, Ann. fy May. X. II. (4) ii. p. 442, fig. 1. 

The two specimens in this collection differ from the type specimen 
of the species in having the spicules about one sixth as large again in 
all dimensions, and in the infundibular, and not merely irregularly 
ramose arrangement of the crown of lobes. It is apparently not 
generically distinct from Ammothea (this generic name is forestalled 
by Leach in Pycnogonida), but nearly related to A. imbrieata (M.- 
Edwards and Haime) and A. ramosa (iid.). The spicules have never 
been figured, and Dr. Gray's description seems, perhaps uninten- 
tionally, to suggest that none are likely to be found in the superficial 
parts of the animal. 

Hab. Port Molle, Queensland, between tide-marks. 



2. Spongodes fiorida. 

Alcyonium floridum, Esper, Pflansenthiere, iii. p. 49, pi. xvi. 
Spoggodes fiorida, Gray, P. Z. S. 1862, p. 27, pi. ix. figs. 1-4. 

Two young specimens. Shark Bay, S.W. Australia, is appa- 
rently the only other Australian locality recorded. It also extends 
to the Philippine Islands (Gray). 

Hab. Port Jackson, 0-5 fms. 



3. Spongodes hernprichi. 



? Klunzinyer, Kor. roth. Meer. p. 36, pi. iii. fig. 1 



A young dry specimen, which does not show its characters with 
sufficient distinctness to justify a positive decision as to its identity. 
It has, however, the general external aspect of the above species ; 
the stem and main axis are white, the zooids clustered on the 
surface-lobules crimson ; the spicules are fusiform, and thickly 
covered with coarse, prominent tubercles. 

Hab. Thursday Island, Torres Straits, 4-5 fms. 



4. Spongodes spinosa, var. 
Spoggodes spinosa, Gray, P. Z. S. 1862, p. 27, pi. iv. figs. 5-7. 

A small portion of a colony, in spirit, possibly specifically dis- 
tinct from Gray's species. The stem and branches have a dull 
purple-grey colour, which belongs almost solely to the soft parts, 
affecting the spicules but slightly. The spicules reach a length of 



ALCYONARIA. 333 

3 to 4 millim., those of tho type spccimon of the species 5 millim. 
Studer (I. c. p. 636) assigns to this form a species from New Guinea 
with orange-red polype-heads and spicules 2-5 millim. in maximum 
length, -which appears to be specifically distinct from it. The dark 
colour of the stem of the present specimen is perhaps simply a case 
of local variation, hut may perhaps be the normal condition, lost in tho 
original spirit-specimen. Another point of divergence is the usually 
single spicule projecting above the polype-cell at one side ; in 
the type specimen there are usually two spicules here. 

Hah. Port Denison, Queensland, 3-4 fms. ; bottom, sand and 
rock. 



5. Spongodes studeri. (Plate XXXVII. figs. A, A', a-a" .) 

Spongodes spinosa, Studer, MB. Ak. Berlin, 1878, p. 030; nee 
Spoggodes spinosa. Gray. 

Head relatively large, laterally compressed, sharply demarcated 
from the pedicle. Greatest diameter of head at least three times 
that of pedicle. Pedicle cylindrical, weak to moderately strong. 
Common axis of head dividing into from (J to 12 strong lobes, of 
varying distinctness in different specimens ; lobes dividing almost 
immediately into a large number of lobules, slightly horizontally 
expanded at their free end. Terminal lobules each presenting a 
mass of from 4 to 9 small round polype-heads, closely aggregated. 
Each polype usually accompanied by one stout projecting spicule on 
its external aspect, but the lobule usually has but two or three 
really prominent spicules, which form a kind of calyx to the lobule ; 
the remaining ones, being shorter, are inconspicuous, as a rule. 
The largest spicules project from 1 to 2 millim. beyond their 
polypes. Colour of stem dirty white, sometimes crimson, that 
of surface of axis of the head and its subdivisions white or pale 
pinkish, of polypes ( where not removed by the action of the spirit) 
either claret-colour or deep fiery orange-red (in one case the 
polypes are Avhite, but the lobules are tipped with orange-red). 

Spicules of general axis of head mostly more or less longitudinally 
arranged: — (i.) Pusiform, undulating, rather bluntly terminated, 
beset with monticular tubercles, usually terminally roughened or 
divided, about -02 to '035 millim. in height, often arranged in ap- 
proximately annular series round the spicule, about 5 in number 
in the semidiameter of the middle of the spicule ; size about 3 by '3 
millim. Also (ii.), as (i.) but smaller, with tubercles crowded towards 
ends and usually smaller than in (i.), simple (not rough) or almost 
so ; size about 1-5 by "15 millim. Spicules of lobules : — (iii.) Large 
"main" spicule fusiform, almost straight, fairly sharp at each end, 
covered with low tubercles (not exceeding -18 millim. in height), 
about 4 to a semidiameter in the middle of the spicule ; tubercles 
simple and monticular towards the middle, sharp and directed for- 
ward near the external end, where they gradually diminish in 
size, becoming usually very scanty in numbers, or reduced to mere 



334 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

linear ridges, at the very point ; size about 2'6 by -21 millim. 
(iv.) Smaller spicules, as (iii.), but generally more curved; the 
tubercles at the outer end, are strongly developed and project for- 
ward, often giving quite a feathered appearance to the point: size 
about *G4 by '053 to - 07 millim. A variety, which may be dis- 
tinguished as var. Icevior, represented by two young specimens, 
has the tubercles on the larger spicules smaller, usually simple, 
and fewer in number. 

Hah. (Typical form) Port Darwin, Percy Island, and Port Molle, 
Queensland, depths 0-14 fms., bottom various ; also McClure Gulf, 
New Guinea (Studer). Var. Icevior occurs in the Arafura Sea, off 
N.W. coast of Australia, 32-36 fms., and Dundas Straits, 17 fms., 
bottom various. 

Obs. The aggregation of lobules at the surface, though close, is 
not so close as in the type specimen of S. spinosa, Gray, in which, 
moreover, the spicules are much larger and the shape of the colony 
as a whole more horizontal than here ; the two species, however, are 
closely allied. Several specimens occur in the collection. Of those 
species which are the best known and described hitherto, viz. the 
Red-Sea forms described by Klunzinger, S. Jiemprichi appears to be 
the most nearly allied ; it has, however, the spicule-tubercles con- 
siderably larger in proportion, and the spicules of the stem tend to 
be blunt instead of fusiform, and instead of being longitudinally, 
they are more or less transversely arranged. 



T E LESION. 

6. Telesto smithi. 

Telesco smithii, Gray, Ann. 8f Mag. N. H. (4) iii. p. 21, fig. 
Alexella smithii, id. ibid. p. 22. 

A considerable quantity, in masses, in conjunction with Sponges 
and articulate Polyzoa, from the Arafura Sea. It was originally 
described from Sydney, New South "Wales. 

Hub. Arafura Sea, 32-36 fms.; Port Molle, Queensland, 12-20 
fms. 

PENNATULID^. 
7. Pteroides javanica. 

Bleeker, Naiuurkund. Tijdsch. Batav. xx. p. 402 ; Kollilcer, Anat.- 
syst. Beschreib. Alcyon., Pemiat. p. 104. 

A very young specimen in spirit. It agrees in its chief characters 
and general facies with this species, though it has only 10-12 
leaves on each side, and the largest leaves have only 4-6 chief rays ; 
these low proportions, however, are perhaps due to youth. The 
stem is surrounded by a dark band opposite the lowest leaves, and 
by another about halfway up that part of the axis on which the 



ALCYONARIA. 335 

leaves are inserted. Total length 26 millim., length of leaf-bearing 
portion 12 millim., greatest diameter 8 millim. Bleeker's speci- 
mens were collected at Java. 

llab. Arafura Sea off N.W. coast of Australia, 32-36 fms. 



8. Virgularia, sp. 

A specimen in a very imperfect condition, but evidently repre- 
senting a delicate species with large, partially separate zooids, 
whose centre is occupied by a broad dark-purple band, the proximal 
and distal ends being pale yellowish (in spirit). The leaves have a 
very oblique direction on the stem, and leave bare a wide dorsal 
area : they are subalternate and just overlap each other in front. 

The axis is only about *9 millim. in diameter. 

Hah. Arafura Sea, X.W. coast of Australia, 32-36 fms. 



GORGONIIIXE. 

Pedixoacex' 
9. Muricella tenera. (Plate XXXVI. figs. E, E', e, e.) 

Corallum erect, branching approximately in a plane ; after one or 
two, or without any, dicliotomous divisions the branching becomes 
pinnate, the pinnae approximately alternate, the ultimate pinnae vary- 
ing from 15 to 45 millim. in length. Stem and branches somewhat 
flattened from front to back, the stem about 1*5 millim., the tips of 
the branches about 1 millim. thick in the broadest place (excluding 
verrucae). Cortex thin, paper-like, level but slightly rough, owing 
to the large size of the spicules which lie in it, side by side, without 
projecting : colour in dry state white, in spirit semitransparent, 
appearing dirty white, owing to the axis, which is black, beiug 
partially seen through it. Verrucae in two lateral series, alternate, 
and alternately directed more or less towards the front and the 
back (this latter character most strongly marked towards the ends 
of the branches). In the closed state the verrucae are conical, pro- 
minent (about 1 millim. high); in the expanded state the cone is 
truncate and not so high. Colour of polypes in dry state a pale 
brown. Cortical spicules fusiform, generally slightly curved, taper- 
ing gradually from centre to moderately sharp ends, covered with 
mostly distinct, but closely-set, prominent, cylindrical tubercles, the 
ends of which are blunt (occasionally rather pointed) and strongly 
roughened ; average size about 1 millim. by *177 millim. Verruca- 
6picules of same characters, but either about 1*5 millim. long by 
•28 millim., or -9 by T4 millim. Spicules of polype itself with 
smaller tubercles, but of same general characters ; size about -35 
by •07 millim. 

Hah. Port Molle, Queensland, 14-20 fms. ; bottom rock or coral. 



336 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

Obs. This species belongs to the section of Muricea, s. lat., which 
Verrill has named Muricdla (Trans. Conn. Acad. i. p. 450). It 
appears to be most nearly related to Muricella jlexuosa, Verrill, of 
described species, but the verrucae appear to be larger than in any 
species yet known : perhaps the systematic position of the species is 
not far from Xicella, Gray. 

* 

1 0. Muricea umbraticoides. 
Studer, MB. Ah, Berlin, 1878, p. 050, pi. iii. fig. 10. 

Rtuder's description and figures of his species (obtained from 
Dirk Hartog Island, on the west coast of Australia, about 26° S. lat., 
in 45 fms.) are most characteristic, with the exception that the 
" halbseitig warzig " character of the spicules appears hardly to 
exist, and the tubercles should be rough and more distinct from 
each other than his otherwise good figure 166 would signify. Two 
dry and several spirit specimens are in the collection, 185 millim. 
(7| inches) in height. 

Hab. Port Curtis, Queensland, 5-11 fms., bottom sand and shells ; 
also Port Molle, 14 fms. (from Australian Museum). 



ECHINOMURICEA, Verrill 

Acanthogorgia, Johnston, pars, nee Gray. 

The type species of the genus is E. (KepJithya, Stimpson) coccinea, 
Stimpson, which I have wrongly retained in Nepkthya (Ann. and Mag. 
IS T . H. (5) ix. p. 184), having overlooked Verrill's later remarks upon 
the species. The type species of Acanthogorgia {A. hirsuta, Gray) 
appears to me quite distinct generically from the two (A. grayi and 
A. atlantica) assigned to it by Johnston. The latter agree with 
Echinomuricea. A new species of the genus occurs in the collection. 

1 1 . Echinomuricea indo-rnalaccerisis. 
(Plate XXXTI. figs. B, B' ; Plate XXXYIII. figs, d-d'",) 

Corallum erect, branching almost exclusively in one plane at 
angles of about 75°. Branching fundamentally dichotomous, accom- 
panied by unilateral pinnation. Branches given off at intervals of 
not more than 20 or less than 6 millim., as a rule. Branches near 
middle of colony comparatively short, viz. 15 to 40 millim., those 
near the periphery tend to become very long (e. g. up to 160 millim.) ; 
cylindrical, slightly clavate, being about 2 to 3 millim. in diameter 
at their commencement, and about 3 to 4 millim. at apex in large 
specimens, 1-5 to 2 in small ones. Axis very tough and flexible, very 
dark brown at base, paler at ends of branches. Cortex thin, arena- 
ceous in appearance, red. Yerrucae crowded over all parts of cortex, 
leaving but small intervals, prominent but truncate, resembling low 
turrets ; in expanded condition about "3 millim. high and 1 millim. 



ALCYONABIA, 337 

broad; the riiu is beset with scattered spine-like spicula with 
branched bases, about two deep ; tlie points project directly up- 
wards in the expanded state. 

Spicules of general cortex : — (i.) Conical, with rounded broad end 
tapering to moderately sharp smaller end, the whole thickly covered 
with very coarse blunt tubercles; size *32 to - 35 by *123 to -177 
niillim. (ii.) Conical to fusiform, with prominent proliferating 
tubercles ; size about '38 by 4 to -II millim. (iii.) Tri- to quadri- 
radiate, the arms stout or slender, pointed, covered with rough 
tubercles like those of (ii.); about "53 millim. in maximum length and 
•07 to -14 millim. in maximum diameter of the arms, (iv.) Verruca- 
spicules with expanded ramifying basal portion, whose branches 
are lobose and marginally denticulate and bear low scattered spines ; 
the upright projecting portion or spine which helps to form the 
fringe on the rim of the verrucas is smooth, approximately straight, 
and tapers from its base to a sharp point ; total length of spicule 
•035 to 'G5 millim., total breadth -177 to '46 millim. ; projecting 
spine alone -25 to *37 by '053 to *087 millim. (basal diameter). 
Also less developed forms of the same type as (iv.). The zooids 
themselves contain long curved fusiform spicules with smooth ends. 

JIab. Port Curtis, Queensland, 5-1 1 fms., bottom sand and shells ; 
Port Molle, Queensland, 12-20 fms., bottom rock and coral ; 
Warrior Reef, Torres Straits, bottom pearl-shells. 

Obs. This species is perhaps more nearly allied to E. ailantica and 
E. grayi than to E. coccinea, Stimpson, from which it differs in the 
non-tuberculation of the spine of the large verruca-spicule. Verrill's 
specimens were unbranched, but this may have been due to youth. 
The long-spined marginal spicule of the verruca of A.canikogorgia 
ailantica is exactly like that of this species ; but that species differs 
from the present in having the verruca? less distinctly marked out 
by a spicular crown and by the dark brown colour. The new 
species is represented in the present collection by three dry speci- 
mens and one in spirit ; the largest measures 230 millim. (9 inches) 
in maximum height, and 130 millim. (5 inches) in maximum breadth. 
Specimens occur in the British Museum from Hongkong (coll. 
Dr. Harlan). 

ECHIN0G0RGIA, KolliTcer. 

In the following descriptions I have not thought it necessary to 
describe the spicules of the verrucas in all cases, as they appear to 
exhibit the same main characters throughout these species of Echino- 
gorgia and Plexaura. 

12. Echinogorgia flabellum. 
Antipathes flabellum, Esper, Pflanzenthiere, ii. p. 139, Antipath. 

Gorgonia pseudo-antipathes, id. op. cit. Fortsetz. ii. p. 32, pi. liv. 

(nee Gorgonella pseudo-antipathes, Kblliker, Icon. Histiol. p. 140, 

pi. xviii. tig. 42). 
? Gorgonia cancellata, Dana, Zooph. U. S. Expl. Exp. p. 658. 

z 



338 COLLECTIONS FROM MELANESIA. 

? Rhipidogorgia cancellata, M.-Edw. & ILiime, Hist. Cor. i. p. 179. 
? Paramuricea cancellata, Studer, MB. Ah. Berlin, 1878, p. G")3. 
EcMnogorgia, sp., Verritt, American Journ. Sci. (2) xlvi. p. 143. 

The affinities of this long-known species have been so frequently 
misunderstood that I fully describe its spicules to justify the course I 
have taken in placing it in the genus EcMnogorgia. The spicules of 
the general cortex, which is thick, are : — (i.) .Fusiform, pointed at each 
end and generally curved, with scattered prominent, usually simple, 
tubercles, often of large size ; length about *21 to -42 millim. by "053 
to - 087 millim. broad (including tubercles), (ii.) Larger fusiform, 
thickly covered with blunt, simple or compound tubercles on one 
side ; on tho other bearing a few large, prominent, moderately sharp 
do^-tooth-like tubercles, "035 to *07 millim. long. The spicule itself 
has blunt ends and is usually but slightly curved ; it measures about